Skip to main content

Full text of "The Indian Buddhist Iconography"

See other formats


?r 

< OU_1 60794 



OUP 390 29-4-72 10,000 

OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Call No. S*l -3 0&t Accession No. 4 6 ' ** 



- 

Author 
Title 
This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. 



THE INDIAN 
BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Mainly Based on 

THE SADHANAMALA 

and Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals 



BENOYTOSH BHATTACHARYYA, M.A.,Ph.o. 

Formerly Director of Oriental Institute and General Editor, 
Qaekwad's Oriental Series, Baroda 




FIRMA K. L. MUKHOPADHYAY 

CALCUTTA 1958 



Published by K. L. MUKHOPADHYAY, 6/1A, Banchharam Akrur Lane, 

Calcutta- 12, India. 



SECOND EDITION 
Revised and Enlarged with 357 Illustrations 



JUNE 1958 



Dr. B. Bhattacharyya 
Naihati, 24-Parganas 



Printed by A. C. Ghosh, GHOSH PRINTING HOUSE PRIVATE LIMITED, 
17 A, British Indian Street, Calcutta- 1 

Bound by NEW INDIA BINDERS, 5B, Patwar Bagan Lane, 
Cakutta-9 



S-ntcrwed to me <3olemQry of 
^fattier 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

The Mighty Gods and Goddesses of the Buddhist Pantheon wish 
to reveal themselves before the world once again through the pages of 
the Buddhist Iconography. Their Will is supreme. After overconv 
ing difficulties, delays and obstacles, the Buddhist Iconography at 
last is presented to the scholarly world in a second edition after a 
lapse of full thirty-four years. It is pleasant to live these long 
years to see my favourite book pass through a second edition. This is 
an occasion when I should remember with gratitude two of my illus* 
trious preceptors, Professor A. Foucher and my father Mm. Haraprasad 
Shastri both of whom are no longer in the land of the living. I believe 
in my heart of hearts that their invisible care and blessings are in a 
large measure responsible for this happy ending. It gives me immense 
.satisfaction. 

When the first edition of this book was published in 1924, my 
studies were much hampered owing to paucity of material. But since 
then such a great volume of information has been published that it 
appears almost overwhelming. I never could think that it would be 
possible for me to handle such vast material in a manner befitting this 
serious subject. Thus the second edition goes to the world with all 
its imperfections of which I am conscious more than my critics. 

After 1924, the texts of the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavali 
were published. Both these texts proved to be veritable mines of 
information on Buddhist gods and goddesses. Between the two 
publications, the edition of the Advayavajrasangraha and the 
Quhyasamaja followed in rapid succession, and the information 
furnished in these two excellent texts not only added to my difficulties, 
but also changed materially the whole outlook underlying the classi- 
fication and arrangement of Buddhist deities. These Sanskrit texts 
were published in the Qaekwad's Oriental Series when I was the General 
Editor under my erstwhile Master, the late His Highness Maharaja 
Sayaji Rap III, Gaekwad of Baroda and his illustrious Dewan Sir V. T* 
Krishnania Chariar, now Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission 
for the Republic of India. 

^ > Later, publications such as the Elements of Buddhist Iconography by 
Coomaraswamy, die second edition of the Qods of : Northern Buddhism 



VIII 

by Alice Getty, the Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism by Mrs. A. K. 
Gordon and the Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical Sculptures in 
the Dacca Museum by my friend and colleague Dr. N. K* Bhattasali, 
Curator of the Dacca Museum, made my work of revision still more 
difficult and embarrassing ! 

Professor Walter Eugene Clarke of the Harvard University by 
publishing the two sumptuous volumes of the Two Lamaistic Pantheons 
served to put the proverbial last straw on the camel's back. This book 
published for the first time photographs of an unbelievable number 
of Buddhist statuettes in the Royal Temple at Peiping in Manchuria. 
If the statues had been entirely Chinese in character it would not have 
affected me in the least, because I am connected palpably with the 
Indian branch of Buddhist iconography. But an examination of the 
published photographs showed that the Peiping collection was exclu- 
sively inspired by Indian tradition, depended entirely on Indian texts, 
and faithfully followed the directions given in Sanskrit texts such as 
the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavali. The remarkable Indian 
character of the Chinese statuettes led me to include a large number of 
them in this book, and their study made the task of revision not only 
difficult but also delicate by forcing me to include Chinese specimens 
in a book which is chiefly concerned with the Indian branch of 
Buddhist iconography. I must thank the learned American author 
Professor Clarke for imposing on me this additional labour and 
responsibility ! 

The study of the Buddhist branch of Indian iconography is one of 
the most interesting and fascinating of all studies. In Buddhist icono- 
graphy the whole world is interested because Buddhism is not confined 
within the limits of India like Hinduism or Jainism, but travelled far 
and wide beyond the Himalayas to Tibet, China, Japan, Korea and 
Mongolia on one side, and to Indo-China, Siam, Indonesia, Burma 
and Ceylon on the other. In the time of the great Achaemenid 
Emperor Darius, Lord Buddha laid the foundation of a religion which 
was destined to be the religion of one third of the population of the 
globe. The fountain head of inspiration relating to Buddhist icono- 
graphy was furnished by the ancient Sanskrit manuscripts of India, and 
the ideas and directions contained therein travelled to different coun- 
tries, notably Tibet and China, where they were coloured by the art and 
culture characteristics of the respective peoples. We have now reached 
a stage where it is no longer possible to isolate Buddhist icono- 
graphy of India from its developments in Tibet and China which wer^ 
profoundly influenced by the Buddhist Tantras of India, And thp 
chief need of the subject is the publication of a great volume of 



IX 

original and unpublished manuscript material that lies hidden in 
the archives of MSS Libraries throughout the world. When this huge 
material is published then alone the study of Buddhist iconography 
can be said to be complete. 

The second edition has been thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged. 
New chapters have been incorporated, old chapters have been redistri- 
buted. Many pictures have been deleted, and many new ones have 
been included in order to make the study as up-to-date as possible. 
In 1924, when the first edition 'was published, I could only see the 
material side of the problem. But with the availability of fresh material, 
the other side, namely the psychic side, also became apparent. Evidence 
of this change will be found in the introduction which is almost wholly 
re-written, as also in other chapters, notably on the Dhyani Buddhas. 
I offer an explanation here lest my readers receive a shock while reading 
this book in a second edition. I may further point out that repetitions 
in a book of this kind can hardly be avoided, and deities have been 
repeated at different places for different purposes and in different 
contexts. My critics of the first edition will also notice how irregularit- 
ies pointed out by them have been regularised in the second edition 

In preparing this edition I have received help from a number of 
persons. With their help I could complete the revision and place the 
book in the hands of scholars in its present form. First of all, it is 
my sacred duty to acknowledge the debt I owe' to the late lamented 
Dr. N. P. Chakravarti, one-time Director-General of Archaeology in 
India, for graciously permitting me to reproduce all the photographs 
belonging to the Department as were included in the first edition. 
These photographs either purchased direct or reproduced from Depart- 
mental publications are shown in the list of Acknowledgements. 
It is hardly necessary for me to add that iconographic studies in India 
are not possible without the generous help of the Archaeological 
Department help that is always given cheerfully as also gracefully. 

Shrimati Hansa Ben Mehta, the talented Vice-Chancellor of the 
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, has laid me under a deep 
debt of obligation by ordering a loan for the purpose of reproduction, 
of nine full-page blocks belonging to the University. As the Baroda 
Museum now belongs to this University I have to thank the Vice- 
Chancellor also for using the Baroda Museum specimens in this book. 

It is difficult for me to adequately express my gratitude and thank- 
fulness to our worthy colleague and associate, Prof. Walter Eugene 
CSark, Wales Professor of Sanskrit in the Harvard University, who 

gSve me permission to reproduce as many photographs as I liked from 
\< 

B 



X 

his monumental book : Two Lamaistic Pantheons. He made no 
conditions, and I am simply overwhelmed with his kindness and 
generosity. 

To my friend and colleague, Dr. Hermann Goetz, formerly Curator 
of the Baroda Museum, I feel very deeply indebted for allowing me to 
take a number of photographs of interesting Buddhist images deposited 
in the Baroda Museum years ago, for their eventual reproduction in 
this volume from my own negatives. All the statuettes belonging to 
the Baroda Museum and published in this book show the place of their 
origin at the foot of each and every such illustration. I have to thank 
the Baroda Musuem authorities and Dr. Goetz, the eminent art-critic, 
very heartily for the favours enumerated above. 

Pandit Siddhiharsha Vajracaryya of Nepal, my friend, philosopher 
and guide, helped me at every step. He supplied copies of rare manus- 
cripts and original Nepalese drawings of rare deities whenever there 
was need for them. The drawings of the Twenty-Five Bodhisattvas 
were all procured by him from Nepalese artists. Out of this number, 
sixteen were copied from stone images in one of the famous Caityas 
of Patan in Nepal. I am deeply indebted to him, as also to his son 
Dharmaharsha and his grandson Purnaharsha Vajracaryya for their 
intelligent, prompt, active and effective co-operation. I am also grate* 
ful to my old artist of Nepal, Virman Chitrakar who supplied all the 
Nepalese drawings illustrated in the first edition. 

To Professor N. A. Gore I am indebted for three beautiful photo- 
graphs : one of Ganapati (four-armed) and two of the rare deity 
Simhasya from originals in the collection of his father-in-law, Dr. H. G. 
Moghe, L. D. S., R. C. S. ( Eng* ) of Khar, Bombay. I express my 
gratitude to both while reproducing all the three photographs in this 
edition. 

I take this opportunity of once again recording my heartfelt thanks 
to Dr. W. Y. Evans- Wentz who allowed me years ago to reproduce 
some of the miniatures in his possession. His name is mentioned at 
appropriate places. 

My grateful thanks are also due to Miss Raihana Tyabji, the mystic 
daughter of the illustrious Indian leader, the late Shri Abbas Tyabji, 
for going through the first edition for the purpose of a detailed revision 
more than 15 years ago. 

I am also indebted to the Manager, Bomby Branch of the Oxford 
University Press for readily agreeing to have this second edition pub" 
lished through Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, It was he who pursua* 



ded me, much against my wishes, to revise the book for a second 
edition as early as 1949. I have many reasons to be thankful to him. 

It is my pleasant duty to express my indebtedness to the Curators, 
Keepers and Superintendents of Museums, Picture Galleries, image 
collections, and the rest, wherefrom images in metal, stone and paint' 
ings have been selected for reproduction in this volume. I am parti* 
culary grateful to the authorities of the Indian Museum, Calcuttta, 
the Museum and Picture Gallery at Baroda, the Provincial Museum, 
Lucknow, the Museums at Sarnath, Nalanda and Dacca, the Vangiya 
Sahitya Parisat Museum, Calcutta, and the Palace Temple Collection 
of images at Peiping in Manchuria. To all of them I tender my 
grateful acknowledgments. 

All those Universities of India which prescribed the first edition of 
the Indian Buddhist Iconography as a textbook for the M.A. Examination 
in Ancient Indian History and Culture, deserve my grateful thanks for 
selecting the book. It is hoped that the authorities will extend the same 
patronage to the second edition which is now published. 

My grateful thanks are due to Messrs. Ghosh Printing House 
Private Limited, Calcutta, especially Shri P. C. Basak, for exercising 
great care on the accurate printing and excellent geMip of this volume. 
In spite of our best efforts, however, a few errors have crept in, and for 
these I crave the indulgence of my readers. These are mostly minor 
errors and can be corrected with ease. Shri N. L. Dutt has also been 
very helpful, and I acknowledge my indebtedness to him. 

Lastly, I am duty bound to acknowledge my indebtedness to my 
brother Shriyut Paritosh Bhattacharyya of Messrs. Sandal &. Co., 
Calcutta, for his sustained encouragement and for his many acts of 
kindness. 

My gratitude to Shri K. L. Mukhopadhyay of Firma K. L. Mukho* 
padhyay knows no bounds, for all that he has done in bringing out 
this edition in its present form. I thank him cordially and bless him 
heartily. 

This time I can only inscribe the book to the memory of my loving 
father, the late Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri in whose invisi- 
ble but tender care I have the honour to place this second edition of 
Buddhist Iconography. 

Shastri Villa 

Naihati (West Bengal) B. BHATTACHARYYA 

Rathayatra 1958 



ABBREVIATIONS 



A Appendix 

ADV Advayavajrasangraha 

ASI Archaeological Survey of India 

Bendall Professor Cecil Beridall 

Bhattasali (Dr.) N. K. Bhattasali 

Clark Professor Walter Eugene Clark 

Foucher Professor A. Foucher 

Getty Miss Alice Getty 

GNB Qods of Northern Buddhism 

Gordon Mrs. A.K.Gordon 

GOS Qaekwad's Oriental Series 

IBBS Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical Sculptures i 

the Dacca Museum 

ITL Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism 

JASB Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 

JBORS Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society 

JRAS Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Qreat Britain 

Kern Professor H. Kern 

NSP Nispannayogavall 

Samasrami Pandit Satyavrata Samasrami 

TLP Two Lamaistic Pantheons, 2 Vols. 

Vogel Professor J. Ph. Vogel 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Grateful acknowledgments are made of the Courtesy and Copy* 
right of the following institutions among others and of private collec- 
tions, with their officers, curators, keepers, superintendents as well as 
individual owners, while reproducing photographs of images, bronzes, 
sculptures, bas-reliefs, statuettes, miniatures and blocks in their charge, 
the copyright being reserved in all appropriate cases. 

L The Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi along with the 
Archaeological Museums at Calcutta, Lucknow, Sarnath and Nalanda 
functioning under the Department, in respect of Figures : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
17,26,27,45,46,77,81,83,84,85,94,95,96,98, 99, 101, 104, 105, 
107, 116, 130, 138, 140, 142, 148, 152, 153, 154, 156, 166, 167, 169, 180, 
189, 190 and 233. 

II. The Museum and Picture Gallery under the M. S. University, 
Baroda, in respect of Figures : 13, 16, 42, 74, 75, 87, 92, 97, 106, 127, 
131, 160,163,168 and 188, 

III. The Palace Temple at Peiping in Manchuria and the author of 
the Two Lamaistic Pantheons, 2 Vols., Professor Walter Eugene Clark, 
in respect of Figures : 30, 50, 71, 80, 111, 114, 115, 122, 123, 129, 133, 
183, 193, 194, 195, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 
213, 214, 217, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 231, 236, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. 

IV* Professor W. Y. Evans- Wentz (private collection), in respect of 
Figures : 19, 22, 28, 33, 37, 150, 157, 165, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200 and 
229. 

V. Dacca Museum, Dacca (East Pakistan), in respect of Figures : 
89, 125, 185 and 249. 

VI. Vahglya Sahitya Parisat, Calcutta, in respect of Figures : 93 and 
149. 

VII. Dr. H. G. Moghe, L.D.S., R.C.S. (Eng.), of Khar, Bombay 
(private collection), in respect of Figures : 215, 216 and 227. 

VIIL Berlin Museum, Berlin, Germany, in respect of Figure 90. 
IX. Leiden Museum, Leiden, Holland, in respect of Figure : 141, 



XIV 

X. The Late Mr. W. B. Whitney of New York (private collection), 
in respect of Figure : 161. 

XL The Hindu Monastery at Bodh Gaya, in respect of Figure : 1 64- 
XIL Dacca Sahitya Parisat, Dacca (East Pakistan), in respect of 
Figure : 184. 

XIIL Her Highness The Dowager Maharani Chimanabai Gaekwad 
of Baroda (private collection), in respect of Figure : 228. 

XIV, The Oriental Institute of the M.S. University, Baroda for the 
loan of nine full page blocks, in respect of Figures : 89, 99. 103, 105, 
156, 166, 169, 173 and 177. 

XV. The Indian Museum, Calcutta, in respect of Figures : 1,3, 4, 
5, 26, 45, 46, 81, 84, 85, 95, 104, 138, 140, 142, 148, 152, 153, 156, 167, 
169, 180 and 190. 

XVL The Nalanda Museum, Nalanda (Bihar), in respect of Figures ; 
17, 27, 189 and 233. 

XVII. The Provincial Museum, Lucknow, in respect of Figures : 99, 
105, 154 and 166, 

XVIIL The Saranath Museum, Saranath (Benares), in respect of 
Figures : 77, 94, 98, 107, 116 and 130. 

XIX. Pandits Siddhiharsha, Dharmaharsha and Purnaharsha Vajra- 
caryya of Kathmandu (Nepal), in respect of Nepalese images repn> 
duced in Figures : 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 29, 43, 44, 82, 86, 91, 102, 108, 
146, 151, 176, 187,201 and 226. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 

Preface 

Abbreviations 

Acknowledgments 

Synopsis of Contents 

List of Illustrations 

Select Bibliography 

Errata 

Introduction ... ... 1 

1. Materials for the study of Buddhist Iconography ; 
2, Vajrayana Mysticism ; 3. The Psychic Process of 
Sadhana ; 4. Godhead in Buddhism ; 5. The Pantheon. 

CHAPTER!. Dhyani and Mortal Buddhas ... ... 42 

Vajradhara ; 1. Amitabha ; Pandara ; Padmapani ; 
2. Aksobhya ; Mamaki ; Vajrapani ; 3. Vairocana ; 
Locana ; Samantabhadra ; 4* Amoghasiddhi ; Tara ; 
Visvapani ; 5. Ratnasambhava ; Vajradhatvlsvarl ; Ratna- 
pani ; 6. Vajrasattva ; Vajrasattvatmika ; Ghantapani ; 
Mortal Buddhas ; Vajrasana ; Durgatiparisodhana ; 
Mortal Buddhasaktis ; Mortal Bodhisattvas ; Maitreya. 

CHAPTER II. The Bodhisattvas ... ... ... 82 

1. Samantabhadra ; 2. Aksayamati ; 3. Ksiti- 
garbha ; 4. Akasagarbha ; 5, Gaganaganja ; 6. Ratna- . 
pani ; 7. Sagaramati ; 8. Vajragarbha ; 9V?walokitesvara ;/x 
10. Mahasthamaprapta ; 11. Candraprabha ; 12. Jali- 
niprabha ; 13. Amitaprabha ; 14. Pratibhanakuta ; 15. 
Sarvasokatamonirghatamati ; 16. Sarvanivaranaviskambhi ; 
17. Maitreya ; 18. Manjusri ) 19. Gandhahasti ; 20. Jna- 
naketu ; 21. Bhadrapala ; 22, Sarvapayanjaha ; 23, 
Amoghadarsi ; 24- Surangama ; 25. Vajrapaanii ( General 
remarks. 

CHAPTER IIL Bodhisattva Manjusri ... ... 100 

1. Vajraraga ; 2. Dharmadhatu-Vagisvara ; 3. Manju* 
ghosa ; 4. Siddhaikavlra ; 5. Vajrananga ; 6, Kama" 
sangiti Manjusri ; 7. Vagisvara ; 8. Manjuvara ; 9. Man- 
juvajra ; 10> Manjukumara ; 11. Arapacana ; 12. Sthira- 
cakra ; 13. Vadirat, 



XVI 

CHAPTER IV. Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara | ... ... 124 

1. Sadaksari Lokesvara ; 2. Sirhhanada ; 3. Khasarpana; 

4. Lokanatha ; 5. Halahala ; 6. Padmanarttesvara ; 7- Hari^ 
hariharivahana ; 8. Trailokyavasankara ; 9. Rakta-Lokes' 
vara ; 10. Mayajalakrama ; 11. Nilakantha ; 12. Sugati- 
sandarsana ; 13. Pretasantarpita ; 14. Sukhavati Lokes* 
vara ; 15. Vajradharma ; General. 

CHAPTER V. Emanations of Amitabha - ... ... 145 

I. Gods : ^ 

1. Mahabala ; 2. Saptasatika Hayagriva 

II. Goddesses : 

3. Kurukulla ; 4. Bhrkuti ; 5. Mahasitavatl 
CHAPTER VI. Emanations of Aksobhya ... ... 154 

I. Gods : 

1. Candarosana ; 2. Heruka ; 3. Hevajra ; 4. Buddha- 
/kapala ; 5. Sambara ; 6. Saptaksara ; 7. Mahamaya ; 
8. Havamya ; 9 Raktayamah ; 10. Krsnayamari ; 11. Jam- 
bhala ; 12. Occhusma Jambhala ; 13. Vighnantaka ; 
14. Vajrahuhkara ; 15. Bhutadamara ; 16. Vajrajjvalana- 
larka ; 17. Trailokyaviiava ; 18. Paramasva ; 19. Yogam- 
bara ; 20. Kalacakra. 

CHAPTER VII. Emanations of Aksobhya (continued) ... 189 

II. Goddesses : 

1. Mahaclnatara ; 2. Janguli ; 3* Ekajata ; 4. Vidyu- 
jjvalakarall ; 5. Parnasabarl ; 6. ^Prajnaparamita ; 7. Vajra- 
carcika ; 8. Mahamantranusarini ; 97^/TanSpratyahgira ; 
10. Dhvajagrakeyura ; 11. Vasudhkra ; 12. Nairatma ; 
13. Jnanadakini ; 14. VajravidaranL 

CHAPTER VIII. Emanations of Vairocana ... ... 206 

I. Gods : 

1. Namasahgiti 

II. Goddesses ; 

2. M and ; 3. Usnisavijaya ; 4. Sitatapatra Aparajita ; 

5. MahasahasrapramardanI ; 6. Vajravarahl ; 7. Cunda ; 
8. Grahamatrka. 

CHAPTER IX. Emanations of Amoghasiddhi ... ... 226 

I. Gods : 

1 . Vajramrta 



XVJI 

II. Goddesses : 

2. Khadiravam Tara ; 3. Mahasrl Tara ; 4. Vasya- 
tara ; 5. Sadbhuja Sitatara ; 6. Dhanada Tara ; 7. Sitatara 
8. Parnasabari ; 9. Mahamayun ; 10. Vajrasrnkhala ; 
11. Vajragandhari. 

CHAPTER X. Emanations of Ratnasambhava ... ... 237 

I. Gods : ^>^~ 

1. Jambhala ; 2. Ucchusma Jambhala 

II. Goddesses : .s** 

3. Vaipatara ; 4. Mahapratisara ; 5. Vasudhara ; 

6. ApaJtfjita ; 7. Vajrayogim ; 8. Prasanna Tara 
CHAPTER XL Collective Deities ... ... ... 251 

I. Ten Gods of Direction : ... ... ... 251 

1. Yamantaka ; 2. Prajnantaka ; 3. Padmantaka ; 
4. Vighnantaka ; 5. Takkiraja ; 6. Niladanda ; 7* Maha- 
bala ; 8. Acala ; 9. Usmsa ; 10. Sumbharaja. 

II. Six Goddesses of Direction: ... ... 256 

1. Vajrankusi ; 2. VajrapasI ; 3. Vajrasphota ; 
4. Vajraghanta ; 5. Usmsavijaya ; 6. Sumbha. 

III. Eight Usmsa Gods ; ... ... ... 299 

1. Vajrosmsa ; 2. Ratnosmsa ; 3. Padmosmsa ; 
4. Visvosmsa ; 5. Tejosmsa ; 6. Dhvajosmsa ; 7. Tik- 
snosmsa ; 8. Chhatrosmsa. 

IV. Five Protectresses : ... ... ... 302 

1. Mahapratisara ; 2. Mahasahasrapramardani ; 

3. Mahamantranusarim ; 4. Maha$ItavatI ; 5. Maha* 
mayurL 

V. Taras of Five Colour : ... ... ... 306 

1. Green Tara ; 2. White Tara ; 3. Yellow Tara ; 

4. Blue Tara; 5. Red Tara. 

VI. Eight Gaurl Group : ... ... ... 309 

1. Gaurl; 2. Cauri ; 3. Vetall ; 4. Ghasmarl ; 

5. Pukkasi; 6. Saban ; 7. Candali ; 8. Dombi. 

VII. Four Dance Deities : ... ... ... 312 

1. Lasya ; 2.. Mala; 3. Gita ; 4. Nrtya. 

VIIL Four Musical Instruments : ... .., 314 

L Vaihsa ; 2. Vina; 3. Mukunda ; 4. Muraja. 



XVIII 

IX. Four Door Goddesses : ... ... ... 316 

L Talika ; 2. KuncI ; 3. Kapata ; 4. Patadharinl 

X. Four Light Goddesses : ... ... ... 317 

1. Suryahasta ; 2. Dlpa ; 3. Ratnolka ; 4. Tadit- 
kara. 

XL Four Animal-Faced Goddesses : ... ... 319 

1. Hayasya ; 2. bukarasya ; 3. Svanasya ; 4. Sim- 
hasya. 

XIL Four Dakim Group : ... ... . 321 

1. Dakim ; 2. Lama ; 3. Khandaroha ; 4. Rupim. 

CHAPTER XIL Philosophical Deities : ... 323 

I. Twelve Paramitas : ... ... ... ... 323 

1. Ratnaparamita ; 2. Danaparamita ; 3. cillapara- 
mita ; 4. Ksantiparamita ; 5. Viryaparamita ; 6. DKya- 
naparamita ; 7. Prajnaparamita ; 8 Upayaparamita ; 
9. Pranidhanaparamita ; 10. Balaparamita ; 11. Jnana* 
paramita ; 12. Vajrakarmaparamita. 

II. Twelve Vasita Goddesses : ... ... ... 328 

1. Ayurvasita ; 2. Cittavasita ; 3. Pariskaravasita ; 
4. Karma vasita ; 5. Upapattivasita ; 6. Rddhiva- 
sita ; 7. Adhimuktivasita ; 8. Pranidhana vasita ; 
9. Jnanavasita ; 10. Dharmavasita ; 11. Tathatavasita ; 
12, Buddhabodhiprabha-vasita. 

III. Twelve Bhumis : ... ... ... 333 

1. Adhimukticarya ; 2. Pramudita ; 3. Vimala ; 
4* Prabhakan ; 5. Arcismatl ; 6. Sudurjaya ; 7. Abhi- 
mukhl ; 8. Durangama ; 9. Acala ; 10. Sadhu- 
mat! ; 11. Dharmamegha ; 12* Samantaprabha. 

IV. Twelve Dharinls : ... ... ... 337 

1. Sumati ; 2. Ratnolka ; 3. Usrnsavijaya ; 
4 Marl ; 5. Parnasabarl ; 6. Jahgull ; 7. Ananta- 
mukhl ; 8 Cunda ; 9. Prajnavardhanl ; 10. Sarvakar- 
mavaranavisodhanl ; 11. Aksayajnanakaranda ; 12 
Sarvabuddhadh armakosa vatL 

V. Four Pratisamvits : ... ... ... 342 

L Dharma Pratisamvit ; 2. Artha Pratisamvit ; 
3. Nirukti Pratisamvit ; 4. Pratibhana Pratisamvit. 



XIX 

: CHAPTER XIII. Hindu Gods in Vajrayana : ... ... 344 

1. Mahakala ; 

2. Ganapatl ; 

3. Ganapatihrdaya ; 
4 Sarasvatl ; 

5. The Eight Dikpalas : ... ... 352 

I Indra ; II. Yama ; III. Varuna ; IV. Kubera ; 

V. Isana ; VI. Agni ; VII Nairrti ; VIII. Vayu 

6. Ten Principal Hindu Deities : **r~ ... 363 

^IT Brahma ; II. Visnu ; III. "Stahesvara ; IV. 

Karttikeya ; V. Varahl ; VI. Camunda ; VII. 

BhrngI; VIII. Ganapati ; IX MahSkala ; X. 
Nandikesvara. 

7. Nine Planets: ... ... ... 367 

I. Aditya; II. Candra ; III. Mangala ; IV. 
Budha; V. Brhaspati ; VI. Sukra ; VII. 3ani; 
VIII. Rahu ; IX. Ketu. 

8. Balabhadra Group : ... ... ... 378 

I. Balabhadra ; II. Jayakara ; III. Madhukara ; 

IV 7 , Vasanta. 

9. Lords of the Yaksas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas and 
Vidyadharas : ... ... ... ... 379 

I. Yaksa Kings ; II. Kinnara King ; III. Gandharva 
King; IV. Vidyadhara King. 

10. Twenty-Eight Constellations ... ... 381 

11. Time Deities: ... ... ... 382 

I. Months ; II. Dates ; III. Zodiacal Signs ; 

IV. Seasons 

CHAPTER XIV. Conclusion ... ... ..." 334 

Apppendix. 108 Forms of Avalokitesvara ... ... 394 

Glossary ... ... ... ... ... 432 

Index of Words ... ... . ... 443 

Index of Illustrations ... ... ... ... 457 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Fig. Names Page 

1. Maya's Dream (Bharhut) . ... 33 

2. BodhiTree (Sanchi) .. ... .. 33 

3. Buddha's Head-dress (Bharhut) ... 36 

4. Buddha's Footprints (Bharhut) ... ... 36 

5. WheeLof-the-law (Bharhut) .. .. 36 

6. Simbhu (Nepal) ... ... ... 37 

7. Baudh (Nepal) ... .. ... 37 

8. Kathe Simbhu (Nepal) . 37 

9. Dharma (Nepal) ... ... , ... 40 

10. Buddha (Nepal) ... ... ... 40 

11. Sangha (Nepal) ... 40 

12. Adibuddha Vajradhara (Nepal) ... ... 57 

13. Vajradhara (Baroda Museum) ... ... 58 

14. Vajradhara Yab^yum (Nepal) ... ... 58 

15. Vajradhara Yab-yum (side view) . ... 58 

16. Vajradhara (Baroda Museum) ... . 58 

17. Buddha in different Mudras (Nalanda Museum) ... 59 

18. Buddha in different Mudras (Java) ... ... 59 

19. Amitabha (Nepalese miniature) .. ... 60 

20. Pandara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 60 

2L Padmapani (Nepal) ... . ... 60 

22. Aksobhy a (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 60 

23. Aksobhya (Nepal) ... ... ... 61 

24. MamakI (Nepalese drawing) ... 61 

25. Vajrapani (Nepal) ... ... ... 61 

26. Vajrapani (Indian Museum) ... .. 62 
2?. Vajrapani (Nalanda Museum) ... ... 62 

28. Vairocana (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 62 

29. Vairocana (Nepal) ... ... 62 

30. Vairocana Vajradhatu (Peiping) .. ... 63 

31. Locanl (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 63 

32. Samantabhadra (Nepal) ... ... 63 

33. Amoghasiddhi (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 64 

34. Amoghasiddhi (Nepal) ... ... 64 



XXI 

Fig. Names ' Page 

35. Tara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 64 

36. Vilvapani (Nepal) ... ... ... 65 

37. Ratnasambhava (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 65 

38. Ratnsambhava (Nepal) ... ... 65 

39. Vajradhatvisvari (Nepalese drawing) . ... 66 

40. Ratnapani (Nepal) ... ... 66 

41. Vajrasattva (Nepal) .. ... 66 

42. Vajrasattva (Baroda Museum) ... .- '67 

43. Vajrasattva Yab-yum (Nepal) ... ... 67 

44. Vajrasattva Yab-yum (side view) ... ... 67 

45. Seven Mortal Buddhas with Maitreya (Indian 

Museum) ... ... ... 68 

46. Vajrasana (Indian Museum) ... .. 68 
47* Maitreya (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 69 

48. Samantabhadra (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 69 

49. Aksayamati (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 69 

50. Aksayamati (Peiping)... ... ... 70 

51. Ksitigarbha (Nepalese drawing) .. ... 70 

52. Akasagarbha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 70 

53. Gaganaganja (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 71 

54. Ratnapani (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 71 

55. Sagaramati (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 71 

56. Vajragarbha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 72 

57. Avalokitesvara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 72 

58. Mahasthamaprapta (Nepalese drawing) 72 

59. Candraprabha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 105 

60. Jalinlprabha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 105 

61. Amitaprabha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 105 

62. Pratibhanakuta (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 106 

63. Sarvasokatamonirghatamati (Nepalese drawing) ... 106 

64. Sarvanivaranaviskambhi (Nepalese drawing) ... 106 

65. Maitreya (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 107 

66. Manjusr! (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 107 

67. Gandhahasti (Nepelese drawing) ... ... 107 

68. Jnanaketu (Nepalese drawing) ... '... l68 

69. Bhadrapala (Nepalese drawing ... '... 108 

70. Sarvapayanjaha (Nepalese drawing) ... ' ... '108 

71. Sar vapiy an jaha (Peiping) ... .:. '109 

72. Amoghadarsin (Nepalfese drawing) ... ' - !.-. i09 
'73. Surangama (Nepalese drawing) ... ' ..: "J09 

74. Manjusn with Ganapati and Vi^snu (Baroda Museum^:/ 1 10 



XXII 

Fig. Names Page 

75. Vajraraga (Baroda Musem) ... ... 110 

76. Vajraraga (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 110 

77. Siddhaikavlra (Sarnath Museum) ... ... Ill 

78. Vajrananga (Nepalese drawing) ... ... Ill 

79. Namasanglti Manjusrl (Nepalese drawing) ... 111 

80. Namasanglti Manjusrl (Peiping) ... ... 112 

81. Vaglsvara (Indian Museum) ... ... 112 

82. Vaglsvara (Nepal) ... ... ... 112 

83. Manjuvara (Birbhum) ... ... ... 169 

84* Manjuvara (Indian Museum) ... ... 169 

85. Manjuvara (Indian Museum) .-. ... 169 

86. Manjuvara (Nepal) ... ... ... 170 

87. Manjuvajra (Baroda Museum) ... ... 170 

88. Manjukumara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 170 

89. Arapacana (Dacca Museum) ... ... 171 

90. Arapacana (Berlin Museum) ... ... 172 

9L Arapacana (Nepal) ... ... ... 172 

92. Arapacana (Baroda Museum) ... .. 172 

93. Sthiracakra (Vanglya Sahitya Parisat) ... ... 173 

94- Sadaksari Group (Sarnath Museum) ... ... 173 

95. Sadaksari Group (Indian Museum) ... ... 173 

96. Sadaksari Group (Birbhum) ... ... 174 

97. Sadaksari Lokesvara (Baroda Museum) ... 174 

98. Sadaksari Mahavidya (Sarnath Museum) ... 174 

99. Simhanada Mahoba (Lucknow Musuem) ... 175 

100. Simhanada (Nepal) ... ... ... 176 

101. Simhanada (Magadha) ... ... 176 

102. Simhanada (Nepal) ... ... ... 176 

103. Khasarpana (Vikrampur, Dacca) ... ... 257 

104. Khasarpana (Indian Musuem) ... ... 259 

105. Lokanatha Mahoba (Lucknow Museum) ... 258 

106. Lokanatha (Baroda Museum) ... ... 259 

107. Lokanatha (Sarnath Museum) ... ... 259 

108. Lokanatha (Nepal) ... ... 260 

109. Halahala (Nepal) ... ... ... 260 

110. Padmanarttesvara (Nepal) ... ... 260 

111. Padmanarttesvara (Peiping) ... ... 261 

112. Padmanarttesvara (Nepalese drawing)... ... 261 

113. Harihariharivahana (Nepalese drawing) ... 261 

114. Trailokyavasahkara (Peiping) ... ... 262 

115. Raktaiokesvara (Peiping) ... ... 262 



XXIII 

Fig. Names Page 

116. Ntlakantha (Sarnath Museum) ... ... 262 

117. Sugatisandarsana {Nepalese drawing) ... ... 263 

118 Pretasantarpita (Nepalese drawing) ... 263 

119. Sukhavati Lokesvara (Nepal) ... ... 263 

120. Vajradharma (Nepalese drawing) .. ... 264 

121. Kurukulla (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 264 

122. Kurukula (Peiping) ... ... ... 264 

123 BhrkutI (Peiping) ... ... ... 265 

124. Gandarosana (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 265 

125. Heruka (Dacca Museum) ... ... 265 

126. Buddhakapala (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 266 

127. Buddhakapala (Baroda Museum) ... ... 266 

128. Hayagrlva (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 266 

129. Hayagrlva (Peiping) ... ... ... 267 

130. U cchus ma Jambhala (Sarnath Museum) ... 267 

131. Vighnantaka (Baroda Museum) ... ... 267 

132. Paramasva (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 268 

133. Yogambara (Peiping) ... ... ... 263 

134. Kalacakra (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 268 

135. Mahaclna Tara (Nepalese drawing) ... - 269 

136. Mahaclna Tara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 269 

137. Jangul! (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 269 

138 Ekajata (Indian Museum) ... ... 270 

139. Ekajata (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 270 

140. Parnasaban (Indian Museum) ... ... 270 

141. Prajnaparamita (Leiden, Holland) ... ... 271 

142. Prajnaparamita (Indian Museum) ... ... 271 

143. Vajracarcika (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 271 

144. Pratyangira (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 272 

145. Pratyangira (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 272 

146. Pratyafigira (Nepal) ... ... ... 272 

147. Dhvajigrakeyura (Nepalese drawing)... ... 274 

148. Nairatma (Indian Museum) ... 274 

149. Nairatma (Vangiya Sahitya Parisat) ... ... 274 

150. Vajravidaram (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 274 

151. Namasahglti (Nepal) ... ... ... 276 

152. Astabhuja MaricI (Indian Museum) ... ... 275 

153. Astabhuja MaricI (Indian Museum) ... ... 276 

154. Astbhuja MaricI (Lucknow Museum)... ... 276 

155. Dasabhujasita MaricI (Nepalese drawing) ... 278 

156. Usnlsavijaya -(Indian Museum) ... ... 277 



XXIV 

Fig* Names Page 

157. Usmsavijaya (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 278 

158. Sitatapatra Aparajita (Nepalese drawing) ... 278 
J59. Vajravarahi (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 279 

160. Vajravarahi (Baroda Museum) ... ... 279 

161. Cunda (The late Mr. W. B. Whitney) ... 279 
162* Cunda (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 280 

163. Cunda (Baroda Museum) ... ... 280 

164. Cunda (Bodh-Gaya) ... ... ... 280 

165. Grahamatrka (Nepalese miniature) ... , ... 282 

166. Khadiravam Tara Mahoba (Lucknow Museum) ... 281 

167. Khadiravam Tara (Indian Museum) ... ... 282 

168. Khadiravam Tara (Baroda Museum) ... ... 282 

169. Mahasri Tara (Indian Museum) ... ... 283 

170. Vasyatara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 284 

171. Sadbhuja Sitatara (Nepalese drawing)... ... 284 

172. Dhanada Tara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 284 

173. Parnasabarl (Vikrampur, Dacca) ... ... 285 

174. Parnasabarl (Vikrampur, Dacca) ... .. 286 

175. Vajrasrnkhala (Nepalese drawing) . ... 286 

176. Jambhala (Nepal) ... .. ... 286 

177. Jambhala (Vikrampur, Dacca) ... ... 287 

178. Jambhala (Vikrampur, Dacca) ... ... 288 

179. Jambhala Yab-yum (Nepalese drawing) ... 288 

180. Vajratara (Indian Museum) ... ... 288 

181. Vajratara (Orissa) ... ... ... 289 

182. Vajratara (Nepal) ... ... ... 289 

183. Puspatara Peiping ... ... ... 289 

184. Mahapratisara (Dacca Sahitya Parisat) ... 290 

185. Mahapratisara (Dacca Museum) ... ... 290 

186. Vasudhara (Nepalese drawing) ... 290 

187. Vasudhara (Nepal) ... ... ... 291 

188. Vasudhara (Baroda Museum) ... ... 291 

189. Aparajita (Nalanda Museum) ... ... 291 

190. Aparajita (Indian Museum) ... ... 292 

19L Vajrayogim (Temple at Sahku) ... ... 292 

192. Prasannatara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... .292 

193. Vajrapasi (Peiping) ... ... ... 293 

194. Vajrasphota (Peiping)... ,.. ... 293 

195. Vajrosnisa (Peiping) ... ... ... 293 

196. Mahapratisara (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 294 

197. Mahasahasrapramardam (Nepalese miniature) ... 294 



XXV 

Fig, Names Page 

198. Mahamantranusarim (Nepalese miniature) ... 294 

199. Mahasltavati (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 295 

200. Mahamayuri (Nepalese miniature) ... ... 295 

201. - Mahattarl Tara (Nepal) ... ... 295 

202. Vetall (Peiping) ... ... 296 

203. Ghasmarl (Peiping) ... ... 296 

204. Pukkasi (Peiping) ... - 296 

205. Dombi (Peiping) ... ... 353 

206. Lasya (Peiping) ... ... 353 

207. Gita (Peiping) ... ... 353 

208. Nrtya (Peiping) ... ... 354 

209. Vina (Peiping) ... ... 354 

210. Mukunda (Peiping) ... ... 354 

211. Talika (Peiping) ... ... 355 

212. Kapata (Peiping) .. ... 355 

213. Dlpa (Peiping) ... ... 355 

214. Ratnolka (Peiping) ... ... 356 

215. Simhasya (Dr. Moghe's Collection) .. ... 356 

216. Simhasya, upper view (Dr. Moghe's Collection) ... 356 

217. DSkinl (Peiping) ... ... 357 

218. Lama (Nepalese painting in colour) ... ... 376 

219. Dhyana Paramita (Peiping) ... ... 357 

220. Pnmidhana Paramita (Peiping) ... ... 357 

221. Upapatti Vasita (Peiping) ... ... 358 

222 Rddhi Vasita (Peiping) ... ... 358 

223. Dharmamegha (Peiping) ... ... 358 

224. Nirukti Pratisaifavit (Peiping) ... ... 359 

225. Pratibhana Pratisarhvit (Peiping) .. ... 359 

226. Mahakala (Nepal) ... ... 359 

227. Ganapati (Dr. Moghe's Collection) ... ... 360 

228. Ganapati (Maharani Chimanabai Collection) ... 360 

229. Ganapatihrdaya (Nepalese miniature)... ... 360 

230. Mahasarasvati (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 369 

231. Vajravlna Sarasvatl (Peiping) ... ... 369 

232. Vajrasarada (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 369 

Z33. Vajrasarada (Nalanda Museum) ... ... 370 

Z34. Arya'Sarasvatl (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 370 

235. Vajrasarasvati (Nepalese drawing) ... ... 370 

236. Indra (Peiping) ... ... 371 

237- Agni (Peiping) ... ... 371 

138. Vayu (Peiping) ... ... 371 



XXVI 



Fig. Names Page 

239. Brahma (Peiping) ... ... 372 

240. Mahesvara (Peiping) ... ... 372 

241. Ganapati (Peiping) ... ... 372 

242. Rahu (Peiping) ... ... 373 

243. Ketu (Peiping) ... ... 373 

244. Navami Tithi (Peiping) ... ... 373 

245 Dasami Tithi (Peiping) ... ... 374 

246. Tula (Peiping) ... ... 374 

247. Kumbha (Peiping) ... ... 374 

248. Mma (Peiping) ... ... 375 

249. Khadiravam Tara (Dacca Museum) ... ... 375 



APPENDIX 

Eye-copy of paintings in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu, Nepal 

Fig. Names Page 

1(A). Hayagriva Lokesvara ... ... 401 

2(A). Mojaghanjabala (?) Lokesvara ... ... 401 

3(A). Halahala Lokesvara ... ... 401 

4(A). Harihariharivahana Lokesvara ... ... 401 

5(A). Mayajalakrama Lokesvara ... ... 402 

6(A). Sadaksan Lokesvara ... ... 402 

7(A). Anandadi Lokesvara ... ... 402 

8(A) Vasyadhikara Lokesvara ... ... 402 

9(A). Potapada Lokesvara ... ... 403 

10(A). Kamandalu Lokesvara ... ... 403 

11(A). Varadayaka Lokesvara ... ... 403 

12 (A). Jatamukuta Lokesvara ... ... 403 

13(A). Sukhavati Lokesvara ... ... 404 

14(A) Pretasantarpana Lokesvara ... ... 404 

15(A). Mayajalakramakrodha Lokesvara ... ... 404 

16(A). Sugatisandarsana Lokesvara ... ... 404 

17(A), Nilakantha Lokesvara ... ... 405 

18(A), Lokanatha-Raktaryyavalokitesvara ... 405 

19(A), Trailokyasandarsana Lokesvara ... ... 405 

20(A). Sirhhanatha Lokesvara ... ... 405 

21 (A). Khasarpana Lokesvara ... ... 406 

22(A). Manipadma Lokesvara ... ... 406 

23(A). Vajradharma Lokesvara ... ... 406 

24(A). Pupala (?) Lokesvara ... ... 406 

25(A). Utnauti (?) Lokesvara ... ... 407 

26(A)* Vrsnacana Lokesvara ... ... 407 

27(A). Brahmadanda Lokesvara ... ... 407 

28(A). Acata (?) Lokesvara ... ... 407 

29(A). Mahavajrasattva Lokesvara ... .. 408 

30(A), Visvahana Lokesvara ... ... 408 

31(A). Sakyabuddha Lokesvara ... ... 408 

32(A). Santasi Lokesvara ... ... 408 



XXVIII 

Fig. Names Page 

33(A). Yamadanda Lokesvara ... ... 409 

34(A). Vajrosmsa Lokesvara ... ... 409 

35(A). Vajrahuntika (?) Lokesvara .. ... 409 

36( A) . Jnanadhatu Lokesvara ... ... 409 

37(A). Karandavyuha Lokesvara ... ... 410 

38(A). Sarvanivaranaviskambhi Lokesvara ... 410 

39(A). Sarvasokatamonirghata Lokesvara ... 410 

40(A). Pratibhanakuta Lokesvara ... ... 410 

4l(A). Amrtaprabha Lokesvara ... ... 411 

42(A). Jaliniprabha Lokesvara ... - ... 411 

43(A). Candraprabha Lokesvara ... ... 411 

44(A). Avalokita Lokesvara ... ... 411 

45(A). Vajragarbha Lokesvara ... ... 412 

46(A). Sagaramati Lokesvara ... ... 412 

47(A). Ratnapani Lokesvara ... ... 412 

48(A). Gaganaganja Lokesvara ... ... 412 

49(A). Akasagarbha Lokesvara ... ... 413 

50(A), Ksitigarbha Lokesvara ... ... 413 

51 (A). Aksayamati Lokesvara ... ... 413 

52(A). Srstikanta Lokesvara ... ... 413 

53(A). Samantabhadra Lokesvara ... ... 414 

54(A). Mahasahasrabhuja Lokesvara ... ... 414 

55(A). Maharatnaklrti Lokesvara ... ... 414 

56(A). Mahasankhanatha Lokesvara ... ... 414 

57(A). Mahasahasrasuryya Lokesvara ... ... 415 

58(A). Maharatnakula Lokesvara *.. ... 415 

59(A). Mahapatala Lokesvara ... ... 415 

60(AK Mahamanjudatta Lokesvara ... ... 415 

61(A). Mahacandrabimba Lokesvara ... ... 416 

62(A). Mahasuryyabimba Lokesvara ... ... 416 

63(A). Maha-Abhayaphalada Lokesvara ... ... 416 

64(A). Maha-Abhayakarl Lokesvara ... ... 416 

65(A)* Mahamanjubhuta Lokesvara ... ... 417 

66(A). Mahavisvasuddha Lokesvara ... ... 417 

67(A). Mahavajradhatu Lokesvara ... ... 417 

68(A). Mahavajradhrk Lokesvara ... ... 417 

69(A). Mahavajrapani Lokesvara ... ... 418 

70(A). Mahavajranatha Lokesvara ... ... 418 

71(A). Amoghapasa Lokesvara ... ... 418 

72(A). Devadevata Lokesvara ... ... 418 

73(A). Pindapatra Lokesvara ... ... 419 



XXIX 

Fig. Names Page 

74(A). Sat thavaha Lokesvara ... ... 419 

75(A). Ratnadala Lokesvara ... ... 419 

76(A). Visnupani Lokesvara ... ... 419 

77(A). Kamalacandra Lokesvara ... ... 420 

78(A). Vajrakhanda Lokesvara ... ... 420 

79(A). Acalaketu Lokesvara ... ... 420 

80(A). Sirisara(?) Lokesvara ... ... 420 

8l(A). Dharmacakra Lokesvara .., ... 421 

82(A). Harivahana Lokesvara ... ... 421 

83(A). Sarasiri (?) Lokesvara ... ... 421 

84(A). Harihara Lokesvara ... ... 421 

85(A). Simhanada Lokesvara ... ... 422 

86(A). Visvavajra Lokesvara ... ... 422 

87(A). Amitabha Lokesvara ... ... 422 

88(A). Vajrasattvadhatu Lokesvara ... ... 422 

89(A). Visvabhuta Lokesvara ... ... 423 

90(A). Dharmadhatu Lokesvara ... ... 423 

91(A). Vajradhatu Lokesvara ... ... 423 

92(A). Sakyabuddha Lokesvara ... ... 423 

93(A). Cittadhatu Lokesvara ... ... 424 

94(A). Cintamani Lokesvara ... ... 424 

95^AK Santamati Lokesvara ... ... 424 

96(A). Manjunatha Lokesvara ... ... 424 

97(A). Visnucakra Lokesvara ... .. 425 

98(AK Krtanjali Lokesvara ... ... 425 

99(A). Visnukanta Lokesvara ... ... 425 

100(A). Vajrasrsta Lokesvara ... ... 425 

101(A). oankhanatha Lokesvara ... ... 426 

102(A). Vidyapati Lokesvara ... ... 426 

103(A). Nityanatha Lokesvara ... ... 426 

104(A). Padmapani Lokesvara ... ... 426 

105(A). Vajraparii Lokesvara ... ... 427 

106(AK Mahasthamaprapta Lokesvara ... ... 427 

107(A). Vajranatha Lokesvara ... ... 427 

108(A). nmad-Aryyavalokitesvara ... ... 427 



SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Abhayakara Gupta Nispannayogavall (NSP) ed : B. Bhattacharyva, 
COS No. C1X, Baroda, 1949. 

Advayavajra Advayavajrasafigraha (ADV) consisting of nineteen short 
works, ed : Haraprasad Shastri, COS No. XL, Baroda, 1927. 

Beal (S)Si'yU'ki or the Buddhist Records of the Western World 
translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Thsang, 2 vols. London, 
1906. 

Bendall (C) Siksa-Samuccaya of oantideva in the Bibliotheca Buddhi' 
ca Series, St. Petersburg, 1897. 

2. Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Uni* 
versity Library, Cambridge, 1883. 

3. A Historical Introduction to H. Shastri's Nepal Catalogue 
Vol. I Calcutta, 1905. 

Bhattacharyya (Benoytosh), ed : Sadhanamala, 2 vols. COS Nos. 26 
and 41, Oriental Institute, Baroda, 19254928. 

2. Ed : Two Vajrayana Works consisting of the Jnanasiddhi 
of Indrabhuti and the Prajnopayaviniscayasiddhi of Anahgavajra, 
COS No. 44, Baroda, 1929. 

3. Ed : Guhyasamaja Tantra or the Tathagataguhyaka, COS 
No. 53, Baroda, 1931. 

4. Ed : Nispannayogavall of Abhayakara Gupta, COS No. 109, 
Baroda, 1949, 

5. Iconography of Heruka : in Indian Culture, Vol. II, No. 1. 

6. An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism, Oxford University 
Press, 1932. 

Bhattasali ( Nalini Kanta ) Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical 
Sculptures in the Dacca Museum, (IBBS) Dacca, 1929. 

Burgess (J) and Fergusson (J) The CaveTemples of India, London, 1880. 



XXXI 

Clark (Walter Eugene) Two Lamaistic Pantheons, (TLP) 2 vols. in the 
Harvard Yenching Institute Monograph Series, Cambridge, Mass. 

Coomaraswamy ( Dr. A. K. ) Mahay ana Buddhist Images from Ceylon 
and Java (with three plates), JRAS, April 1909. 

Cordier (P) Catalogue du Fonds Tibetain de la Bibliotheca Nationale, 
2e partie, Index du Bstan-Hgyur (1909), 3e partie (1915), Paris. 

Csoma (Alex., De Koros) Note on the Origin of the Kalacakra and 
Adi-Buddha systems, in JASB, Vol. II, 1833, 57ff. 

2. Notices on the different systems of Buddhism extracted 
from Tibetan authorities, in JASB, Vol. VII, 1838, Part I, 142ff. 

Cunningham (A) The Bhilsa Topes or Buddhist Monuments of Central 
India, London, 1854. 

Davids (W Rhys) -Early Buddhism. London, 1908. 

Dikshit (K. N.) Six Sculptures from Mahoba, Memoirs of the ASI 
No. 8. 

Fergusson (J) See Burgess (J) 

Foucher (A) Etude sur Tlconographie Bouddhique de 1'Inde, 1st 
partie, Paris, 1900, 2e. partie 1905. 

2. The Beginnings of Buddhist Art and other Essays in Indian 
and Central Asian Archaeology, translated by L. A. Thomas and 
F. W. Thomas with a preface by the latter, Oxford, 1917. 

Getty (Alice) The Qods of Northern Buddhism (QNB), 1st edition, 
Oxford, 1914 and the second edition, Oxford, 1928. 

Gordon (Antoinette K.) The Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism (ITL), 
Columbia University Press, New York, 1939. 

Grunwedel (A) Buddhist Art in India, translated from German by 
Agnes Gibson, revised and enlarged by J. Burgess, London, 1901. 

Guhyasamaja Tantra or Tathagataguhyaka, ed : B. Bhattacharyya, GOS 
Baroda, 1931. 

Indrabhuti-Jnanasiddhi along with the Prajnopayaviniscayasiddhi, 
published under the title, Two Vajrayana Works, ed : B. Bhatta* 
charyya, in GOS No. XLIV, Baroda, 1929. 



XXXII 
Kern (H) Manual of Indian Buddhism, Strassbourg, 1896 

Legge (J) A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, being an account of the 
Chinese monk Fa-Hien of his Travels in India (A. D. 399414), 
Oxford, 1886. 

Max Muller (F), Kasavara (K) and Wengel (H) The Dharmasangraha 
attributed to Nagarjuna, Oxford, 1885. 

Mitra (R) The Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepal, Calcutta, 1882. 

Monier- Williams (Sir M.) Buddhism in its Connexion u>ith Bmhmanism 
and Hinduism and in its contrast with. Christianity, London, 1889. 

Oldfield (H. A.) Sketches from Nipal. Vol. 2, London, 1880. 

Rao (T. A. Gopinatha) Elements of Hindu Iconography, Vols. I and II, 
Madras, 1916. 

Sadhanamala, ed : B. Bhattacharyya, COS, 2 vols., Vol. L 1925, Vol. II, 
1928, Baroda. 

Sahni ( D. R. ) Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Srtrnath, 
Calcutta, 1914. 

Samasrami (S) ed : Karanda-Vyuha, Calcutta. 

Sastri (H) Eighteen articles in Bengali on "Bauddhadharma" pub- 
lished in the monthly magazine "Narayana", Calcutta. 

2. Introduction to N. N. Vasu's "The Modern Buddhism and its 
Followers in Orissa." Calcutta, 1911. 

3. A Catalogue of Palm*leaf and Selected paper Manuscripts 
belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal, Vol. I (1905) and Vol.11 
(1915), Calcutta. 

4. A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS in the Qovernment 
Collection under the care of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. L 
Buddhist MSS, Calcutta, 1917. 

5. 'Buddhists in Bengal' in the Dacca Review, Vol. II, No. 7, pp. 
91104, Dacca, 1922. 

6. Discovery of Living Buddhism in Bengal t Calcutta. 

7. Bauddha Qan O Doha (in Bengali) Sahitya Parisat Gran- 
thavali No. 55, Calcutta, B. S. 1323. 

8. Bangalar Parana Aksara (in Bengali) in the Journal of the 
Vangiya Sahitya Parisat, B.S. 1327 

9. 'The Discovery of a work by Aryadeva in Sanskrit* in JASB, 
1898, p. 175 ff. 



XXXIII 

Sastri (H, Krishna) South Indian Images of Qods and Qoddesses, Madras, 
1916, 

Senart (E) le Uahavastu, Vol. 3, part I, Paris, 1882. 

Smith (V. A.) A History of Fine Arts in India and Ceylon, Oxford 
1911. 

Sujuki (D. T.) The Outlines of Mah&yana Buddhism, London, 1907. 

Ui (H) The Vai'sesika Philosophy, edited by R W, Thomas, Oriental 
Translation Fund, New Series, Vol. XXIV, London, 1917. 

Vasu ( N, N. ) The Modern Buddhism and its Followers in Orissa, 
Calcutta, 1911. 

2. The Archaeological Survey of Mayurbhanj, Calcutta. 

Vogel ( J, Ph. ) Catalogue of the Archaeological Museum at Mathura, 
Allahabad, 1910. 

2. Introduction to D. R, Sahni's Sarnath Catalogue, See (Sahni, 
D R.). 

3. The Mathura School of Sculpture' contributed to the ASI, 
Annual Report, 19067, pp. 137-160. 

Waddell ( L. A. ) The Indian Buddhist Cult of Avalokita and his 
Consort Tara, the 'Saviouress 5 illustrated from the remains of 
Magadha' JRAS, 1898. 

2. The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, London, 1895, 
Wright (D) History of Nepal, Cambridge, 1877. 



ERRATA 



Page 


Line or Fig. 


For 


Read 


VIII 


6 and 23 


Clarke 


Clark 


7 


27 


Budhhism 


Buddhism 


9 


n. 3 


jayote 


jayate 


15 


23 


willread 


will read 


17 


3 


inVajrayog : ni 


In Vajrayogini 


18 


33 


Siddhis 


Siddhis was 


18 


34 


In the 


The 


20 


31 


confees 


confess 


23 


19 


withe th 


with the 


26 


15 


lamp 


lump 


27 


36 


become 


becomes 


28 


32 


moniscience 


omniscience 


32 


12 


here in 


herein 


33 


Fig. 2 


Bodhi Tree 


Bodhi Tree 






(Amaravati) 


(Sanchi) 


43 


3 


Asia 


India 


63 


Fig. 30 


Vajradhatu 


Vajradhatu 


75 


5 


Yub-yum 


Yab-yum 


80 


last 


has 


has this 


109 


Fig. 71 


Sarvapayanjaha 


Sarvapayanjaha 








(Peiping) 


134 


n. 1 


Calrk 


Clark 


154 


1 


CHAPTER V 


CHAPTER VI 


181 


15 


Siva 


Siva 


185 


9 


Vahana 


Vahana 


219 


1 


VASYA 


VAS"YA 


227 


23 


Companion 


Companions 


229 


24 


VASYATARA 


VASYATARA 


295 


Fig. 199 


Mahasitavatl 


Mahasitavati 


359 


Fig. 226 


Mahakala 


MahakSla 






(Peiping) 


(Nepal) 


400 


15 


Mahapatala 


Mahapatala 


415 


Fig. 59 (A) 


Mahapatala 


Mahapatala 


429 


37 


88. Vrjrasattvadhatu 


88. Vajrasattvadhatu 



Introduction 

1. Materials for the study of Buddhist Iconography. 

All the three great religious systems of India, Hinduism, Buddhism 
and Jainism developed well-filled pantheons, and it is not always easy 
to decide to which of these three systems a particular image should be 
assigned. The importance of the study of iconography, which prima* 
rily concerns itself with the proper recognition of images thus becomes 
apparent. 

The difficulties of the investigator are increased by the fact that a 
free and frequent interchange of deities took place among the three 
religious systems. Such Hindu deities as Parvatl, Indra, LaksmI, 
Sarasvatl are to be found among the Jaina.s. The Hindus, on the other 
hand, have borrowed goddesses like Mahaclnatara, Jangull, Vajrayogini 
from the Buddhist pantheon and incorporated them into their own 
under the names of Tara, Manasa and Chinnamasta respectively. Thus 
there is evidence that a free interchange of deities actually took place 
at the verv outset of Buddhism and Jainism as in the more promiscuous 
Tantru age. The Jainas and the Buddhists alike borrowed Hindu 
gods in their earlier stages, but in the Tantric age Buddhist gods were 
commonly exploited. 

The problem of correct identification of images, therefore, presents 
a real difficulty which ureat scholars have more than once attempted 
to solve. Scholars of all countries, notably Waddell, Grunwedel, 
Foucher, Burgess, Getty, Coomiraswamy, Bhattasali, Rakhaldas Banerji 
and many others, have written useful and authoritative works, and 
collected together a considerable amount of information on Buddhist 
iconography. It is unfortunate, however, that the pantheon of the Indian 
Vajrayanists who were mainly responsible in building it up has so far 
been more or less neglected Getty and Deniker's 'Qods of Northern 
Buddhism 9 , although a masterpiece, deals only with Tibetan, Chinese 
and Japane.se gods but the purely Indian gods seem to have attracted 
little notice from them. It was Professor Foucher who by the publi* 
cation of his 'Eludes sur /' loniogrciphi? Bouddhique de L' Inde* in two 
parts published as early as 1900 and 1905, first drew the attention of 
scholars to this rich field of research. His curiosity was roused by a 
stuoy of the miniatures appearing on such Buddhist manuscripts as the 
Prajnaparamita, and then he made a systematic attempt to identify the 
sculptures. For the purpose of recognising images he hunted out a 



2 INTRODUCTION 

number of Sadhanas from the manuscripts of Sadhanamala, and he 
was surprised to find that the images tallied most remarkably with the 
descriptions given in the unpublished text of the Tantric manuscript. 
Again, the images and sculptures supplied interesting details such as 
were not available in the Sadhana. Thus the Sadhana and the image 
mutually enlightened each other. Professor Foucher's second volume 
embodies a critical, although partial, study of the Sadhanamala and it 
was this book that first emphasized the necessity of referring to a 
Sadhana in order to make or justify any single identification of a Buddhist 
image. When the present author was studying at the feet of the illus- 
trious savant, Professor Foucher, at the Indian Museum, Calcutta, he 
was advised to edit and study the different recensions of the 
Sadhanamala before proceeding with the delicate art of identification of 
Buddhist deities. 

j The Sadhanamala is thus the most valuable_jm^i^ 
Buddhist iconograph^aot only because it records the latest advances 
in psychic research of the Vajrayana Buddhists, but also because it was 
a product of a period when Buddhism was about to be destroyed in 
Bengal due to Mussalman invasion. This standard work on Buddhist 
iconography has been published in two volumes as Nos. 26 and 41 of 
the Qaekwad's Oriental Series with an elaborate introduction dealing 
with the text and the various problems raised therein. 
The edition of the Sadhanamala comprises^ 3 1 2 



^ 

contains^dscrij>tions of i^umerQus_Buddhist deities* All new Sadhanas 
found in a different collection called the Sadhanasamuccaya have been 
carefully incorporated in their appropriate places in the present edition, 
which may very well represent a Vade Mecum of the Sadhana literature 
of the Buddhists. The Sadhanamalanot only gives valuable details 
regarding the deities, b^^jJtud^ historical 

perio4r the Tantric philosophy, 



and its psychic exercises, and on authors, Siddhas, Mantras, Mandalas,and 
magic as prevalent among the Buddhists. The special .form of Buddhism 
which developed in the Tantric period is called the Vajrayana, and the 
Sadhanamala throws a great deal of light on this obscure path of Bud- 
dhism which was current in India from the 7th to the 13th century A.D. 
TKe Sadhanamala does not however exhaust the material for the 
study of Indian Buddhist Iconography, One of the Sadhanamala Mss. 
is dated ir the Newari Era 285 corresponding to A.D. 1165, and there- 
fore, this work is not expected to record all the developments that 
took place after 1165 A. D. Many of the later developments are 
found incorporated in the work entitled the Dharmakosasangraha^ of 
Amrtananda who was the Residency Pandit when B. Hodgson was the 



INTRODUCTION 3 

Resident of Nepal. A manuscript of this work is preserved in the 
Durbar Library of Nepal, and there is also a copy of the original, 
preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in the Government 
Collection. Amrtananda's work is not published. 

Besides Amrtananda's work there are others more ancient and capable 
of supplying much iconographic material. One such work is the 
Nispannayogavali of Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta of the Vikrama- 
stla monastery who flourished during the reign of the Pala King Rama- 
pafa ( A.D. 1084-1130 ). This valuable work is now published in the 
Qaekwad's Oriental Series as No. 109 with an elaborate introduction and 
a full summary of its contents 

The Nispannayogavali is a work on Mandalas and is remarkable for 
its richness of information and brevity. It contains in all 26 Mandalas 
in twenty-six chapters, some short, some long. All these Mandalas 
describe innumerable deities of the Tantra cult. A large number pf 
these descriptions is absolutely original, Tiighly interesting and informa- 
tive. Many of the names and forms which were altogether lost, are 
published here for the first time. Many of the deities described 
accurately in the work are not to be found anywhere in printed 
literature. The Nispannayogavali thus presents a unique, original, useful 
and most valuable information which constitutes our most authentic 
material for the study of the images and deities belonging to the 
Buddhist pantheon. Nispannayogavali outbeats Sadhanamala since 
the material presented here is more varied, more extensive and more 
prolific. 

What service this Nispannayogavali can render to Buddhism may be 
illustrated by a reference to the several hundreds of images of Buddhist 
deities discovered in the Forbidden City of Peiping in Manchuiia. In 
July 1926 Stael Holstem the Russian archaeologist received permission to 
visit a number of Lama temples situated in Peiping which seem to have 
been neglected for a long time. In the upper storey of one of these 
temples he found a collection of bronze statuettes constituting a 
Lamaist Pantheon which had consisted originally of 787 figures. These 
figures along wuh a series of photographs from three manuscripts 
written in Chinese were studied "by the famous American Professor 
Walter Eugene Clark, Wales Professor of Sanskrit in the Harvard 
University, and he published this rich material in two sumptuous 
volumes, entitled, the Two Lamai&ic Pantheons in the Harvard Yenching 
Institute Monograph Series in the year 1937. The first volume contains 
an introduction, bibliography and indexes of deities in Sanskrit, Tibetan 
and Chinese. The second volume contains illustrations of innumerable 
deities. 



4 INTRODUCTION 

These illustrations are of the utmost importance for the study of 
the Buddhist pantheon not only of China but also of India, Nepal and 
Tibet. The original images bear inscriptions in Chinese and sometimes 
in Tibetan and other languages, and the learned editor took great pains 
in restoring their original Sanskrit names. A large number of these 
names derived from Chinese sources is found in the Nispannayogavall 
with their full iconographic descriptions. Thus the Nispannayogavall 
provides the much needed descriptive texts which served as a basis for 
the artists to prepare the statuettes found in China. Since this book 
Nispannayogavall gives full iconographic descriptions of most of these 
deities it is not unreasonable to suppose that the Nispannayogavall 
formed at least one of the originals from which the artists obtained the 
correct idea of the form of the numerous deities represented in the 
statuettes. Otherwise it is difficult to conceive how form can be given 
to such obscure deities as the Sixteen Boddhisattvas, the Twelve Para- 
mitas, the Twelve Vasitas, the Twelve Bhumis, the Four Pratisamvits, 
etc. which are described accurately in the Manjuvajra Mandala of the 
Nispannayogavall. It is simply imposible to prepare images of these 
deities without the help of descriptions as given by Abhayakaragupta. 
The volume of information given in the Nispannayogavall of Abhayakara- 
gupta is so great that an independent book is required to deal with them 
exhaustively. 

Besides the above mentioned Nispannayogavall, there are numerous 
Tantric texts which furnish considerable material for the study of 
Buddhist iconography of the Tantric period with which this work 
primarily concerns itself. Some of the more important materials can 
be found in the original Tantra works such as the Heruka and the 
Hevajra Tantras, Candamaharosana Tantra, Vajravarahi Tantra, 
Kriyasamuccaya, Vajravali nama Mandalopayika, Yoginijala Tantra 
Abhidhanottra Tantra and many others The list of such original 
Tantras furnishing valuable information on Buddhist deities can by no 
means be exhausted. The works above mentioned are all unpublished, 
and their handwritten copies can be found in the manuscript libraries 
such as the Durbar Library, Nepal; Asiatic Society's Library, Bengal; 
University Library, Cambridge; Musee Guimet, Paris; and the Russian 
Academy of Sciences in Leningrad. Numerous such manuscripts are 
also to be found in the hundreds of Buddhist monasteries of Nepal at 
Kathmandu, Pattan and Bhatgaon. Thus there is still an inexhaustive 
field for research and original work in Buddhist iconography alone 
It is a pity that these valuable and original source books of Buddhism 
should remain unpublished in this country, and sooner attention is 
drawn to this field of work, the better it will be for the history of our 



INTRODUCTION 5 

cultural past. It is a matter of deep regret that even tx>day there are 
lakhs of handwritten manuscripts in India in private houses, and no 
effort is being made to collect or preserve them. Thus these valuable 
source books of Indian history and culture are allowed to perish in 
India. Sanskrit being the most important member of the Indo-European 
family of languages is world property to-day, and it is the duty of every 
scholar in the world to see that this precious heritage is not allowed 
to be dissipated in an irresponsible manner. 

There is another class of manuscripts which bears miniatures and 
paintings of Buddhist gods and goddesses. The different recensions of 
the Prajnaparamita and Pancaraksa bear miniature paintings on them. 
Illuminated manuscripts of the Karandavyuha and Bodhicaryavatara are 
also not unknown. The Pancaraksa manuscripts are to be found 
almost in every Buddhist house in Nepal, they bear different sets of 
miniatures, and are calculated to serve many household purposes. Holy 
books are illuminated with miniatures in order that they may be treated 
with respect by others, and in order that their sanctity may be increased 
and preserved. 

By far the most important material for .the study of Buddhist 
iconography is represented by sculptures, bronzes, metal images and 
miniatures. The earlier phases of Buddhism are more or less free from 
the. representations of gods and goddesses. But scenes from Buddha's 
life, and Jataka stories were given preference in the earlier Buddhism. 
Such scenes and stories are found represented in stone at Sanchi, 
Bharhut, Amaravati and also in the Gandhara school. According to 
Professor Foucher the first image of the Buddha was fashioned in the 
Gandhara school of art.(*) Sculptures of Bodhisattvas and Hindu gods 
are not rare in this school. The sculpture remains at Amaravati are 
contemporaneous with those of the Gandhara school. The Mathura 
school followed closely and then came the sculptures of Sarnath, 
Magadha, Bengal, Orissa, Java and Nepal in the Tantric age. The 
paintings at Ajanta begin from the first century A.D. and the sculptures 
of Ellora and many other places, Buddhist cave temples of Southern 
and Northern India show the influence of immature Tantra on them. 
Sculptures produced in the earlier schools have received ample atten- 
tion of great scholars, but images belonging to the Tantric and post- 
Tantric periods and profoundly influenced by the Tantras have not 
been so fortunate. The excavations at Sarnath, Nalanda, Kurkihar 
have brought to light a large number of images of Buddhist gods and 
goddesses belonging to the Tantra school, and it may be reasonably 
expected that the old strongholds of Tantric learning such as Odanta- 

(1) Foucher : Beginnings of Buddhist Art and other essays, p. 1 17. 



6 INTRODUCTION 

puri, Vikramaslla, Nalanda, Sarnath and Jagaddala monasteries will 
prove no less fruitful in this respect. The museums of Eastern India 
such as Sarnath, Patna, Calcutta, Dacca, Rajshahi, Mayurbhanj, 
Khiching and few others contain numerous metal images and sculptures 
belonging to the Tantric cult. That Bengal in the pre-Muhammadan 
period was practically Buddhist is made obvious by the fact that the 
worship of Dharma and Manjughosa still prevails there, and that nu- 
merous Buddhist sculptures are, being constantly discovered throughout 
the length and breadth of the province. It is needless to add that the 
Buddhist images discovered in Bengal, Bihar and Assam are mostly the 
product of the Tantric school of the Buddhists. 

The wealth of sculptural and bronze remains in Nepal has not yet 
received the attention it deserved. Nepal is the only country which 
abounds in rich material for the study of Buddhist iconography, and 
in Nepal Buddhism can be studied as a living religion. Some of the 
Buddhist monasteries at Pattan are so rich in images that they can be 
said to constitute small museums by themselves. The stupa of Bodh- 
nath alone contains no less than a hundred and eight sculptures execut- 
ed in a neat manner. Occasional images of Guru Padmasambhava 
in the peculiar Tibetan technique and costume bespeak the Tibetan 
character of the temple. Forty-seven images in this famous temple are 
represented in Yab-yum and the rest are single. About ten of th< single 
images depict the Siddhas of Tibet such as Mila-ras-pa, Mar-pa, 
Padmasambhava, Naro-pa and others. Although Tibetan in character 
the temple contains nevertheless some of the purely Indian gods of the 
Vajrayana pantheon, such as Sadaksarl Lokesvara, Vak, Heruka, 
Yamantaka and a few others. An old Tibetan tradition declares that 
in the matter of art Bengal comes first, Nepal second while the Tibetan 
and Chinese are the worst. 

At Simbhu in Nepal one can witness the grandeur of an excellent 
Buddhist museum where the finest specimens of Buddhist sculptures 
are preserved round about the Stupa itself and in the surroundings. At 
the Maccharidar Vahal or the temple of Matsyendranatha the great 
Natha Yogin, there can be found 108 different forms of Avalokitesvara 
painted on a running panel in colour. 1 Images and forms of deities 
that are not available in India are to be found in plenty in the Buddhist 
monasteries in Nepal. Anywhere in Nepal round a central stupa tiers 
of small chapels rising from the ground to the top are found to contain 
first class artistic specimens of Buddhist gods and goddesses. In 
monasteries which are run by courteous and learned Tantric monks 
one can find quite a number of images, sculptures, bronzes, paintings 



(1) These 108 forms tre illustrated in the Appendix at the end of this volume 



INTRODUCTION 7 

and illuminated manuscripts. It is possible to have an idea of the 
enormous wealth of cultural remains in Nepal, when it is remembered 
that the number of monasteries at Kathmandu alone exceeds five 
hundred. 

In Nepal, interesting material for the study of Buddhist iconography 
is obtained from an entirely unexpected quarter. There is a class of 
people called the Citrakaras or professional artists. They are so 
proficient in their art that they can produce an excellent drawing of 
any Buddhist deity in a few minutes. These artists seem to have a 
phenomenal memory with regard to the iconographic details such as 
the number of faces and hands, the pose, the symbols, the weapons and 
the parental Dhyani Buddha. They prepare such drawings in the 
presence of the customer without ever referring to a book or painted 
specimen, although at home they keep albums full of drawings in black 
and white and paintings in colour all relating to Buddhist deities. The 
specimens obtained from a gifted Citrakara named Virman are repro- 
duced in the body of the book in large numbers. All line drawings, 
barring the twenty- four Bodhisattvas, reproduced in this volume are 
from his drawings in black and white. 

The above is a short survey of materials of different kinds that are 
available to the student of Buddhist iconography. It may be noticed 
that the images, sculptures, bronzes, drawings, miniatures, and the 
gods and goddesses represented by these, together with the literature 
explaining them, all belong to the Tantric mode of thought and 
culture. They are brought together under the comprehensive term 
of Vajrayana or the "Adamantine Vehicle". It leads therefore to a con- 
sideration of that form of Budhhism which is well known as Vajrayana, 



8 INTRODUCTION 

2. Vajrayana Mysticism. 

Both the Hindus and the Buddhists were alike prolific writers on 
the Tantras and the literature extant on them is wonderfully extensive. 
One of the reasons why the word Tantra cannot be defined is that the 
Tantra comprises an astounding number of subjects along with its own 
numerous sub-divisions. Whatever was best, whatever was ennobling 
and whatever was beautiful in India were all incorporated in the 
Tantra. Tantric literature contributes a great deal to such sciences as 
astronomy, astrology, medicine, alchemy, chiromancy, horoscopy, divi^ 
nation, prognosis, Yoga and Hathayoga. The Tantra is an admixture 
of religion, philosophy, science, superstition, dogmas, psychic exercises 
and mysticism. In this wonderful literature is locked up much of the 
cultural history of India, and when this literature is intensively studied, 
it will reveal a great deal of India's past history and culture, particularly 
for the period between the 7th century A. D. right upto the Muham- 
madan conquest. It may here be mentioned that the Tantras, inspite 
of all their faults, are peculiarly Indian and represent India's contribu^ 
tion to world culture. A literature of this kind is not found in the 
history and civilization of any other country in the world. 

To understand the rise of Vajrayana it is necessary to go back to 
the original teachings of the Buddha. Lord Buddha prescribed 
Yanas in the beginning, namely, the Sravakayana ancL the 
buddhayana. The Srtvakas were to near IFom a Buddha but they had to 
wait till the advent of another Buddha for their emancipation. In the 
meanwhile the Sravakas could teach, but they could neither attain 
Nirvana themselves nor help others to attain it. The Pratyekas were 
eminent men ; they could attain Nirvana by their own efforts, without 
the help of a Buddha but they could not impart Nirvana to others. 

Buddhism continued in this state till the rise of the Mahayana pro- 
perly called, the Bodhisattvayana.\ The Mahay anists dismissed the 
previous Yanas with the contemptuous epithet of Hinayana. They 
claimed that they could not only attain Nirvana, nay even Buddhahood, 
with their own unaided efforts, but could also help others to attain 
these ideals. The distinction between Mahayana and Hinayana is 
graphically described in the earliest work, the Mahay anasutralankara, 
attributed to the famous Buddhist sage Asahga. 

Thus there were three Yanas in Buddhism about 300 A. D. which 
may approximatelv be taken as the time of Asahga. But against these 
three Yanas there were four schools of philosophy in Buddhism, 
namely, the Sarvastivada (Sautrantika), the Vahyarthabhaiiga (Vai* 
bhasika), the Vijnanavada (Yogacara), and the r Sunyavada (Madhya- 



INTRODUCTION 9 

maka). How these four systems of philosophy were distributed 
amongst the three Yanas is one of the vital questions of Buddhism. 
The Tattvaratna vail of Advayavajra (12th century A. D.) answers this 
question in a praiseworthy manner. According to this authority 
"Three are the Yanas, Sravakayana, Pratyekayana and Mahayana. 
There are four theories; Vaibhasika, Sautrantika, Yogacara and 
Madhyamaka. Sravakayana and Pratyekayana are explained by the 
theories of the Vaibhasikas. Mahayana is of two kinds : Paramitanaya 
and Mantranaya. Paramitanaya is explained by the theories either of 
Sautrantika, Yogacara or Madhyamaka. Mantranaya is explained by 
the theories of Yogacara and Madhyamaka only". l 

Thus^ Mantranayacomilieuges with the most abstruse theories of 
Sunyavada and Vijnanavada. Advayavajra in one place says, "Mant- 
ranaya is very abstruse. It concerns men who seek emancipation by 
deep and solemn methods. It is also very extensive owing to the 
understanding of such theories as the four symbolic representations. 
Therefore, the author is not fit to explain it". - Advayavajra cites 
for his authority a statement which says that the Mantrasastra trans- 
cends all other Sastras, because though the Sastras have the same 
common object there is no fear of ignorance here. The means are 
many and the end not difficult of attainment by men whose senses are 
sharpened to the highest degree. Advayavajra in his Sekanirnaya 
accepts the Mahasukha theorv, dilates upon the various stages of the 
Mahasukha which according to him is not possible of attainment with- 
out the Sakti the embodiment of Karuna. :? 

It is hardly necessary now to state that the Buddhism of the Lord 
Buddha found entirely different expressions as time passed from century 
to century, so much so, that even if Buddha is reborn, he will not be 
able to recognize Vajrayana or the Buddhist Tantra as his own handi* 
craft. Though the Buddha was antagonistic to all sorts of sacrifices, 
sorcery, necromancy or magic, he nevertheless is credited by some later 
authorities with having given instructions on Madras, Mandalas, Yoga 
and Tantra, so that prosperity in this world could be attained by his 
less advanced disciples who seemed to care more for this world than for 
the Nirvana preached by him. * India in Buddha's time w^s such that 
any religion which dared forbid all kinds of magical practices, could 
hardly be popular. A clever organiser as the Buddha was, he did not 
fail to notice the importance of incorporating magical practices in his 
religion to make it popular from all points of view. The Tantras and 

1. Adv. p. 14 2. Adv. p. 21 3. Adv. p. 28 4. Tattvasangraha of santaraksita 
"Taduktamantrayogadiniyamad Vidhivat Krtat. Prajnarogyavibhutvadidrstadharmo- 
pi jayote. Sloka 3487 



10 INTRODUCTION 

Mantras were all there in the time of the Buddha, but unfortunately, we 
do not possess any connected account of them except a few works on 
the Dharanis in which the Chinese were interested in the beginning of 
the Christian era. These Dharanis are only unmeaning strings of words 
which are said to confer great merit when mutterred repeatedly for a 
number of times. Then comes the worship of Buddha in the Prajna- 
paramita with all the paraphernalia of worship such as are found in the 
Tantras. Then follow the different recensions of the Prajnaparamita, its 
sutra, hrdayasutra, its Dharam and Mantra the recitation of all of 
which confers the benefit of reading the whole of the Prajnaparamita 
scripture. This is a very old work and was translated into Chinese in 
the second century. A. D. The Manjusrimulakalpa appears to be a pro- 
duct of the same period and is full of deities, mudras, mandalas 
and Tantric practices, which became systematized in the Guhyasamaja 
Tantra in circa 300 A. D. 

The Buddhist Tantras belong undoubtedly to Mahayana although 
it is quite possible to infer the presence of magical practices amongst 
the followers of the early Buddhism. l The Tantras were a development 
of the Yogacara which was inspired by the Sunyavada of the Madhya- 
makas. Vajrayana marks a step in advance even of the Yogacara 
thought. 

The Mahayana in the opinion of the Vajrayanists is coextensive 
with what they called Dharma which they considered as eternal and to 
which was given a more important place in later Buddhism, than was 
assigned to the Buddha himself. The Vajrayanists refer to Sunya in all 
their writings, but this is not the Sunya of the Madhyamakas about 
which neither existence nor non-existence nor a combination of the two 
nor a negation of the two can be predicatedj To the Madhyamakas 
both the subject and the object are Sunya in essence ; there is no 
reality either of the mind or of the external world. Obviously, this is 
a position which was not agreeable to the Vajrayanists because to them 
a positive aspect in the Sunya is absolutely necessary. The Yogacara 
or the Vijnanavada goes a little further and the view of Vijnanavada 
as formulated by the school is that when emancipation is obtained it 
does not become Sunya, but turn into eternal consciousness. 
Vajrayana, on the other hand, 'is characterized as the 'Path which leads 
to perfect enlightenment* or what they call in Sanskrit 'Ar&ttara Samyak 
Sambodhi'. Vajrayana literally means the adamantine path or vehicle, 
but its technical meaning is the 'Sunya Vehicle' where unya is used in 
a special sense to represent Vajra. It is said, 

L Bhattacharyya : Buddhist Esoterism, p. 24 



INTRODUCTION 11 

"Sunyata is designated as Vajra 
because it is firm and sound, and 
cannot be changed, cannot be pierced, 
cannot be penetrated, cannot be burnt 
and cannot be destroyed". * 

The Mahayanists differ from the Hmayanists who are keen on 
obtaining liberation for themselves by their own efforts. The 
Mahayanists, on the other hand, do not care for their own salvation.. 
They are more solicitous about the deliverance of their fellow creatures/ 
than about their own. Their compassion for the sufferings of others 
actuates them to renounce their comforts, merits and even their right 
to salvation. The ideal of a Mahayanist finds expression in the 
Karandavyuha where the ideal Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara is represented 
as refusing his well earned Nirvana until all beings of the world were 
in possession of the Bodhi knowledge and obtained freedom from 
worldly miseries. - 

This then may be considered to be the goal of every Bodhisattva, 
which can be reached by following the tenets either of Sunyavada or of 
Vijnanavada. The Madhyamaka theory postulated a transcendental 
state but the Yogacara added the element of Vijriana 'consciousness' 
to Sunya. The Bodhi mind is a chain of Vijnana which is changing 
every moment, the Vijnana of the previous moment giving rise to 
the Vijriana of the succeeding moment with the same memory the 
same conformations and same qualities, and this process goes on till 
Vijnana attains liberation. 

Now, this is the sort of emancipation to which the Vijnanavadins 
led their followers. In this Nirvana, as is already pointed out, there 
are two elements, Sunya and Vijnana. The Vajrayana which is a direct 
outcome of the Yogacara school introduced a new element or the 
element of Mahasukha 'eternal bliss' to their conception of liberation. 
The evolution of Buddhism became complete and found full expression 
in Vajrayana. 

Vajrayana introduced many innovations of a revolutionary character. 
It introduced, for instance, the theory of the five Dhyani Buddhas as 
embodiments of the five Skandhas or cosmic elements and formulated 
the theory of the Kulas or families of the five Dhyani Buddhas from 
which deities emerge according to need. It introduced the worship of 
the Prajna or Sakti in Buddhism for the first time, and a host of other 
things including a large number of gods and goddesses, their Sadhanas 

1. Adv. p. 23 2. Karandavyuha, ed. Samarami, pp. 21-22 



12 INTRODUCTION 

for the purpose of visualisation, Mantras, Tantras, Yantras, Mudras, 
Mandates, mystic realizations and psychic exercises of the most subtle 
character. 

It is not possible to trace the origin of Vajrayana without referring 
to the Tibetan authorities and ancient Tantric authors Taranath is 
reported to have said l that Tantrism existed from very early times and 
was transmitted in a secret manner from the time of Asanga down to 
the time of Dharmaklrti. Asanga who was a brother ofVasubandhu 
(280-360 A, D.) must have flourished circa 300 A. D. and Dharmaklrti 
who is not mentioned by the Chinese traveller Hiuen Thsang but is 
referred to with great respect by I-Tsing very probably belonged to a 
period between 625-675 A. D. Thus it can be seen that during a long 
period of nearly three hundred years Tantrism was handed down from 
Gurus to disciples in an occult manner, before its followers could be 
numerically strong enough to preach their secret doctrines in public. 
It seems, therefore, reasonable that the Mahasiddhas such as Saraha, 
Nagarjuna, Luipa, Padmavajra, Anahgavajra, Indrabhuti and the rest 
who were masters of Tantra and were great authors and magicians, were 
the chief agents to boldly and publicly preach their doctrines and 
exhort people to follow their tenets, doctrines and practices. Their 
endeavours combined with their unique personal achievements must 
have converted a considerable number of people to Vajrayana faith. 

It is rather difficult to point out the source of information from 
which Taranath drew his inspiration, but a perusal of such Tantric 
works as the Guhyasiddhi of Padmavajra and the Jnanasiddhi of Indra- 
bhuti makes it possible to infer that it was the Guhyasamaja which was 
regarded as the most ancient and the most authoritative work of the 
Tantra school. Padmavajra not only advocates the cause of Tantric 
Buddhism but also gives a succinct digest of the work which he calls 
Sri-Samaja or the 'Venerable Samaja' in his treatise which is still unpub- 
lished. Indrabhuti in his Jnanasiddhi acknowledges the Guhyasamaja 
as the work of highest authority, and gives a summary of some chap- 
ters and the topics dealt with in this work. There is thus hardly any 
doubt that the Guhyasamaja is the original Sahglti which introduced 
for the first time the tenets of Vajrayana into Buddhism. It is believed 
to have been introduced in an Assembly of the Faithful by Lord Buddha 
who is here called Sarva-Tathagata-Kaya-Vak-Citta. The Guhyasamaja 
is written in the form of a Sangiti and is considered highly authoritative 
even now amongst the Vajrayanists, and is regarded as one of the Nine 
Dharmas of Nepal. This is evidently the first work of Vajrayana, and 



1. Kern: Manual of Buddhism, p. 133 



INTRODUCTION 13 

Asahga quite conceivably may have had something to do with it, as it is 
commonly believed that the Tantras were introduced by Asahga after 
being initiated by Maitreya the Coming Buddha in the mysteries of 
Tantra in the Tusita heaven. l 

It cannot be denied that in the very beginnings of Buddhism and even 
when Mahayana sprang up in later times a very strict discipline was 
enjoined on the followers of the faith. On the monks the rules were 
very strictly put into operation. For instance, they must not have any- 
thing to do with women, must not take any forbidden food. Wine, 
flesh, fish, appetisers and such objects of enjoyment were specially 
forbidden. The rules were indeed good and were very attractive in 
the time of the Buddha. But it is wholly absurd to expect 
obedience to such strict disciplinary measures from all members 
of the Sahgha even in the Buddha's life-time, if not for centuries 
after his disappearance. And after all, what will be the result ? 
Freedom from births and rebirths was only a possibility, and success 
at best was only questionable ! The members of the Sahgha must have 
revolted from time to time against the unnatural rules of discipline 
imposed on them, and party quarrels were already in evidence in 
the Second Great Council when the Mahasahghikas were expelled 
from the Orthodox church by the Sthaviras or Elders, because 
the latter were unwilling to make any concession on the ten minor 
points of discipline. Rebellion against the rules on broader and more 
important matters of discipline must have been in existence amongst 
the monks but they could not create a party of their own which could 
sufficiently withstand the criticisms of the orthodox section which was 
sure to go against them and denounce them as heretics. Those monks 
who saw salvation only in leading a natural life went on devising plans 
to modify their faith according to their light, probably by writing what 
is called the original Tantras which were secretly handed down through 
trusted disciples who could practice their secret rites without let or 
hindrance. These Tantras are in the form of Sahgltis and are said to 
have been delivered by the Buddha in an Assembly of the Faithful. It 
is in this Sahgiti form that all new ideas were introduced into Buddhism 
and the Sahgltis were very powerful agencies in the introduction of 
innovations, because Buddhism will not be prepared to accept anything 
as true unless spoken by the Buddha in a public assembly. 

The orthodox followers of the faith were sure to challenge anything 
that had not been sponsored by the Buddha, and that seems to be the 



1* For further information refer to introduction to Guhyasamaja published in the 
Qaekwad's Oriental Series, (GOS). 



14 INTRODUCTION 

reason of the great popularity of the Sahglti literature. The original 
Tantras of Buddhism are written in the Safiglti form wherein are in- 
culcated doctrines which are diametrically opposed to the original 
teachings of the Buddha. Easy methods leading to happiness in this 
world were held out in this literature, easy paths leading to salvation 
were shown ; great parade was made of the merits accruing from the 
repetitions of the Mantras, Dharams, panegyrics and worship of gods 
and goddesses. But everywhere any casual reader can detect a desire on 
the part of the authors to thwart all unnatural rules and regulations 
imposed on the followers. These disciplinary regulations, as a conse- 
quence gradually slackened down one after another, and ultimately 
when the Vajrayanists gained in power the secret doctrines no longer 
remained secret, but were openly preached and practised to the great 
annoyance of the orthodoxy. 

In order to increase the popularity of Vajrayana the followers inclu- 
ded in it every conceivable tenets, dogmas, rites and practices that were 
calculated to attract more adherents. Thus the leading tenets of 
Mantrayana along with Mantras, Mandalas, Mudras, gods and god- 
desses were included in Vajrayana. The earliest work of this class is 
said to be the Vidyadharapitaka which has been characterised by Hiuen 
Thsang as belonging to the canonical literature of the Mahasanghikas. 
But this work is not available in original Sanskrit, and it is not possible 
to say anything with regard to the contents of the text. But with regard 
to another work the Manjusrimulakalpa the circumstances are different. 
This extensive work is published in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series in 
three volumes. The text forms a part of the ancient Vaipulyasutras of 
Mahayana and is decidedly the earliest work of Mantrayana at present 
available. It is written in the Sangiti style in prose and in verse, and 
in an archaic style closely resembling the Gatha style, and is written 
throughout in what is called the Mixed Sanskrit. This work must 
have been very popular even after the destruction of Buddhism in India 
as will be evident from the fact that the book was copied only about 
four hundred years back in a monastery of South India by Ravicandra 
the head of the Mulaghosa Vihara. 1 The Manjusrimulakalpa deals 
with the formulae and practices which lead both to meterial prosperity 
and spiritual regeneration, and belongs to the early centuries A. D. but 
decidedly after the time of the composition of the Amitayus Sutra 
or the Sukhavati Vyuha which ushered in the conception of Amitabha 
and Avalokitesvara for the first time in Mahayana. The Amitayus Sutra 
was first translated into Chinese in a period between A. D. 148-170, and 
hence the time of its composition may be fixed at about 100 A. D. 2 

1. See introduction to the Manjulrlmulakalpa by the editor, Ganapati Shastri. 

2. Sukhavativyuha, p p. 1, 28, 32 



INTRODUCTION 15 

The Manjusrimulakalpa in that case would only be about a hundred 
years later than the Amitayus Sutra. If the Guhyasamaja is accepted as 
the very first work of the Vajrayana school it must be admitted that 
much time must have elapsed between the age of the Manjusrimulakalpa 
and that of the Guhyasamaja which is put down in circa 300 A. D. l 

The beginning of the Sangiti in the Manjusrimulakalpa is in the 
orthodox style as opposed to the Tantric style which is decidedly later, 
and where Bhagavan is introduced in the company of a large number 
of women instead of an assembly of pious and devout Bodhisattvas only 
as in the earlier Sahgltis. The doctrine of the five Dhyani Buddhas or 
even their names, Mudras, Mantras, families, Saktis, colour and direc- 
tion are all absent in the Manjusrimulakalpa. Moreover, the Mantras 
and Mudras which were later systematized in the Vajrayana work of 
Guhyasamaja are found scattered in the body of the text of the Manju* 
srlmulakalpa in a disorganised manner. The Mantras of some of the 
Dhyani Buddhas are indeed to be found in the Manjusrimulakalpa 
although not exactly in the same meaning and form as in the later 
Guhyasamaja. The Manjusrimulakalpa further apeaks of Mantrayana 
but it does not refer to Vajrayana which is mentioned for the first time 
in the Guhyasamaja the Tantra of Secret Communion. Under the 
circumstances it is possible to call the Manjusrimulakalpa as one of the 
earliest Mahayana Sutra works on which perhaps is based the outward 
foundation of the Vajrayana system. Yet one who willread this work 
carefully will not fail to notice that it is a product behind which there is 
a history of development of several centuries. And probably, if ever 
one can go to the root of Mantrayana one will have to voice the opinion 
of antaraksita and Kamalaslla that instruction on Tantras, Mudras and 
Mandalas were delivered by the Buddha for the benefit of such followers 
as would care more for their material prosperity than spiritual. 

Vajrayana thus included in its purview all varieties of attractive tenets, 
notions, dogmas, theories, rites and practices, and incorporated all that 
was best in Buddhsim and probably in Hinduism also, and owing to 
this circumstance Vajrayana attained great fame and popularity. It 
satisfied everybody, the cultured and the uncultured, the pious and the 
sinner, the lower and the higher ranks of the people and devotees. 
Vajrayana catered to all tastes with equal efficiency, and it had some- 
thing useful for everybody. Its universal popularity became an esta- 
blished fact. 

It is difficult to say from what exact locality Tantrism took its origin. 
In the Sadhanamala are mentioned the four Pithas or sacred spots of the 

1. See introduction to Quhyasamaja, where this date has been discussed. 



16 INTRODUCTION 

Vajrayanists, namely, Kamakhya, Sirihatta, Purnagiri and Uddiyana. 
The Tibetan authorities are of opinion that the Tantric Buddhism origi- 
nated from Uddiyana, The location of Uddiyana thus is important for 
the history of the Buddhist Tantric literature. 

Uddiyana is mentioned in the Sadhanamala rather frequently. The 
earliest manuscript of the Sadhanamala is dated in the Newari Era 285 
which is equivalent to A. D. 1165. In this work Uddiyana is connected 
with the Sadhana of Kurukulla, Trailokyavasamkara, Marici and 
Vajrayogim. The Sadhanamala also connects Uddiyana with such 
Tantric authors as Saraha. The Jnanasiddhi of Indrabhuti is stated in 
the last colophon as having started from Uddiyana (Odiyana). 

Uddiyana being one of the four Pithas sacred to Vajrayogim should 
be at least near Kamakhya (Kamarupa), and Sirihatta (Sylhet) in 
Assam and it is not unusual to think that all these four Pithas received 
their sanctity from temples dedicated to Vajrayogim. Thus Uddiyana 
has to be located in Eastern and Assam area. 

In the mediaeval period when Tantras flourished, Vanga and Sama- 
tata were the two important centres of culture in Bengal. Vahga inclu- 
ded the present Dacca, Faridpur and Backerganj districts, while Samatata 
comprised the present Sylhet, Chittagong, Tipperah and Mymensingh 
districts. That Vahga and Samatata were the two great centres of 
culture in Bengal is borne out by the numerous Buddhist and Brahma- 
nical images of the Tantric type discovered in the whole of this region. 
Numerous old inscriptions, remains of old buildings, coins and terra- 
cottas found in these regions, confirm the conclusion that from the 
Vanga-Samatata area radiated different streams of culture to the rest of 
Eastern India. l 

In this Vahga'Samatata region one of the most important places is 
the Pargana Vikrampur in the Dacca district. Anyone acquainted with 
the ancient inscriptions of Bengal will be able to appreciate the import- 
ance of Yikrampur which is sometimes mentioned as the seat from 
which imperial charters were issued. There was a great Buddhist 
monastery here in the reign of the Candras and the Senas. Atisa 
Dlpahkara, famous in Tibetan history as a great scholar and master of 
Tantric lore, is said to belong to the royal family of Vikrampur. 
Vikrampur is recognized even to-day as one of the foremost places of 
culture in East Bengal. 

In this Pargana Vikrampur there is a fairly large and well-populated 
village which is now known by the rather extraordinary name of 

1. Bhattasali : IBBS, intro. p. xxviii. 



INTRODUCTION 17 

Vajrayogini. Round about this village numerous Vajrayana images have 
been discovered, and among them may be noticed images of Jambhala, 
Parnasaban, Vajrasattva and Tara. The term * Vajra' inVajrayogim is also 
a familiar Buddhist word. Vajra is equivalent to Sunya. Vajrayogini 
is a Buddhist deity which the Hindus borrowed in the form of Chhinna- 
masta. Thus the name of the village appears to be unmistakably Bud- 
dhist. The village must have derived its name from the temple of 
Vajrayogini which was in existence in early times. 

It has already been pointed out that the temples dedicated to Vajra- 
yogini could only be expected at four places, Kamakhya, Sirihatta, Pur- 
nagiri and Uddiyana. Out of these Kamakhya and Sirihatta (Sylhet) 
still retain their original names. Purnagiri which signifies a hill is not 
identified yet with certainty. But it is possible to spot the fourth place 
which is connected with Vajrayogini. Thus it becomes evident that the 
present village Vajrayogini was originally known as Uddiyana but as the 
deity Vrjrayogim became more popular later, the original name gradually 
disappeared giving place to the name of the deity. Tantrism of the 
Buddhists therefore originated here in Uddiyana-Vajrayogim, and thence 
was transmited to the rest of India. l 

One of the chief topics dealt with in Vajrayana is the deity. These 
deities are a product of psychic exercises of the most subtle character, 
and are visualized by the worshipper in the course of intense meditation. 
These psychic exercises are called the Sadhanas a collection of which 
is published in the Sadhanamala already referred to. To appreciate 
Buddhist iconography, therefore, a reference to the Sadhana process of 
god-realisation is necessary. This process is described in the next 
section. 

3. The Psychic Process of Sadhana. 

The Tahtrics of ancient India were formidable optimists. They 
intuitively realised that though this universe is composed of matter and 
spirit, it is the spirit which always dominates over matter, and is un- 
doubtedly more powerful than the latter. There were several schools 
of thought in ancient India which took it for granted that spirit was 
supreme and that this spirit should be developed in order that power 
may be gained. Amongst these schools the Yoga and Tantra were pre- 
eminently the most influential and popular. The followers of these 
schools, particularly the latter, wanted to achieve through spiritual or 
psychic power everything that could be achieved in the material sphere. 
To-day for quick travel the material world presents to us railways, 



For further details, see the author's article, entitled The Home of Tantric Buddhism 
in B. C. Law Commemmoration Volume, Vol. I. 

3 



18 INTRODUCTION 

aeroplanes and steamers, but the Tantrics claimed that by spiritual 
culture weight of the body can be so reduced that it can fly over space 
to any distance within the shortest possible time. To-day for informa- 
tion about kinsmen in distant lands people send letters, wires and 
cables, but the Tantrics claim that by intense meditation alone they can 
visualize what is happening in other parts of the world, either by a projec- 
tion of the mind or by mentally travelling the distance in a few seconds. 
For conversing with a friend at a long distance the material world pro- 
vides telephones and wireless instruments but the Tantrics claim that 
by psychic exercises they can hear anything from any distance, even the 
voice of gods and other invisible beings in the firmament. When a man 
suffers from disease the material world provides doctors, medicines, 
injections and so forth, but to a Tantric these are unnecssary. By deve- 
loping psychic resources of the mind he can cure by a mere glance, or 
touch or by recitation of Mantras. These extraordinary powers of the 
mind are called Siddhis. 

Thus it can be seen that the Tantrics recognised long before the 
present age that psychic culture is of the utmost importance in life, and 
through these exercises anything that can be accomplished in the mate- 
rial sphere can be achieved in the psychic sphere. This tendency even 
in the present day is a dominating factor in Indian life, and no one 
should wonder seeing people running after Sadhus and Sannyasins lea- 
ving aside modern scientific men in many of their difficulties. Occasion- 
ally, stories are told of miraculous powers of ascetics over the elements 
of nature or of their power of curing diseases for which apparently no 
recognised system of scientific medicine has discovered a cure. There 
are many such Yogins even now in India moving about in jungles, 
cities, caves and mountains, possessing wonderful and miraculous 
powers. 

The Tantrics who were the advocates of psychic culture, by persistent 
efforts through mental exercises, used to obtain super-normal powers 
which were known as Siddhis. Those who gained such Siddhis were 
called Siddhas, and the process through which they obtained Siddhis 
called Sadhana. In the Yogasutra which is recognised to be the earliest 
work in Sanskrit on the subject of psychic exercises, enumerates eight 
different Siddhis. Later works mention more and the Brahmavaivarta 
Purana mentions thirty-four kinds of Siddhis including the eight already 
mentioned in the Yogasutra. 

The Siddhas or those who attain supernormal powers are consi- 
dered to be of three distinct varieties, the Best, Middling and the Mild. 
The first class magicians can fulfil all their desires by mere thought, 
that is to say, as soon as a desire arises in his mind it is instantly fulfilled. 



INTRODUCTION 19 

The Middling variety of Siddhas is able to conquer death, commune 
with gods, enter unperceived into dead bodies or homes of others, 
move in the air, hear the gods talk, understand all terrestrial truths, 
obtain conveyances and ornaments, and are able to bewitch people, per* 
form miracles, remove diseases by glance or touch, extract poison, 
obtain erudition in scriptures, renounce all worldly enjoyments, prac- 
tise Yoga in all its subdivisions, show compassion to all beings and even 
obtain omniscience. The Mild or the third class of Siddha obtains fame, 
long life, conveyances, ornaments, familiarity with the king, popularity 
with royal personages and people of influence and power, wealth and 
prosperity, children and family. 

The Siddhas of the first and second class were known as Mahasiddhas 
'Great Magicians' and in India their number was recognized as eighty- 
four. Most of these Mahasiddhas flourished during the Pala Period 
of Indian history (8th to 12th centuries A.D.) and were famous because 
of their uncanny and prodigious feats. 

The Sadhana or the process prescribed for attaining the different 
Siddhis forms the bulk of the Tantric literature of both the Buddhists 
and the Hindus. Thousands of Sadhanas were written, both in prose 
and in verse, in Sanskrit and thousands were translated into Tibetan 
and are now preserved in the pages of the Tibetan Tangyur. Besides, 
every Tantric manuscript, cart loads of which are even to*day to be 
found in public and private collections, describes the Sadhanas through 
which Siddhis are possible of attainment. The Buddhists had a special 
literature called the Sadhanas and they were always written in Sanskrit 
by many of the well known Tantric authors and the Mahasiddhas. 
This literature is now almost lost in original Sanskrit, but fortunately 
for us some collections of Sadhanas are still extant. These collections 
were given the names of Sadhanamala and Sadhanasamuccaya, and a 
critical edition of all available Sadhanas in these two collections is 
already published in two volumes in the Qaekwad's Oriental Series as 
Nos. 26 and 41. The publication of these Sadhanas has revealed a 
number of hitherto unknown and important facts. The Sadhanas 
revealed that the Buddhists were not lagging behind any other religion 
in India in the matter of psychic culture as advocated in the Tantras. 
Secondly, as these Sadhanas contain the description of a large number 
of Buddhist deities it becomes possible to differentiate them from the 
deities of the Hindu and Jain faiths, and to determine the purpose for 
which they were made and what they stood for. 

The Sadhanas being most important for the study of Buddhist 
iconography it is necessary to give a general idea of the contents of 
the Sdhana or the detailed process through which spiritual eminence 



20 INTRODUCTION 

or Siddhi is obtained. For this purpose a summarised translation of 
an elaborate Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is given here. But before 
proceeding to translate the Sadhana it may be emphasized that it is 
a purely psychic process for the realisation and visualisation of the 
deity with whom the worshipper is asked to identify himself. The 
Sadhana in all cases is prescribed for the realisation of some god or 
goddess according to a fixed procedure laid therein. 

For describing the contents of the Sadhanas a specimen is here 
selected which is published as Sadhana No. 98 in the Sadhanamala of 
the printed edition, for the realisation of the goddess Tara, composed 
by Sthavira Anupama Raksita who was a well-known Tantric author 
and who flourished before 1165 and whose works, five in number, are 
preserved in translation in the Tibetan Tangyur. The contents of 
this Sadhana is given below. 

"The worshipper after leaving the bed in the morning should wash 
his feet and face and after purifying himself should go to a place which 
is lonely, agreeable, besmeared with scents, strewn with fragrant flowers, 
and then sit there in an easy pose. Then he should meditate on his 
heart the orb of the moon which originates from the first syllable -A- 
and on it think on the form of a beautiful blue lotus. On the filament 
of the lotus he should meditate on another moon the yellow germ 
syllable Tarn as destroying the darkness of ignorance, illuminating 
innumerable worlds of the ten quarters, and bringing from the 
firmament innumerable Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. 

'Then after an elaborate worship of these great compassionate 
Buddhas and Bodhisattvas with celestial flowers, incense, scents 
garlands, unguents, powders, mendicant dress, umbrellas, flags, bells, 
banners and the like, the worshipper should confess his sins with the 
following words ; 'Whatever sinful deeds I have done, caused to be 
done, or consented to be done, in this endless cycle of creation, 
everything I confees'. 

"Thereafter, meditating on the restraint of wrong deeds he should 
give his assent to the meritorious deeds of others with the following 
Mantra ; 'I assent to the virtuous deeds of the Sugatas, Pratyekas, 
Sravakas, the Jinas and their sons the Bodhisattvas, and of the world 
with all the gods beginning with Brahman'. 

'Then he should take refuge in the Three Jewels with the Mantra ; 
'I take refuge in the Buddha so long as the Bodhi essence subsists ; I 
take refuge in the Dharma so long as the Bodhi essence subsists ; and 
I take refuge in the Sangha so long as. the Bodhi essence subsists'. 

'Thereafter the adherence to the path of the Tathagatas should be 
made with the Mantra : 'By me shall be followed the path indicated 



INTRODUCTION 21 

by the Tanthagatas and naught else', 

'Then a prayer should be uttered with the Mantra : The gods 
and the Tathagatas instruct me with such incontrovertible advices on 
law by which all beings may be freed from the bonds of the world 
quickly*. 

'Then he should meditate on the results of his meritorious deeds 
with the words ; 'Whatever merit I have acquired by the seven kinds 
of extraordinary worship like the confession of sins, etc. all that I 
devote to gain at the end the final Sambodhi'. 

" After having finished the seven kinds of extraordinary worship 
the deities should be dismissed with the formula : -Om Ah Muh- or 
with the following words : Thou movest now according to Thy will, 
being besmeared with the sandal paste of Silas (conduct), wearing the 
garments of the Dhyana (meditation) and strewn with the flowers of 
the Bodhi (Enlightenment)'. 

'Then the worshipper should meditate on the Four Brahmas, of 
Friendship, Joyousness, Compassion and Indifference. Friendship is 
the love that exists in all beings like the love towards the only son, or 
like its fruition in their welfare and happiness. 

"Compassion again is of what kind ? It is the desire to save all 
beings from misery and from causes that lead to misery. The desire 
that I shall even save the beings who are burnt in the great fire of 
suffering from the three evils and have entered the prison of Samsara 
is what is called Compassion. Or it is the desire to save all beings 
suffering from the three evils from the sea of Samsara. 

"Mudita or Joyousness is of the following nature. It is the desire 
in all beings of the world for the attainment of Buddhahood which is 
unlikely to materialize. Or it is the attraction in all beings towards the 
virtues that * exist in the world and to the enjoyment of spiritual powers 
arising out of them. 

"What is Indifference or Upeksa ? It is the doing of great welfare 
to all beings, good or bad, by overcoming adverse requests and obstacles. 
Or it is the desire that comes of its own accord to do good to all beings 
without the least craving for any return, love or hatred. Or it is the 
indifference towards the eight human institutions of gain or loss, fame 
or notoriety, praise or blame, pleasure or pain, and similar things. 

'Thus meditating on the Four Brahmas the inherent purity of the 
phenomenal world should be meditated upon. All phenomena are 
indeed inherently pure, and therefore, the worshipper should think 
himself to be pure by nature. This natural purity of all phenomena 
should be established by the formula : Om svabhavasuddhah 
sarvadharmah svabhavasuddho'ham . If all phenomena are inherently 



22 INTRODUCTION 

pure, where then is the possibility of the cycle of existence ? Because 
of its being covered up with such thought categories as the subject and 
the object. The way of purging of this impurity is the meditation on 
the good path By this it is made to disappear. Thus is established 
the inherent purity of all phenomena. 

" After meditating on the purity of the phenomenal existence the 
Sunyata of all phenomena should be meditated upon. Here ounya 
means this. He should conceive the entire universe with its mobile 
and immobile creations as the clear manifestation of non-duality when 
the mind is devoid of all the extensions of such thought categories as 
the subject and the object. The Sunyata should be established by the 
formula Orh Sunyatajnanavajrasvabhavatmyako'ham . 

"Then as previously stated, the worshipper should meditate on his 
heart the goddess Aryatara who originates from the yellow germ-syllable 
Tam placed on the orb of the moon with the deer on its lap. 

"The worshipper should meditate on goddess Aryatara as one-faced 
and two-armed of deep green complexion, fully decked in all ornaments, 
of youthful appearance, clad in celestial garments, holding on her 
crown the miniature figure of the parental Dhyani Buddha Amogha* 
siddhi. The deity should further be meditated upon as sitting in the 
ardhaparyahka attitude and showing the gift-bestowing signal in the 
right hand and carrying a full-blown lotus in the left hand. 

"The goddess of this description should be meditated upon as long 
as desired. Then the eternally accomplished Bhagavatl should be drawn 
out from within by the spreading rays that illumine the three worlds, 
the rays that issue forth from the yellow germ syllable Tam placed 
on the orb of the spotted moon which is enclosed within the filament 
of a beautiful blue lotus. After thus discovering her, she should be 
placed on the firmament and should be worshipped with the offerings of 
scented water and fragrant flowers contained in the vessel inlaid with 
gems at the feet of the goddess. She should also be worshipped with 
various rites, external and internal, by means of flowers, incense, light 
stick, food offerings, scents, garlands, unguents, powders, mendicant 
dress, umbrella, flags, bell, banner and the like. Thus after repeatedly 
worshipping her and offering her panegyrics, the Mudra or the mystic 
signal should be exhibited. The palms of the hands, should be joined 
together with the two middle fingers stretched in the form of a needle. 
The two first fingers should be slightly bent their tips touching the 
third phalanges of the first fingers. The two third fingers should be 
concealed within the palm, and the two little fingers should be stret- 
ched. This is called the Utpala Mudra or the signal of the night 
lotus* 



INTRODUCTION 23 

"With this Mudra the goddess of the essence of Knowledge in the 
front should be propitiated, and then she should be commingled with 
the goddess of the essence of Time within, and by so doing the non- 
duality of the two should be meditated upon. Then the rays issuing 
forth from the yellow germ syllable Tarn placed on the spotless 
moon will appear to him as illumining the ten quarters, as causing the 
removal of the poverty and misery of all beings by showers of various 
gems and as satisfying them by the nectar of advice on the nature of 
Sunya. 

"Engaging himself in doing good to the world, the worshipper 
should meditate on the form of goddess Tara which is identified with 
the universe. Further, he should meditate repeatedly until tired on the 
yellow germ syllable and the Bhagavati contained therein, He who 
is unable to meditate thus should mutter the Mantra which in this case 
is Om Tare Tuttare Ture Svaha . This is the lord of all Mantras, 
is endowed with great powers, and is saluted, worshipped and revered 
by all Tathagatas. 

"After having finished his meditation on the form of Tara he should 
think the world as identical withe th goddess and should move about 
thinking his own form as that of the goddess. Generally speaking, 
those who meditate on the Bhagavati in this manner, all the eight 
supernormal powers fall at their feet, and other small powers come to 
him as a matter of course. Whoever meditates on the Bhagavati in 
the lonely caves of mountains espies her with his own eyes. The 
Bhagavati herself gives him his breath, nay more, even the Buddhahood 
which is most difficult to attain comes to him like a plum on the palm 
of his hand." 

The above is a summary of the contents of a Sadhana devoted to 
a single goddess, Tara, and there are hundreds of such Sadhanas for 
other gods and goddesses. But the important point to be noted 
in this connection is that the gods have no independent and real 
existence apart from the mind of the worshipper and the manner of 
worship. The deities possess no external form, but represent purely 
mental conceptions of the Sadhaka who by means of the Sadhana 
undergoes a detailed mental exercise for the development of his 
spiritual or psychic powers. 

The discussion in this section leads to a consideration of godhead 
in Tantrism in order that the deities treated in this work may be 
studied in their true perspective, 



24 INTRODUCTION 

4. Godhead in Buddhism. 

I There is a great deal of confusion regarding the true nature of the 
deity whether it is of the Hindu or Buddhist conception. The general 
belief is that the deity is nothing more than an idol, and therefore, not 
worthy of any attention. The deities are connected, as all students of 
Tantra know, with Sadhana and Siddhi, and the conception of godhead 
therefore is an essentially spiritual or psychic matter. {. 

The Sadhana is concerned with the process for worshipping a parti" 
cular deity as has been made abundantly clear in the previous section. 
This consists in meditation in a quiet place and there practise Yoga till 
a state similar to deep sleep is brought about. In this state of deep 
sleep the ascetic communes with the Infinite Spirit or the inexhaustible 
store-house of energy, which is supposed to be the highest creative prin- 
ciple behind the world structure. By this communion the ascetic draws 
forth energy from that inexhaustible store-house and becomes powerful 
himself. This process of the realisation of the Infinite Spirit is what is 
called Sadhana. The deity is part of this psychic process. 

The Tantras are, in fact, sciences dealing with psychic matters, and 
give directions for a variety of psychic exercises. It therefore stands lo 
reason that the Tantra is a science or a Vidya requiring competent pre- 
ceptors and efficient disciples. Like all other sciences the Tantra is 
not also open to all and the sundry, but only for those who are initiated 
into the mysteries of the science, and are competent to follow the pres- 
cribed practices with patience and zeal. These are the right type of 
disciples for Tantric practices, and may be called the Adhikarins or 
rightful persons. In many Tantric works long chapters are devoted 
to the qualifications of the preceptors *and disciples and there are also 
rules for their respective competence to give or receive initiation. 

The Adhikarin must have a certain equipment before he proceeds 
to receive his initiation in the Tantra from a preceptor. And, in fact, 
as the Tantra path is an exceedingly difficult path, the disciple is required 
to have a great deal more equipment than is necessary for persuing any 
other Vidya known to ancient India. First of all, the neophyte must be 
patient, enduring, devoted and sincere, and he must serve his preceptor 
with whole-hearted devotion. But the most important equipment nece- 
ssary for him is that he should be proficient in the art of Yoga and 
Hathayoga without which it is not possible to proceed with any Sadhana 
worth the name or with any difficult Tantric practice. The process of 
the visualisation of the deity requires intensive training as the following 
account will show. 

The difficult psychic process is described in detail and in an elaborate 
form in the Guhyasamaja which may be called the Bible of the Tantric 



INTRODUCTION 25 

Buddhists. A perusal of the book makes it clear that when the Bodhicitta 
or the Will to Enlightenment mingles with Sunya or the Infinite Spirit 
in the highest state of meditation the mind-sky is filled with innumerable 
visions and scenes, until at la?t, like sparks the individual visualises 
letters or germ syllables, which gradually assume the shape of deities, 
first indistinct, then changing into perfect, glorious and living forms, the 
embodiment of the Infinite Sunya. They appear in bright, effulgent, 
gorgeous and divine beauty in form, ornaments and dress. Violent 
deities in like manner appear before him in the most violent form con- 
ceivable, in an awe-inspiring manner with dishevelled hair, blood-shot 
eyes, bare fangs, decked in ornaments of human skulls, severed heads 
and human bones, with frightful weapons and dress. These beings 
both benefic and malefic, are known as deities, and once realised they 
never leave the ascetic but become instrumental in bestowing on the 
ascetic more and more spiritual and psychic powers. 

I The process of the evolution of the deity is described in Tantric 
works, where clear-cut statements are made on the origin of the deities 
and their gradual evolution from the germ syllable. In the Advayavajra- 
sahgraha, for instance, it is said : f 

f "The form of the deity is an explosion of the Sunya. It is by nature 
non-existent. Whenever there is an explosion it must be Sunya in 
essence." 1 I 

| In another place in the same book it is declared : / 

I" From the right perception of Sunyata proceeds the germ-syllable ; 
from the germ-syllable proceeds the conception of an icon, and from 
the icon its external representations. The whole process therefore is 
one of dependent origination."-' j 

The equipment necessary for persons competent to worship and 
realize deities, and the nature of the evolution of the deities have already 
been indicated. Now it is necessary to state the views of the Guhyas- 
amaja regarding the principles of god-realisation, and the various expe- 
riences through which the Sadhaka has to pass before the deity is 
realised and visualised. The Guhyasamaja 3 calls this process Upaya 
(means) which is recognised as of four kinds, Seva, Upasadhana, Sadha- 
na and Mahasadhana. Seva (worship) is again sub-divided into two, 
namely, Samanya (ordinary) and Uttama (excellent). Of these two, the 
Samanya Seva consists of four Vajras : first, the conception of Sunyata ; 
second, its transformation into the germ-syllable ; third, its evolution 

1. ADV. p. 50, lines 7, 8. 
r 2. ADV. p. 51, lines, 6, 7. 

3, Guhyasamaja, chapter, 18, pp. 162, 163. 

4 



26 INTRODUCTION 

in the form of a deity, and the fourth, the external representation of the 
deity. 

In the UttamaSeva (excellent worship) Yoga with its six limbs should 
be employed. These six limbs are : Pratyahara, Dhyana, Pranayama, 
Dharana, Anusmrti and Samadhi.. Pratyahara (control) is here descri- 
bed as the process by which the ten sense-organs are controlled. Dhyana 
(meditation) is explained as the conception of the five desired objects 
through the five Dhyani Buddhas, namely, Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, 
Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi and Aksobhya. This Dhyana is again sub- 
divided into five kinds : Vitarka (cogitation), Vicara (thinking), Priti 
(pleasure), Sukha (happiness), and Ekagrata (concentration). 

Pranayama (breath control) is the control of the breathing process 
by which breath which is of the nature of the five Bhutas (elements) and 
the five kinds of knowledge, and is like a bright gem, is drawn from 
inside and placed as a lamp at the tip of the nose and is meditated upon. 

Dharana (meditation) is the meditation of one's own Mantra on the 
heart, and the placing of it on the Pranabindu (heart centre) after 
restraining the jewel of sense-organs. When this is done Nimittas 
(signs) make their appearance. These signs are of five kinds and appear 
in succession. The first is the sign of the Maricika (mirage), the second 
is that of smoke, the third is of fire-flies, the fourth is of light, and the 
fifth of constant light like a cloudless sky. 

Anusmrti (memory) is the constant meditation of the object for 
which the psychic exercise is undertaken, and by this Pratibhasa (revela- 
tion) takes place. After commingling the two elements Prajna (know- 
ledge) and Upaya (means) the whole objective world should be concei- 
ved as contracted in the form of a lump, and this should be meditated 
upon in the Bimba (icon-circle). By this process the transcendental 
knowledge is suddenly realised by the worshipper and is known as 
Samadhi (visualisation). 

For the purpose of visualisation it is necessary that the process should 
be continued for six months and this is done according to the Guhyas- 
amaja always while enjoying all kinds of desired objects If within six 
months the deity does not show herself the process should be repeated 
thrice while following the rules of restraint duly prescribed. If the deity 
is not visualised even after this, it should be forced by the practice of 
Hathayoga. By this Yoga the ascetic most certainly attains the know- 
ledge of the deity. 

The above incidentally shows what part is played by Rajayoga and 
Hathayoga in the process for the realisation of the deity. It shows also 
that the Tantra begins where Yoga ends. Therefore, the worshippers 
of the deity must first be adepts in Yoga before they make an attempt 



INTRODUCTION 27 

to follow the more advanced science of the Tantra which obviously, 
is not meant for ordinary people. The conception of godhead in 
Buddhist as well as in the Hindu Tantra is thus philosophically 
most profound. 

The individual soul is variously called the Bodhisattva ( Bodhi 
Essence), Bodhicitta (Will to Enlightenment), Jivatman (individual soul) 
while the Infinite or the Universal soul is variously known as Sunya 
Brahma and Paramatman. When they combine in the state of the 
highest meditation and concentration, an artificial condition akin to 
deep sleep is brought about, and the deity appears in the mind sky in 
flashes and sparks. The nature of the Jivatman being finite, it is not 
possible to realise the Infinite in its entirety, that is to say, the result of 
the mystic experience of the Jivatman also remains finite. And as the 
object for which the worshipper sits in meditation is different in differ- 
ent cases the deity visualised also becomes different. It is the Bhavana 
(desire) of the worshipper which is of the nature of a psychic force 
that reacts on the Infinite Energy, giving rise to different manifestations 
according to the nature of the reaction. The nature of this reaction is of 
illimitable variety and thus the resultant deity also appears in an infinite 
variety of forms, and this seems to be the chief reason why we find gods 
and goddesses of different forms in the pantheons of both the Buddhists 
and the Hindus. The ascetic who visualises a particular deity, generally 
makes it a rule to record the process by which the visualisation of a 
particular deity took place, for the benefit of his disciples in order that 
the latter may realise the deity in the easiest and most efficient manner. 

The Infinite Energy is frilnva in Vajrayana^jmd this Sunya is invoked 
by the worshippers of different classes with different desires and differ^ 
ent degrees otjnental development. As Sunya isinvoked in for thou- 
sandandjane purposes, it manifests itself in thousand and jane^jwayj^ 
in thousand and onejorms, and it is precisely in this manner that the 
numbeFof deitiesin the Buddhist pantheon increased to an enormous 
extentT^TKe psychic exercise prescribed in the case of different deities 
is different in the Sadhanas. The Sadhanas become less or more difficult 
according to the mental capacity of the worshippers, who are generally 
classified as High, Middling or Low. The regulation of life in the case 
of the worshippers of different classes become more or less stringent 
according to the degree of psychic progress. 

In the realisation of the deity, there are thus three elements, the 
worshipper, the deity and their connecd9D_Q_Jsientity. These are 
fiamed ifr~Tfi5~TanirIc works as the Bodhicitta, the Mantrapurusa 
(Mantra body) and the Ahamkara (identity). The worshipper is called 
the Bodhisattva (Bodhi essence), and , his mind is known as the Bodhi* 



28 INTRODUCTION 

citta (Will to Enlightenment). The deity is the embodiment of the 
cluster of letters contained in a Mantra which are dynamized by exces- 
sive concentration and repetition. The sacred words or letters set up 
strong vibrations and ultimately condense themselves in the form of 
deities and this is called the Mantrapurusa (Mantra body) or Mantra 
person. But before the Mantra person is visualised there must always 
be a complete identity between the Bodhiciita and the Mantrapurusa. 
The subject is both interesting and important for the study of gods and 
goddesses, and therefore merits a detailed treatment. 

The Vajrayana conception of the Bodhi mind appears to be the same 
as advocated in Yogacara, an idea of which can be gained by a reference 
to the Tattvasahgraha of Santaraksita. The Bodhi mind is like a conti- 
nuous stream of consciousness which changes every moment^ the 
consciousness of the previous moment giving rise to or causing the 
consciousness of the succeeding moment. The chain of momentary 
consciousness which is without a beginning or an end, operating in 
unison with the all powerful act-force leads it either to degradation or 
to emancipation according as the actions done are good or bad. The 
Bodhi mind is by nature surcharged with impurities such as desire, 
memory, existence, non-existence, subject, object and the rest which 
are all unreal. To purify this chain of consciousness is the sole aim of 
the Bodhisattva, but so long as impurities are not removed, it will be 
subject to a series of transmigrations either in the world of gods or men, 
or of animals, birds, ghosts and demons. 

According as the impurities are removed one after another, the 
Bodhi mind commences an upward march in the different spiritual 
spheres, called Bhumis, and stays in them only so long as it is not 
qualified to ascend to a higher sphere. The number of Bhumis are 
recognized generally as ten and the Sutra which describes them is called 
the Dasabhumika Sutra. The Bodhi mind obtains emancipation, or in 
other words when it crosses the ten Bhumis mentioned above, it is 
rewarded with moniscience. These Bhumis are not meant for the 
Hinayanists but were exclusively designed for the Mahayanists who are 
the real Bodhisattvas. No Buddhist will be called a Bodhisattva who 
has no compassion for suffering humanity or who will not be prepared 
to sacrifice his all for the benefit of others, The Vajrayanist concep- 
tion is the same, and it defines Bodhi mind as one where Sunya and 
Karuna (compassion) work in unison. In the eye of a Vajrayanist the 
external world has much the same significance as it appears in Yogacara. 
The Tantras characterize the external world with its movable and 
immovable objects like a pot, picture, carriage, house, stone-house, 
mountains and the rest as reduced by reason to mere appearances, in 



INTRODUCTION 29 

the same way as magic and dream are considered to be appearances. 
Therefore, the Vajrayanists hold that external objects have no greater 
reality than magic, mirage, shadow or dream, and their reality cannot 
be proved by reason. 

The Mantras or mystic syllables constitute the backbone of 
Vajrayana worship, and are of illimitable varieties. The Mantras are 
mostly unmeaning words but they sometimes reveal the influence of 
some unknown language. The Vajrayanists maintain that the Mantras 
are endowed with great powers. "What is there impossible" they say, 
"For the Mantras to perform if they are applied according to rules ?" 
It is also said that through repeated mutterings of the MantrdS such 
power is generated that it can astonish the whole world. The Mantra 
has power even to confer Buddhahood or omniscience. The merits 
that accrue from the repetitions of the Mantra of Mahakala are so 
numerous that all the Buddhas taken together cannot count them even 
if they were to count without celadon for a number of days and 
nights. By the DharanI of Avalokitesvara even an ass can memorize 
three hundred verses. The Mantra of Ekajata is said tQ be so powerful 
that the moment it is uttered a man becomes free from danger, he is 
always followed by good iortune and his enemies are all destroyed. 
The repetition of the rnantra is however to be done with the greatest 
care, for instance, it should not be muttered too quickly nor too 
slowly. The mind at the time of repetition should be concentrated 
on the letters of the Mantra and should be free from all evil thoughts, 
and the mantra should not be repeated when the mind is fatigued 
or tired. 

Thus it can be seen that the Vajrayanists believed that the Mantras 
were endowed with dynamic power. Their power consisted in the 
arrangement of the syllables, the purity of which is to be guarded with 
the greatest care. The Mantra is required to be received with proper 
ceremonies from a competent preceptor. The Mantra is powerful 
when it comes from a preceptor who is pure, and has repeated conti- 
nuously so as to visualize the Mantra person or the deity sacred to the 
Mantra. The letters of the Mantra can only be dynamized by conti- 
nual repetition by day and at night until the deity is visualized. When 
the Mantra becomes powerful the vibrations let loose by the Bodhi 
mind react on the universal Sunya which explodes in consequence in 
the divine form of the deity and appears before his mind sky. Accor* 
ding as the calling signal is different in different cases the deity becomes 
different, and thus its number increases. The deities are nothing but 
the forms created by the force of word or letter vibrations, and by 
continuous practice anyone can visualise the deity. The Mantra idea 



30 INTRODUCTION 

is not only logically correct but also philosophically profound. 

The relation between the caller and the calling deity is one of identi- 
fication. It is called Ahamkara or the identity of the Bodhi mind with 
the deity, the manifestation of Sunya or the ultimate reality, The 
identity is established with the Mantra "I am the goddess and the 
goddess is in me". The worshipper should conceive himself as the deity 
with the same complexion, form and limbs as described in the Sadhana 
and should, instead of worshipping any external object, worship himself. 
The Bodhi mind and the deity apparently signify duality but their 
| duality disappears with enlightenment. The Bodhi mind is of the 
nature of Sunya and the deity is a manifestation of Sunya and, therefore, 
both have the same origin. But to realise that the two are the same 
requires perfect knowledge. Continuous meditation and austerities 
enable the worshipper to shed the veil of ignorance which makes 
one thing appear as two. The Bodhi mind is further called Karuna 
(compassion) and the ultimate reality as Sunyata, and when the two 
commingle, it is called Advaya or non-duality. As copper leaves its 
dirty colour (and become gold) when it comes in contact with the 
magic tincture (of alchemy), even so, the body leaves off its attachment, 
hatred, etc. when it comes in contact with the tincture of Advaya. This 
Advaya is a form of cognition where the Bodhi mind commingles with 
Sunya and becomes one with it. To symbolize this principle Vajrayana 
brought in the conception of the Yab-yum form of deities in which the 
deity appears locked in close embrace with his Sakti or the female coun- 
terpart. When the deity is single, it means that the female counterpart 
has merged into the deity even as salt melts in water. The deity is 
Sunya and the female principle is the Bodhi mind, or the first is the 
ultimate reality and the female is Karuna (compassion). The Bodhi 
mind can become ultimate reality through the one principle of Karuna. 
This Karuna is symbolized in the form of Avalokitesvara, the great com- 
passionate Bodhisattva who sacrificed his Nirvana in order to serve his 
fellowmen. 

From the foregoing even a casual observer" can find that theVajrayan- 
ists formulated the principle that behind the creation there is arTinSomj- 
tablewill which multiplies in the formof words and gradually con- 
densethemselves in the form of the_dejtj^ The iemale counterpart is 
a further grossenirig process.* T&JSLJS the creative process, grossening 
process andAe process of evolution.) This process can only be stopped 
by the princijpIeTof Karuna Tcompassion) which gradually leads the 
Bodhi mind to soar higher and higher, and to become finer and thinner 
before it merges in unya. According jo Vajrayana, therefore, the 



INTRODUCTION 31 

reverse process of involution starts only when the Bodhi mind is sur* 
charged with Karuna or compassion. 

5. The Pantheon. 

The word Pantheon is derived from pan all, and theos god and 
therefore, concerns itself with all gods belonging to a community follow- 
ing the same religion. In Hinayana or Primitive Buddhism there was 
no pantheon to which worship was offered by any Buddhist. But in 
Mahay an a a large number of deities was included and later, in its more 
advanced form of Vajrayana this pantheon became surprisingly large 
with deities of every description. \ Virtually, there was an epedemic of 
deification in which every philosophical dogma, ritualistic literature, abs^ 
tract ideas, human qualities, even desires such as sleeping, yawning, and 
sneezing were deified or given a deity form. 

The varied, extensive, and diversified pantheon of the Northern 
Buddhists owes its origin to Tantric Buddhism or Vajrayana. There 
are certain indications that Buddhism had no pantheon before Tantrism 
was well established. In very early days Buddhism recognised thirty- 
three gods of the Hindus who were the residents of the Trayastrimsa 
Heaven which is one of the Rupa heavens. Buddha did not believe in 
gods or worship, and in the Saundarananda Kavya of Asvaghosa we 
find Buddha discouraging his half-brother Nanda to touch his feet in 
token of worship. He told Nanda that he would not be in the least 
pleased by Nanda's taking the dust of his feet, but he would bless him if 
he would follow the precepts of true Saddharma. Buddha was deified 
in Mahayana which considered him to be Lokottara or superhuman. } In 
Buddnist art also Jbfruddha images are not met with in the earlier schools 
such as J3anchi and Bharhut, and it is believed that the Graeco-Buddhists 
of Gandhara were the first to carve out his image in stone.\ This is the 
view held by the celebrate3 French archaeologist Professor A. Foucher. 2 
In Bharhut and Sanchi scenes connected with the life of the Buddha, 
such as the dream of his mother Mayadev! (fig. 1), and the symbols of 
Buddha like the Bodhi Tree, his head-dress his foot-prints (figs, 2, 3,4, 5), 
and the rest used to be freely represented, but his actual likeness was 
regarded as too scared to admit of representation. Dr. Coomaraswamy 
on the other hand has shown that the Mathura school of sculpture can 
have an equally strong claim to antiquity and probably for carving out 
the first image of Buddha. These are great authorities and it is not 
possible here to examine their theories in detail. For the present work 
it is immaterial whether the claim for carving out the first image of 



1. Kern ; Manual of Buddhism, p. 3 

2. Beginnings of Buddhist Art, p. 127. 



32 INTRODUCTION 

Buddha is established in favour ofjsither Gandhara QjlMathura. It is 
enough to know that there are many images of Buddha in these two 
schools of art. 

Besides the sacred symbols connected with Buddha's life and 
teachings, worship was offered by the Buddhists to numerous other 
objects. One of the most important among these objects is the Stupa 
which is regarded as the embodiment of the Buddhis^lJmv^ with 
all the heavens as conceived in Buddhism The stupas received worship 
even in the life-time of theBy^Ih^^and continued throughout the 
centuries after his Mahaparinirvana J Such stupas are found in abun- 
dance in the Buddhist countries, and a few celebrated stupas in Nepal 
are illustrated here in (Figs. 6, 7, 8) They are the Stupas of the 
Svayambhunatha (twlgo-Simbhu), the Bodhnath and Kathe Simbhu. 
Besides the Stupas, the Three Jewels of Buddhism, known by the names 

of the Rutjflha, Dharma and Sangha were conceived in the form of 

deities a ri (Twors hip wa s" freely offered to them by the Buddhists in both 
symbolic and human forms The images of the Holy Triad as obtained 
in Nepal are here illustrated. (Figs. 9, 10, 11). Out of the three, 
one Dharma is a goddess. 

Later, a number of gods and goddesses are described in the 
Manjusrimulakalpa which is believed to be an earlier work than the 
Guhyasamaja which is dated circa A. D, 300 ] Again in the Prajna- 
paramita Buddha is worshipped elaborately with diverse paraphernalia 
of worship. But even then it does not seem clear that Buddhism at 
this time had any conception of a well-defined and well-classified 
pantheon. It is in the Guhvasamaja that the idea of a pantheon, 
rationally classified, is properly and systematically crystallised. _JHeje 
for the first time are found the descriptions of the five Dhyani Buddhas, 
tngi_ rnantras, their Mandalas^ and their baktis or remale^gjnitprparti 
These Dhyani Buddhas represent the five Skandhas or the five cosmic 
elements of which the world is composed. They are here described 
as the progenitors of the five Kulas or families of gods and goddesses. 
The families owe allegiance to their progenitors who are known as 
Kulesas or Lords of Families. In the Guhyasamaja it is said : 

"The five Kulas (families) are the Dvesa (hatred), Moha (delusion), 
Raga (attachment), Cintamani (Wishing Gem), and Samaya, (convention) 
which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation." - 

The emanations or offsprings of these Dhyani Buddhas constitute 
their families. It is in this way that the Buddhists built a well-classified 
pantheon with its multiplicity of gods and goddesses, and when these 

1. See the discussion on the subject in Guhyasamaja, intro. p. XXXVI XXXVII. 

2. Guhyasamaja : p. 6. 




Fig. 1 Maya's Dream. 

( RJi^rhryf \ 



SYMBOL-WORSHIP 




Fig. 2 Bodhi Tree. 
( Amaravati ) 



34 INTRODUCTION 

were represented in art, they were required to show their origin by 
holding on their heads the miniature figure of their parental Dhyani 
Buddha. Every deity almost without exception was given various 
forms with two, four, six, eight, ten, twelve, sixteen and even more 
hands, and proportionately one head to three, four, six, and eight 
heads. They were given different colours, different expressions and 
different companions according as they were worshipped in the differ* 
ent Tantric rites and according as they were required to discharge 
different functions, from curing a disease to the killing of an enemy. 
The artists had a considerable hand in executing the images and they 
introduced their own traditions, provincialisms and innovations The 
votaries also according as they wanted to have their gods in a powerful 
form, added extra hands , heads and feet to suit their own ideas 
and whims, and it is precisely in this way that the deities increased to an 
amazing number. 

The Guhyasamaja or the Tantra of Secret Communion which is 
perhaps the first book inculcating Vajrayana philosophy of Mahasukha 
is a product of circa 300'A.D. which is the time of Asanga. Quite 
naturally the Tantra could not get publicity as the public mind was not 
prepared to receive the revolutionary innovations introduced in it. 
Thus thf Tonfra wj*nt into private hands and was handed down through 
an unbroken cbnin r>f Hums ^nrl disciples for thr^ hnndtw] y pQrg 1>r> 
the most secret manner possible. It obtained publicity through the 
teachings and mystic songs of the Buddhist Vajracaryyas or Siddhas in 
about the middle of the 7th century. It is for this reason that 
references to the pantheon in the general Buddhistic literature are not 
n^T"wi^ nor the accounts of the 

Chinese travellers show much acquaintance with the pantheon, when 
they came to India to investigate the condition of Buddhism in India, 
Despite this certain names of Buddhist gods and goddesses are indeed 
met with in their writings, though they do not pertain to the well 
classified pantheon referred to above. In the SukhayatT Vynhfl \yjrfch 
was translated into Chinese between A. D. 148*170 the name of 
Amitabha appears for the first time as the presiding deity of the 
Sukhavati or thc_Akanistha heaven where he is believed to have brought 
forth Avalokitesyara into existence.* It should be remembered that 
in fKe Vajrayana works also this heaven has been characterized as 
the abode of all gods and goddesses. In the smaller recension of the 
Sukhavati Vyuha which was translated into Chinese between A. D. 
417 mention is made of two more gods namely Aksobhya as a 



Sukhavati Vyuha, pp. 1, 28, 32. 



INTRODUCTION 35 

Tathagatajand ManjusrL_as a^Bodhisattva^ Fa-Hien (A. D. 394-414) 
mentions the names of MaSjusrT; Avalokteesvara, and the future 
Buddha Maitreya, while Yuan Cbwang (629-645 A. D.) refers to the 
names of Avalokitesvara, Harlti, Ksitigarbha, Maitreya, Manjusn, 
Padmapani, Vaisravana, Sakya Buddha, akya Bodhisattva, and Yama 
together with such deified saints as Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Asahga, 
Sumedhas and others. I-Tsing (671-695 A.D.) mentions the names of 
Avalokitesvara, Amitayus, Hariti, the Catur-Mahafajikas, Maitreya, 
Manjusri and Yama besides several others. Santideva (695-730 A.D.) 
in his oiksasamuccaya mentions the names of Aksobhya as a Tathagata, 
Gaganaganja as a Bodhisattva, Simhavikridita as a Tathagata, Cunda, 
Trisamayaraja, Marici, Simhanada, Manjughosa and many others. ] 
After Santideva the Tantra of the Buddhists got wide publicity, and 
the Tantric works written after his time all referred to the pantheon 
and described numerous gods, especially the Dhyani Buddhas a definite 
product of Tantric Buddhism. The Sadhana literatuie which describes 
the forms of gods and goddesses and lays down the procedure for 
worshipping them was developed by the Mahasiddhas or great magi- 
cians like Saraha, Nagarjuna, Sabaripa, Anahgavajra, Indrabhuti and 
others, although it is very probable that the earliest Sadhana was 
composed by Asanga who flourished in circa 300 A.D. In the Sadhana 
attributed to Asanga the Dhyani Buddhas and their emanations are 
referred to. 

When a reference is made to the numerous images executed in the 
different schools of art it also becomes palpable that the Buddhist 
pantheon was not well developed before the Tantras got wide publicity 
injiboutjthe middle of the 7th century AT)i InTKe Gandhara school, 
for instance, Jbesides the Buddha images, there are images of Jambhala 
Kubera, Indra, Maitreya, Haritl and several unidentified Bodhisattva 
images. In the Mathura school which was either contemporaneous 
or somewhat later than the Gandhara school there are numerous 
Buddha and Bodhisattva images along with those of Kubera, the Yaksas 
and Nagas. The Mathura school extended to the early Gupta period 2 
and here also later Buddhist images of Tantric flavour are not met 
with. Not even the images of Avalokitesvara, Manjusri are to be 
found in this school. The case of the later Magadha school however, 
is otherwise. The Magadha school included the images found in 
Sarnath, Nalanda, Odantapuri, Kurkihar, Gaya and other ancient 
sites in Bihar. The most flourishing period of the Magadha school 

1. Bendall's introduction to Siksaasmuccaya, p. V. 

2. Vogel : The Mathura School of Sculpture in A.S I. Annual Report, 1906-7, p. 145. 



36 




UH 



ffi 
C/3 

BS 

o 



o 

CQ 








00 



oo 

eb 



SS 



o 

(/) 

ss 

o 

H 
oo 



CO 

tu 

4-J 

U4 
O 

U4 
PU 




3 

03 

CD 

r- 

ob 




d 

E 



38 INTRODUCTION 

was contemporaneous with the reign of the Pala kings of Bengal and 
lasted till the Muhammadan ^conquest of Bihar and Bengal in the 
beginning of the thirteenth century A. D. In the Magadha school aj 
to be found a ^definite evidence of the existence of a well classified 
pantKeoirTas conceive3"lrrVajrayana Buddhism. In most of the images 
there are figures of five Dhyani Buddhas on the halo round the head 
of the principal deity, as also others with miniature figures of Dhyani 
Buddhas on the crown to indicate the origin of the deity installed. 
Again, unlike the Mathura and Gandhara schools there is a distinct 
dearth of Buddha images in later schools of art, and even when he is 
represented, he takes the semi-mythical form of Vajrasana being 
flanked by Avalokitesvara and Maitreya on two sides. In the Magadha 
school therefore Buddha lost his original importance and became 
similar to the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya as is evident from the 
numerous Sadhanas dedicated to the worship of Vajrasana Buddha 
with the earth touching signal. The Bodhisattva images are also not 
so stereotyped as they are found either in Gandhara or in Mathura. 
The Magadha school is characterised by its wide variety of images of 
gods and goddesses and this will be apparent to any visitor who visits 
the museums at Sarnath, Nalanda, Patna, or even at Calcutta, and 
takes a round in the extensive ruins of the Odantapuri Vihara (Modern 
Bihar) on the Bakhtiyarpur Bihar Light Railway. The same is the 
case with the ruins of Gaya, Kurkihar, Sahet-Mahet and Kasia. At 
Sarnath, the contents of the museum are rich with such interesting 
and symbolic images as Sadaksari Lokesvara, Ucchusma Jambhala, 
Manjusri, Tara, Vasudhara, Marlci, all the Five Dhyani Buddhas, 
Vajrasattva the sixth Dhyani Buddha and numerous others belonging 
to the Vajrayana pantheon. Nalanda images are enriched with the 
same deities as are found in Sarnath. 

The Bengal school which is contemporaneous with the Magadha 
school is distinguished by the high class of art it developed and for its 
beauty of execution. Its flourishing period ranged from the 10th century 
till the conquest of Bengal by the Muhammadans. Many of the 
specimens of the Bengal school are preserved in the museums at 
Calcutta, Dacca, Rajshahi, and the Vangiya Sahitya Parishad, and a 
large number of them are scattered about in the Pargana Vikrampur 
and in the districts of Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Birbhum and Comilla. In 
this school many interesting and unique specimens of images belonging 
to Tantric Buddhism are met with. From the above it becomes 
clear that the artists were acquainted with the descriptions of deities 
as given in the Sadhana literature, because the images and the Dhyanas 
as given in the Sadhana coincide most remarkably. In this school 



INTRODUCTION 39 



are to be found such images as Heruka, Vasudhara, Jambhala, Arapa- 
cana, Khasarpana, Parnasabari, Simhanada, Manjuvara, Aparajita, 
Mahapratisara, Nairatma, Sadaksan Lokesvara, Mahasri Tara, Khadi- 
ravani Tara along with many others too numerous to mention. Scholars 
desirous of having more information on the subject are recommended 
to refer to the excellent work of Dr. N. K. Bhattasali, entitled, 
The Iconography of Buddhist and Brhamanical Sculptures in the Dacca 
Museum where incidentally images discovered elsewhere in Eastern 
Bengal have also been treated. Another monumental work on the 
subject is R. D. Banerji's Eastern Indian School of Mediceval Sculpture, 
published by the Archaeological Department of the Government 
of India. 

The images of Buddhist deities found at Ajanta, Ellora and the cave 
temples of Western India show signs of immature Tantra and may be 
assigned to a period before the 7th century A. D. although some of 
the paintings and sculptures are of long antiquity. It does not seem 
that the Tantras were very popular with the Buddhists of Western 
India or that they were influenced by the teachings of the Tantra which 
was mainly a product of Eastern India. Had it not been so, the cave 
temples would have at least exhibited some of the Tantric deities such 
as Manjusrl, Tara, Khasarpana, Jambhala, Prajnaparamita and others. 
The Javanese art seems to have been profoundly influenced by the 
Bengal school, and the images of gods and goddesses as found in the 
Borobudur temple show that they were acquainted with many deities 
of the Vajrayana pantheon As Vajrayana was mainly a product of 
Bengal it is probable that colonists carried their art and religion to Java 
and Indonesia by the sea route, probably from the sea^port atTamralipti 
or from Chittagong and Orissa. The Prajnaparamita image produced 
in the Javanese school has been acclaimed as one of the finest specimens 
of eastern art, ancient or modern. 

After the destruction of Buddhism from India the priests of the 
celebrated monasteries of Bengal and Magadha who could save their 
heads from the hostile sword of the Muhammadans, fled to Nepal 
which is protected on all sides by the mighty walls of the Himalayan 
mountains, and took refuge in that country, and thus kept the torch 
of Buddhism still burning there. The Bengal school of art which was 
carried by the priests was soon modified into a typical Nepalese art 
when it came in contact with the native artists, and thus became 
stereotyped. But after the 18th century it became debased and crude. 
The general impression of the visitor who inspects the numerous 
monasteries in Nepal which are the repositories of Buddhist images 
of diverse kinds, is that the dreamy sweetness and the sublime beauty 



40 




CJ 

03 

CO 






Q 

< 

> 

ctf 
H 

H 

CO 

i 
E 
Q 
Q 
D 
CQ 

Hi 

E 
H 




CQ 
O 




e 
i^ 

C3 
^C 

Q 



INTRODUCTION 41 

of the Bengal school could not be preserved in Nepal, although earlier 
specimens of really good art are not at all wanting in the Nepal school. 
The followers of Vajrayana who went to Nepal in order to make 
sure of their existence converted a good many Newars of the land 
to Buddhism and carved out innumerable images of gods and goddesses 
in stone, metal or wood, so much so, that a student of iconography 
is overwhelmed at their wealth and variety. It is however curious 
to note that the origin of almost all the monasteries in Kathmandu, 
Bhatgaon, and Lalitapattan dates from the 13th century, which shows 
unmistakably that these monasteries were founded almost immedia^ 
tely after the Muhammadan conquest by the refugees fleeing from 
Eastern India. 

The cumulative evidence of art, history, and literature leads one 
to believe that the pantheon of the Northern Buddhists was not widely 
known before the 7th century A. D. nor was the underlying philosophy, 
which may warrant the formation of a pantheon, well developed 
before that time, although the origin of it is definitely earlier. This 
may be explained by the fact that the Guhyasamaja which for the first 
time inculcated the doctrine of the five Dhyani Buddhas and their 
families, was composed in secret and transmitted in an occult manner 
for about three hundred years. This is one of the many reasons why 
neither the Guhyasamaja Tantra nor the Dhyani Buddhas nor the 
varied pantheon of Vajrayana could be widely known. It is only in 
the Sadhana of Asahga as included in the Sadhanamala a definite 
reference to the five Dhyani Buddhas and their families is to be met 
with, and for that reason it is not improbable to connect Asahga 
with the introduction of the very Guhyasamaja Tantra itself. The 
subsequent writers only got a glimpse of what filtered through the 
secret but very popular mystic organisations. After the 7th century 
secrecy was no longer necessary, as the principles of Vajrayana were 
then fully established and widely spread through the teachings and 
mystic songs of the Siddhas and Mahasiddhas. The beautiful images 
produced by the priests and artists made the teachings doubly attrac- 
tive. Great men came forward to advocate the cause of Vajrayana. 
Chairs for the study and teaching of Tantras were founded in the 
different and famous centres of learning such as Nalanda, Odantapuri, 
Vikramaslla and Jagaddala. Eminent scholars like Santaraksita worked 
as professors of Tantra in the world famous university of Nalanda. 



CHAPTER I. 

DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS. 

The pantheon of the Northern Buddhists revolves round the 
theory of the five Dhyani Buddhas. The Buddhists believe that the 
world is composed of five cosmic elements or Skandhas. The five 
Skandhas are Rupa (form), Vedana^ (sensation), SamjnS (name), 
Sahskara (conformation) and Vijnana (consciousness). These elements 
are eternal cosmic forces and are without a beginning or an end. 
These cosmic forces are deified in Vajrayana as the five Dhyani 
Buddhas. In the course of time they were regarded as the five 
primordial gods responsible for this diversified creation, and thus 
Vajrayana took a polytheistic form, although polytheism can hardly 
apply to a system which considers ounya as the One, Indivisible and 
Ultimate Reality. But so long as form could not be given to Sunya 
as an anthropomorphic deity, the system of five Dhyani Buddhas 
certainly had the flavour of polytheism. The priests and the Vajrayana 
authors were conscious of this shortcoming, especially in view of the 
fact that all the six Hindu systems of philosophy tended to develop 
a highly monistic philosophy. They tried at first to cure this defect 
by the theory of the Kulas (families), and Kulesas (lord of families) 
of gods and men, and thus divided everything into five groups. For 
each group, a particular Dhyani Buddha becomes the Kulesa or the 
primordial lord, all other groups taking their origin from him* 
Another grand conception of the Vajrayana Buddhism is the theory 
of the highest god Yajra^hair a > a J?Q, ..ffd JggL jjjkuddha, the primordial 
monotheistic god who is the embodiment ofSunya to whom even 
the Dhyani Buddhas owe their origin. The theory originated in the 
Nalanda monastery in about the 10th century. l Thereafter, a large 
number of images of Vajradhara must have been made in the different 
schools of art. The special Tantra dedicated to Adibuddha is the 
Kalacakra Tantra which appears to be the original Tantra in which 
the doctrine of Adibuddha was for the first time inculcated. The 
Kalacakra Tantra thus is a product of the 10th century. Vajradhara 
was particularly popular in Nepal and Tibet where numerous images 

1. The idea of an Adibuddha originated in the Nalanda Monastery in the 
beginning of the 10th Century A.D. See JASB, Vol. II ( 1833 ) pp. 57 ff. 
Also Vajradhara Vs. Vajrasattva in JBORS, Vol. IX, pp. 114fF. 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 43 

of this primordial god are to be met with. Alexander Csoma de Koros 
places the introduction of this conception of Adibuddha in Central 
Asia in the latter half of the 10th century* It originated at Nalanda 
according to him in the beginning of the 10th century, and no mention 
of the Adibuddha cult is made by any writer prior to this time. 
Homage is paid to Adibuddha in the shape of a flame of fire which the 
priests consider as eternal, selPbbrn ~ancT~self*existent. It is said in 
tHe~~Svayambhti Purana that Adibuddha first manifested himself in 
Nepal in the form of a flame of fire, and ManjusrI erected a temple 
over it in order to preserve the flame. This ancient temple is known 
as the Svayambhu Caitya. 

The conception of Vajradhara presupposes Adibuddha and, there- 
fore, is later than the first half of the 10th century. Vajrasattva, being 
a regular development of the Bodhisattva Vajrapani emanating from 
the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya, is a little earlier, although the conception 
of Vajradhara and Vajrasattva are sometimes inextricably mixed up. 
In Vajrayana, Adibuddha is regarded as the highest deity of the 
Buddhist pantheon, the originator even of the five Dhyani Buddhas. 
When represented in human form, he begets the name of Vajradhara 
and is conceived in two forms, single and Yab-yum. When single, he 
is bedecked in jewels, gaudy ornaments and dress, sits in the Vajra' 
paryahka or the attitude of meditation with the two feet locked with 
soles of the feet turned upwards. He carries the Vajra in the right 
hand and the Ghanta (bell) in the left, the two hands being crossed 
against the chest in what is known as the Vajrahuhkara Mudra 
(Fig 12). The Vajra (thunderbolt) here is the symbol for the ultimate 
reality called Sunya while the bell represnts Prajna or wisdom the 
sounds of which travel far and wide. Sometimes the symbols are shown 
on a lotus on either side, the Vajra being on the right and the Ghanta 
in the left (Fig 13). In Yab-yum, his form remains the same as when 
single except that here he is locked in close embrace by his Sakti^or the 
female counterpart whose name according to Getty is Prajnaparamita. 
The Sakti is somewhat smaller lri"sizerTs richly dressed and bedecked 
in ornarpents, carrying the Kartri (knife) and the Kapala (skull cup) in 
the right and left hands respectively (Figs. 14, 15). In these figures the 
Kartri is the symbol for the destruction of ignorance, the JCapala stands 
for oneness absolute, while the double form Yab^yum represents that 
the distinction between duality and non^duality is unreal, and the two 
mix themselves into one as salt mixes in water. The_deitv^ Vajiradhara 
is an embodiment ofthe Jhdghest. ^reality, , Sunya, ^jljLJE^SlP^rai^ta 
represents Karuna (compassion) and in close embrace they turn jntp 
one Sunya in which Karuna merges, and the duality ceases. Vajradhara 



44 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

is widely represented in Tibet. 1 

Vajradhara is described in Buddhist Tantric works and he has several 
forms. An important description in the Nispannayogavali is given 
below. This particular form of Vajradhara is three- faced and six-armed. 

Vajradhara. 

Colour Reddish White. Faces Three. 

Arms Six. . Pose Tandava Dance. 

Vajradhara is the principal deity in the Vajrasattva Mandala in the 
Nispannayogavali. He is described thus : 

"Kutagaragarbhe Vajradharah. . .isadraktanu-viddhasitavarnah. . .trimu- 
kho mla-raktasavyetaravaktrah. . . sadbhujo vajra-ghantavirajitabhuja- 

bhyam alingitasvabhaprajna savyakarabhy am krpanankusavarau 

vamabhyam kapalapasabhrt ardhaparyahkena navanatyarasais- 

tandavl." NSP. p. 8. 

"In the innermost chamber of the Mandala there is Vajradhara. 
His colour is reddish white. He is three-faced. The right face is blue 
and the left is red. He is six-armed. With the two principal hands 
carrying the Vajra and the Ghanta he embraces the Prajria. The two 
other right hands show the excellent sword and the Ankusa. In the 
two remaining left hands, he carries the Kapala and the noose. He 
stands in the Ardhaparyahka and dances the Tandava dance exhibiting 
the nine dramatic sentiments". 

Fig. 16 represents a three- faced and six-armed Vajradhara image 
without the Sakti in the Baroda Museum. 

But Vajradhara was not universally accepted as the Adibuddha or 
the first creative principle. When the theory of Adibuddha was fully 
established the Buddhists seem to have ranged themselves into ,so many 
sects as it were, holding different views regarding specific forms which 
the Adibuddha should take. Some considered one among the five 
Dhyani Buddhas as the Adibuddha, some acknowledged Vajrasattva as 
the Adibuddha. Many others were content to regard the Boddhisattva 
such as Samantabhadra or Vajrapani as the Adibuddha. Thus the cult 
of Adibuddha was widely distributed amongst the different 'schools, 
which gave rise to as many different sects amongst the Tantric 
Buddhists. 

Vajradhara or the Adibuddha is supposed to be the originator of 
the five Dhyani Buddhas, the progenitors of the five Kulas or families of 
Buddhist gods and goddesses. Next to Vajradhara the Phyani^jBu.ddhas 
or the Tathagatas are important in Buddhist iconography and, therefore, 



1. Getty -GNB, p. 5 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 45 

requires treatment in detail. The Guhyasamaja Tantra (Tantra of 
Secret Communion) was the first to reveal their existence in a Sahglti 
(holy assembly) which is supposed to introduce new ideas into 
Buddhism. 

In the Guhyasamaja l the Dhyani Buddhas are given a Mantra, a col- 
our, aSakti^a direction, and a guardian of the gate. As these Dhyani 
Buddhas are of primary importance in Buddhist iconography, it is nece- 
ssary to deal with their origin in some detail here. The Guhyasamaja 
opens in a grandiloquent style with the description of a monster assem- 
bly of gods, Tathagatas, Bodhisattvas, Saktis, and various other divine 
beings. The Tathagatas present in the Assembly requested the Lord 
Bodhicittavajra to define the Tathagatamandala or the magic circle of 
the five Dhyani Buddhas and in response to their request, the Lord sat in 
a special Samadhi (meditation) called the Jnanapradipa (lamp of know- 
ledge), and his whole form started resounding with the sacred sounds of 
VAJRADHRK which is the mantra of the Dvesa family. No sooner the 
words came out, the sounds transformed themselves into the concrete 
shape of Aksobhya with the earth-touching signal (Mudra). 

Then the Lord sat in another meditation and soon became vibrant 
with the sacred sounds of JINAJIK, the principal mantra of the Moha 
family. The sounds condensed themselves into the concrete form of 
Vairocana with the Dharmacakra Mudra and was placed in his front in 
the East. 

Next with a third Samadhi (meditation) the Lord became resonant 
with the word RATNDHRK the principal mantra of the Cintamani 
family and soon became condensed in the human form of Ratnaketu 
with his favourite signal of Varada (gift bestowing) and was placed to 
the south of the Lord. 

The Lord thereupon took a fourth Samadhi and became resonant 
with the sacred sound of AROLIK, which is the principal mantra of the 
Vajraraga family. The vibrations soon grossened themselves in the 
human form of Amitabha with the signal of Dhyana (meditation) and 
was placed behind the Lord in the west. 

Next, the Lord assumed another Samadhi and soon became resonant 
with the sacred sound of PRAJNADHRK, the principal Mantra of the 
Samaya family. The vibrations after condensation gradually assumed 
the shape of Amoghasiddhi with his characteristic symbol of Abhaya 
(assurance), and was placed by the Lord in the north. 

Then the Lord sat in a series of special Samadhis, five in number, and 
became resonant with five different mantras. The vibrations in like 



Guhyasamaja, chapter 1 is entirely devoted to the formation of the Dhyani 
Buddha mandala. 



46 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

manner were condensed in the form of five goddesses as female counter- 
parts of the five Tathagatas already named and were placed in their 
appropriate positions. 

Thus, the Lord in the first Samadhi became resonant with the sound 
DVESARATI which transformed itself into the form of his own queen 
and was placed on his own seat. 

Next, he became resonant with the sound MOHARATI which took 
the shape of a goddess and was placed in the eastern direction as the 
queen of Vairocana. 

Thereafter he became vibrant with the sound fRSYARATI which 
took the shape of a goddess and was placed in the southern direction 
as the queen of Ratnasambhava. 

Next in another Samadhi the Lord became vibrant with the sound 
RAGARATI which soon took the concrete shape of a goddess and 
was placed in the western direction as the queen of Amitabha. 

Then in a further meditation the Lord became resonant with the 
sound VAJRARATI which took the concrete shape of a goddess and 
was placed in the northern direction as the queen of Amoghasiddhi. 

When all the Tathagatas were associated with their female counter- 
parts the Lord sat in four more meditations and through these created 
four guardians of gates for the four cardinal directions. 

First, he sat in the Mahavairocanavajra Samadhi and became resonant 
with the sound YAMANTAKRT. These sound vibrations soon assumed 
the concrete shape of a violent deity, fearful to the Tathagatas, and was 
placed at the eastern gate. 

Next, he became vibrant with the sound PRAJNANTAKRT. The 
sound vibrations soon assumed the form of a violent deity, fearful to 
the Vajra process, and was placed at the southern gate. 

In a third Samadhi the Lord became vibrant with the sound 
PADMANTAKRT which soon took the form of a violent deity repre- 
senting the speech of the Tathagatas and was placed at the western gate. 

Finally, the Lord sat in another Samadhi called the Kayavakcittavajra 
of the Tathagatas, and became vibrant with the sound VIGHNANTA- 
KRT which soon took the shape of a violent deity representing the body, 
speech and the mind of the Tathagatas, and was placed at the northern gate. 

The above account as recorded in the Guhyasamaja Tantra marks 
the beginning of the theory of the five Dhyani Buddbas, their counter- 
parts, their mantras and the guardian of the gates. \ The five Dhyani 
Buddhas ar* *hp Corner stones of Buddhist Iconography on which the 
whole edifice of the Buddhist pantheon is crecte^ The five Dhyani 
Buddhas are the progenitors of the five Kulas orramilies of deities, and 
the community worshipping them were known as the Kaulas, and the 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 47 

process of worship was called Kulacara or family conduct. These 
Dhyani Buddhas further split themselves up in the form of Bodhhisattva 
and their female principles who are responsible for creating everything 
found in existence. The forms of deities are nothing but the gross 
forms of the different sounds, and thus the connection of the mantra 
with the deity is established. I 

The five Dhyani Buddhas who are the embodiments of the five Skan- 
dhas or primordial elements are the progenitors of the five families of 
deities constituting the whole of the Buddhist pantheon. The emanated 
deities of these Dhyani Buddhas, as a rule, hold the miniature figure of 
the parental Dhyani Buddha on their heads and are usually of the same 
colour as that of the Dhyani Buddha and are placed in the same direc- 
tion as is assigned to their sires. This very plan is followed most scru- 
pulously in almost all the Mandalas or magic circles as described in the 
remarkable work, Nispannayogavali of Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta. ' 

The names, colours and the symbols of the five Dhyani Buddhas 
are stated briefly in the following verse occuring in the Sadhanamala : 

Jino Vairocano khyato Ratnasambhava eva ca 
Amitabhamoghasiddhiraksobhyasca prakirtitah 
Varna amisam sitah plto rakto haritamecakau 
Bodhyahgl Varado Dhyanam Mudra Abhaya-Bhusprsau. 

Sadhanamala, p. 568-9 

"The Jinas (victorious ones) are Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amita* 
bha, Amoghasiddhi and Aksobhya. Their colours are white, yellow, 
red, green and blue, and they exhibit the Bodhyahgl (teaching), Varada 
(boon), Dhyana (meditation), Abhaya (protection), and Bhusparsa 
(earth-touching) attitudes of hands respectively/' 

iThe Dhyani Buddhas are a peculiar kind of Buddhas who are not 
required to pass through the stage of a Bodhisatta. They were never 
anything less than a Buddha. They are always engaged in peaceful 
meditation, and they voluntarily abstain themselves from the act of 
creation. To create is the work of their emanations, the Divine 
Bodhisattvas. As has been said already, the Dhyani Buddhas are five 
in number to which a sixth Vajrasattva is sometimes added. The 
Guhyasamaja Tantra makes it clear that all the five Dhyani Buddhas 
along with their female counterparts and the guardians of gates were 
known in circa 300 A. D. the time of the introduction of this new 
Tantra. That the five Dhyani Buddhas might have owed their origin 
to the theory of the eternity of the five senses, seems to be borne out 
by a passage in the Cittavisuddhiprakarana l of the Tantric Aryadeva. I 

1. JASB, 1898. p. 178. " 



48 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

But it may also be possible that the five Mudras which Buddha Sakya- 
simha made sacred by using on memorable occasions and which were 
constantly depicted in the Buddhistic figures of the different schools 
of art, gave rise to the five Dhy an i Buddhas (Figs 17, 18). Advayavajra 
who flourished in the llth century, has written in one of his short 
works that the five Dhyani Buddhas took their origin from the theory 
of the eternity of the five Skandhas (elements), that is to say, that the 
Dhyani Buddhas represented the five primordial cosmic forces which 
are responsible for creation. Vajrasattva, the sixth Dhyani Buddha, 
who is generally regarded as the priest of the five Dhyani Buddhas 
and is usually represented with the priestly symbols, the Vajra and the 
Ghanta, is an embodiment of the five Skandhas collectively, and un- 
doubtedly a later addition to the pantheon of the Northern Buddhists. 
The Dhyani Buddhas are always represented as seated on a full 
blown lotus, and in the meditative pose with legs crossed, the right 
foot crossing over and in front of the left, with the soles of both feet 
turned upwards. The hand that rests on the lap is sometimes empty, 
but in most cases holds the bowl. The head is bare, the thick clustering 
curls radiate effulgence like a flame of fire The eyes are half-closed 
in-meditation showing the mind completely drawn inwards in perfect 
introspection. The dress consists of an undergarment reaching from 
the chest to the knee, and secured by a scarf. The body is loosely 
covered by the habit of a monk, leaving only the right arm bare. 

The Dhyani Buddhas are generally represented on the four sides of 
a Stupa which is the symbol of the Buddhist Universe, facing the foi!r 
cardinal points. Vairocana is the deity of the inner shrine and is, 
therefore, generally unrepresented. But exceptions to this lule are by 
no means rare. He is occasionally assigned a place between Ratnsam* 
bhava in the south and Aksobhya in the East. Independent shrines 
are also dedicated to each of the Buddhas. . 

The five Dhyani Buddhas are given each a special recognition symbol 
and a colour. The symbols are extremely important for the purpose 
of iconographical studies, because the female counterparts and the 
wrings of the DhySni-Bddhas invariably display these symbols in 
orderto sKow^theit^ origin/ 1'fius Amitabha is given the Lotus as the 
recognition symbol.^ His Sakti Pandara and his Bodhisatta Padmpajii 
must exhibit the Lotus symbol in order to show that they are the 
emanations of Amitabha. Similarly, all the other Dhyani Buddhas 
also have their own symbols and the name of the family is generally 
fixed from these symbols ; for instance, Amitabha is the progenitor 
of the Lotus family, Aksobhya is the leader of the Vajra family, 
Ratnasambhava is the embodiment of the Jewel family, and so forth. 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 49 

The Advayavajrasangraha gave special epithets to the Dhyani Buddhas 
to indicate their families, although these special epithets are not known 
from any other source. According to this authority, Amitabha is 
Padmakuli, Aksobhya is Vajrakuli, Vairocana is Tathagatakull, Ratna- 
sambhava is Ratnakuli and Amoghasiddhi is Karmakuli. The Kula 
in the case of Vajrasattva is not given for the simple reason that 
he has neither family nor a special element. 

Next to symbols, the colour of the Dhyani Buddhas is important. 
Each Dhyani Buddha has a special colour and this colour is required 
to be shown by all originating from each, Sometimes in classifying 
Buddhist deities there is no other sure indication of the parental Dhyani 
Buddha except the colour. On the ground of colour alone, and in 
the absence of positive mention of the parental Dhyani Buddhas, 
several deities have been classified in this book in this manner. 

A detailed description of the Dhyani Buddhas along with their 
female counterparts and their offsprings, the Bodhisattvas, now follows 
with relevant information regarding their forms and their statues and 
paintings. Descriptive quotations from Tantric works have been 
incorporated to indicate the source of information wherever possible.] 

1. AMITABHA. , , 

Colour- Red Vehicle Peacock / 

Mudra Samadhi Symbol Lotus 

| By far the most ancient among the Dhyani Buddhas is Amitabha 
who is said to reside in the Sukhavati heaven in peaceful meditation. 
He presides over the current Kalpa (cycle) which is Bhadrakalpa. As a 
Dhyani Buddha he does not create. It is his Bodhisattva Padmapani, 
also known as Ayalokitesvara, who is responsible for creation. The 
form of Amitabha is described in the Pancakara section of the 
Advayavajrasamgraha thus : J 

"Pascimadale Ravimandalopari rakta-Hnhkarasambhuto raktavarno 
Amitabhah padmacihnah samadhimudradharah samjnaskandhasvabhavo 
ragasarirah sukratmakah padmakull pratyaveksanajnanalaksano gris^ 
marturupaha mlarasasarlrah tavargatma pradosavan". ADV. p. .41 

V'On the western petal on the disc of the sun there is Amitabha 
of red colour originating from the red syllable Hnh. | He has a lotus 
as his sign and he exhibits the Samadhi Mudra in his two hands. He 
is of the nature of the cosmic element of Samjna (name), is an embodi* 
ment of attachment and belongs to the Lotus family. He stands for 
the vital fluid, and is endowed with the Pratyaveksana (looking after) 
7 



50 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

knowledge. He represents the summer season and the acid taste. He 
presides over the group of letters beginning with Ta (cerebrals) and rules 
over the evening twilight". 

When represented on the Stupa, he always faces the West and the 
Nepalese Buddhists regard him as the fourth Dhyani Buddha. His 
two hands with palm open lie on his lap, one upon the other forming 
the Dhyana or the meditative mudra. His colour is red and his Vahana 
is a pair of peacocks. His recognition symbol is the Lotus. 

Images, sculptures, paintings and drawings of this description are 
found in all Buddhist countries including India, Tibet and China. \ One 
miniature painting of the Dhyani Buddha is reproduced in Fig. 19. 
Besides the two-armed form various other forms are known of this 
and other Dhyani Buddhas. It may be remembered here that all 
the five miniatures reproduced here belong to the collection of 
Dr. Evans* Wentz. 

* Amitabha images are found in abundance in Tibet 1 and in 
China 2 [ 

PANDARA 



I ' Colour Red Symbol Lotus 

| Pandara is also called Pandaravasini. According to a Dhyana in 
the Advayavajrasahgraha she belongs to the Lotus family which is 
also the family of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. Pandara thus is 
the"~spiritual consort of Amitabha. \Her form and nature are des* 
cribed as under : | 

"Vayavyam candramandalopari Parhkarabljasambhuta Pandarava* 
sini rakta raktavarna padmacihna tejodhatusvarupa padmakula 
ragarakta." ADV. p. 43. 

"In the Vayu corner on the orb of the moon there is Panda- 
ravasini originating from the ( red ) germ syllable Parh. I She is red 
in colour and has the Padma ( lotus ) as her recognition symbol. 
She is the embodiment of the element of Fire. She belongs to 
the Lotus family and is full of attachment." 

Images and paintings of this goddess are rare. She is however 
known in Nepal in paintings, and some of her sfejuettes are found 
in China A Fig 20 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the goddess. ^ 

Pandara is represented in Tibet 3 and China 4 . The illus" 
trations of drawings of all the five Buddhasaktis, Pandara and 

1. Gordon : ITL p. 27. Getty GNB. pp. 38, 39. 

2. Clark : TLP, II. pp. 32, 57, 142. 

3. Getty : GNB p. 139. 

4- Clark : TLP, II, under the name of Pandaravasini, pp. 61, 106, 152,164. 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 51 

others are reproduced from Wright's Hutory of Nepal, Plate VI. 
These drawings are made by Nepalese painters. 

PADMAPANI. If 

Colour Red Symbol Lotus '( 

I Padmapani is the Bodhisattva attached to the Padma ( lotus ) 
family which is presided over by the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha 
whose spiritual consort is Pandara or Pandaravasim. The Lotus 
is the symbol of this family and the colour assigned to this family 
is red. The Bodhisattva Padmapani begets the red colour and a 
full*blown lotus as his symbol. Padmapani is fairly well represen- 
ted in the Buddhist countries of the North including Tibet l and 
China./ One of his images is illustrated in Fig. 21 2 . 

2. AKSOBHYA. 

Colour Blue Mudra Bhusparsa 

Vehicle Elephant Symbol Vajra 

Next in importance and antiquity is the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya 
whcTlsHnientioned as a Tathagata in the smaller recension of the 
Amitayus Sutra which was translated into Chinese between A. D, 384 
and 417. Aksobhya is regarded as the Second Dhyani Buddha by the 
Nepalese Buddhists. His description appears almost everywhere in 
Tantric literature. The Paficakara section of the Advayavajrasangraha 
perhaps gives the best description thus : 

^Suryamandalastha-nlla-Humkaranispanno dvibhuja ekamukho Bhu- 

sparsamudradharo vajraparyankl vijnanaskandhasvabhavah 

vajrakuli sisiramadhyahnakatusruti'akasasabda-cavargo Aksobhya- 

viuddhah". ADV. p. 40-41. 

| Aksobhya originates from the blue syllable Hum which is placed 
on the orb of the sun. He is two-armed and one-faced, exhibits 
the Bhusparsa (earth-touching] mudrf and sits in the Vajraparyanka 
(adama"ntineleat) pose. He represents the primordial cosmic element 
of Vijnana ( consciousness ). He is the embodiment of the Vajra 
family and represents the winter season, noon-time, pungent taste, 
faculty of hearing, the element of Ether and Sound and the Ca (palatal) 
group of letters".- J 

\Images, sculptures, statuettes and paintings of Aksobhya of this 
description are to be met with everywhere in Buddhist countries 
especially of the North. When represented in the Stupa he always 

1. Getty : GNB. pp t 61, 62 

2. This and other illustrations of the five Dhyani Bodhisattvas are in full- 
size bronzes. All these are to be found in the U Vahal in Nepal. 



52 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

faces the East. His left hand rests on the lap while the right 
Crests on the~nght knee with the tips of the fingers touching the 
ground with palm drawn inwardly. JffisJVahana is a pair of elephants 
and his recognition symbol is the Vajra or the thunderbolt. 

Various other forms of Aksobhya are found in Tantric works, 

some four^armed, some six-armed, some standing and some sitting, 

some single and some in Yab-yumj| Some two-armed specimens are 

reproduced here (Figs. 22, 23). 

, /He is popular in Tibet 1 and China 

(ii) 
Colour Blue Arms Eight 

Aksobhya is the principal deity in the Aksobhya Mandala according 
to Pindlkrama in the Nispannayogavall. He is described thus : 

"Aksobhyah krsno raudrah sitaraktasavyetaramukhah savyakaraih 
kulacakrapadmani vamair-ghanta-Cintamani-khadgan vibhranah svabha- 
parsavajralingitah". NSP. p. 5! 

| "Aksobhya is blue in colour and is angry-looking. The colour of 
his right face is white and that of the left is red. He holds in his right 
hands the Vajra (family symbol), the discus and the lotus. In the three 
left hands he carries the bell, the Cintamani jewel and the sword. 
With the two principal hands he embraces the Prajna Sparsavajra 
by name", j 

( , MAMAKI 

1 Colour Blue Symbol Vajra 

* According to a Dhyana in the Advayavajrasafigraha, Mamaki 
belongs to the Vajra family and thus she is the spiritual consort of the 
Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya, the embodiment of the Vajrakula. |The 
description is given below : f 

* Nairrtyarh candramandalopari krsna-Mam-karabijasambuta Ma- 
maki krsnavarna krsnavajracihna abdhatusvabhava Vajrakula dve* 
sarakta"! ADV. p. 4! 

"On the orb of the Moon in the Nairrta corner there is Mamaki 
originating from the blue germ syllable Mam. \ She is blue in colour 
and has the blue Vajra as her recogntion symbol. She is the embodi- 
ment of the element of Water and she belongs to the Vajra family. 
She is full of enmity", f 

Mamaki is very rarely represented. There are Nepalese drawings of 
this goddess J of which one specimen is reproduced here (Fig 24). She 
is known in Tibet and China.f 

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 104 ; Getty : GKB, pp. 36, 37. 

2. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 126, 129, 138, 244. 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 53 

VAJRAPANL 

y 

Colour Blue Symbol Vajra 

I The Bodhisattva Vajrapani with the Vajra symbol is the spiritual 
son of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya who is the progenitor of the 
Vajra family. His spiritual mother is Mamakl. Vajrapani, when 
represented, either stands or sits and carries usually^ lotus on which 
is placed the family symbol of Vajra. Sometimes he holds the Vajra 
against the chest in one of his hands/ Some images of his are illus- 
trated here (Figs. 25, 26, 27). 

He is known and widely represented in Tibet l and China 2 J 

3. VAIROCANA 

Colour White Mudra Dharmacakra 

Vahana Dragon Symbol Discus 

f Vairocana is mentioned along with the other Dhyani Buddhas in 
the Guhysamaja which is dated circa 300 A.D. He is regarded as the 
oldest^ ^^ t ' le ^ rst Dhyani Buddha by the Nepalese Buddhists and 
His place is in the sanctum of the Stupa where he is the master of the 
whole temple and its contents. Naturally, therefore, he cannot be 
represented outside the Stupa, but exception to this rule is frequently 
met with in the important stupas of Nepal where he is assigned a place 
between Aksobhya in the East and Ratnasambhava in the South. His 
form is frequently described in Tantric works, but the description 
occuring in the Pancakara section of the Advayavajrasahgraha is full. 
It is given below : | 

"Purvadale candramandalopari Omkarajah Suklavarna*Vairocanah 
suklacakracihnah Bodhyahgl-mudradharah rupaskandhasvabhavah 
mohasvarupo vitavisuddhah tathagatakuli adarsatvena pratisthitah 
Hemantartuvisuddhah madhurarasasarlrah Kavargavyapl prabhatasan- 
dhyatmakyasvabhavah". ADV. p. 41 

Vj'Vairocana originates from the white syllable Om placed on the orb 
of the moon on the eastern petal of the lotus and is white in colour. 
His recognition symbol is the white Discus. He exhibits the Bodhyafigl 
mudra and represents the cosmic element of Rupa (Form). He is of 
the nature of Moha (delusion) and is without bad companions, he is 
the embodiment of the Tathagata family, and is established as an 
embodiment of Adarsa (ideal) knowledge. He represents the Hemanta 
season, the sweet taste, the Ka (guttural) group of letters, and the 
mornings and evenings of the day". \ 

1. Getty : GNB. p. 51 

2* Clark : TLP. II. pp. 8, 11, 56, 197, 201. 



54 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

When represented, Vairocana is white in colour, and his two hands 
are held against the chest with the tips of the thumb and forefinger of 
each hand united. His Vahana is a pair of Dragons or gryphons and 
his recognition symbol is shown to be the Cakra or the Disc. 

Instead of two, he may have many arms, and such descriptions are 
also met with in the Nispannayogavall./ Some of his two-armed images 
are reproduced here (Figs 28, 29). / His images are found in Tibet l 
and China a / 

( ii ) 
Colour White Faces Four 

Arms Eight 

When Vairocana is four-faced and eight-armed he is called Vajra- 
dhatu and in this form he is described in the Vajradharu Mandala of 
the Nispannayogavall with the following words : 

"Vairocano vajraparyankena nisannah subhrah sita-pita-rakta- 
harita^caturvaktro astabhujah savyavamabhyam dhrtasavajrabodhyangi- 
mudro* parabhyam dhrtadhyanamudro daksinabhyam aksamalasara- 
dharo vamabhyarh cakracapabhrt". NSP. p. 44- 

"Vairocana is seated in Vajraparyahka and is white in colour. His 
four faces show white, yellow, red and green colours. I He is eight- 
armed. With the two principal hands holding the Vajra he exhibits 
the Bodhyahgl or the Dharmacakra mudra. With the second pair of 
hands he shows the Dhyana mudra. The two remaining right 
hands hold the rosary and the airow, and with the two remaining 
left he carries the discus and the bow". | 

Vajradhatu Buddha is mentioned in the Chinese collection 1 . The 
Chinese figure corresponds with the description given here and is 
illustrated in Fig 30. 

LOCANA. 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Discus 

The Dhyani Buddhas are a]J associated with their Sakti or female 
counterpart and an offspring or Bpdhisattva. They fall into a separate 
group of five or six if Vajra$attva is added. Locana belongs to the 
Tathagata family to which the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana also belongs. 
Thus Locana is the, Sakti or the female counterpart of the Dhyani 
Buddha Vairocana, f A short Dhyan^ in the Advayavajrasahgraha 
describes her form thus ; [ 

1. Gordon : ITL. p. 51 ; Getty: GNB, p. 34. 

2. Clark -TLP, II, pp 12, 57. 3.' Clark : TIP. Vol. II, p. 115 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 55 

"Agneyakonadale candramandalopari sukla-Lom-karaja suklavarna 
Locana cakra-cihna prthvidhatusvarupa Tathagatakulodbhava mo* 
harakta". ADV. p. 42 

"On the disc of the moon on the petal in the Agni corner there is 
Locaria originating from the white germ syllable Lom. J She is white. 
in colour, bears the recognition symbol of the discus, and is the embodi- 
"1*1 em of t h e cosimc~eIenSnF"bT Earth. She belongs to the Tathagata 
fanuTy^anHTs steeped in delusion". 

Paintings and sculptures of this goddess are rare, | A Nepalese draw- 
ing of the goddess is reproduced here in Fig. 31 Locana is represented 
in Tibet. * 

SAMANTABHADRA 
Colour White Symbol Cakra 

I The Dhy ani Buddhas are the progenitors of the different families 
and they have each a spiritual consort and spiritual son. These spiri- 
tual sons are called the Bodhisattvas. The Bodhisattvas bear the same 
colour, and the same recognition symbol whether they sit or stand. The 
Bodhisattva with the Cakra symbol is Samantabhadra and is thus 
affiliated to the Dhayani Buddha Vairocana with the Cakra symbol. He 
belongs to the Tathagata Kula. When represented,! he either stands 
erect or sits in different sitting attitudes, such as Dhyana, Lalita or 
Bhadra poses on a full-blown lotus. He usually holds the stem of a 
lotus on which the family symbol, the Cakra, is shown. 

Samantabhadra is known in Tibet 2 and China ;i and is frequently 
represented in the Buddhist countries of the North. | One of his images 
is illustrated here in Fig. 32. 

4. AMOGHASIDDHI. 
Colour Green Mudra Abhaya 

Vahana Garuda Symbol Visvavajra 

VThe Nepalese Buddhists consider him to be the Fifth Dhyani 
Buddha in order. His left hand lies open on the lap and the 
right exhibits the Abhaya ( protection ) mudra. His form is des- 
cribed in many places in Tantric works I but the one appearing in 
the Advayavajrasahgraha appears to be the best and i$ quoted 
below : t 

"Uttaradale suryamandalopari syama-Kham-karajah syamavarno- 
'moghasiddhih visva-vajracihnabhayamudradharah Samskaraskandha- 

1. Getty; GNB, p. 139. 

2. Getty ; GNB. p- 47. . Clark ; TIP, II, pp. 8, 9, 52, 133 



56 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

avabhavo Varsarturupah [Karmakull] pisitap(s?)ahtiktarastmakah 
pavargavisuddhah ardharatrasvabhavah." ADV. p. 41-42 

"Amoghasiddhi originates from the green syllable Kharh placed 
on the orb of the sun on the northern petal of the lotus, and 
is of green colour. /His recognition symbol is the Visvavajra or 

^> 1C '""(-, , 

the double thunderbolt. He exhibits the Abhaya ( protection ) 
mudra and represents the cosmic element of Samskara ( confor- 
ritotion ). He is the embodiment of the rainy season and is a 
demon by nature ; [ he belongs to the Karma family ] and he 
represents the bitter taste, the Pa (labial) group of letters and the 
middle part of the night." 

When represented, his colour is green and he always faces the 
North. His Vahana is a pair of Garudas and his recognition 
symbol is the Visvavajra or the double conventional thunderbolt. 
Sometimes a serpent with seven hoods forms the background and 
an umbrella. In front of his shrine, therefore, is found a small 
square pit which is meant for the snake 

Statues and paintings of this Dhyani Buddha are found in 
large numbers in all Buddhist countries especially of the North* 
Some of them are reproduced here (Figs. 33, 34 ). } He is popular 
in Tibet * and China a f 

TARA. 
Colour Green Symbol Utpala 

| Tara also called Tarim according to a Dhyana found in the 
PancSkara section of the Advayavajrasahgraha belongs to the 
Karma family to which evidently the Dhyani Buddha Amogha- 
siddhi is also associated. The green colour of Tara also suggest: 
that she is the spiritual consort of Amoghasiddhi of green colour 
Her form and nature are given in the following passage : 

"Atsanyarh candramandalopari kanakasyama-Tarh karaparinata TarinI 
syamavarna syamamlotpalacihna vayudhatusvarupa Karmakula 
Irsyarakta." ADV. p. 43. 

"In the Isana corner on the orb of the moon there is TSrim 
originating from the germ syllable Tarn of golden green colour 
Her recognitipn_ symbol is a green night lotus. She is the 
embodiment of the element of Air/ SKe belongs to 
family and is full of jealousy." 1 

1, Gordon: ITL, p. 27 , Getty: GNB. p. 42. 

I. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 32, 56, 115, 126, 128, 138, 144. 



57 




Fig. 12 ADI-BUDDHA, VAJRADHARA, 

( From a Nepalese Painting ) 



58 





Fig. 13 Vajradhara 
( Baroda Museum ) 



Fig. 14 Vajradhara Yab-yum 
( Nepal ) 





Fig, 15 Vajradhara Yal>yum 
( Side View ) 



Fig. 16 Vajradhara (Six-armed) 
( Baroda Museum ) 



59 




Fia. 17 Buddha in different Muuia* ( 




Fig* 18 Buddha in ( Java ) 




Fig. 19 Amitlhha, 





Fig, 20 Pandara, 




Fig. 21 Padmapani ( Nef?al 



Fig. 22 Aksobhya. 



QJL 





3 

I 

s 



o 




62 




CO 



U 

C 



SP 

PH 




CTJ 



00 
r^l 

db 



,,,'WVK 

g. 

103 




a- 

irt 



> s 

VO g 

<si .2 

di) ~ 
ffi tl 



63 





c 

03 
o 

O 




2 

4- 

Ctf 



SI 

s .& 



O 


DO 



64 




103 
P 

IOJ 

H 



.? 
E 




H3 



GJJ * 

O 

C 

c 

< 



m 
ac 




OJ 

co 
O 
S 



65 




CO 

JQ 

B 



c 

tJ 

CO 



00 




E 

ca 

CO 
CO 

C 







G* 

ICO 

a 

cO 



66 




03 
+- 

*> 
CO 
CO 
CO 



> ( 

V I 

^f 

ei 




i 

o 

03 

a 




,1 



ON 




e 
1 

Of 



> 

ti 

g 



* 

m 
> 




6 
1 







68 






Fig, 45 Seven Mortal Buddhas with Maitreya 

Indian Museum ) 




Pig, 46 

( ) 



69 





Ctf 

ui 

03 
0* 

C 
co 

8 

ub 

oo 
^t- 

ob 







70 






CO 

s 



71 




2 

ted 

Qfc 

led 




fi- 
led 

O, 

cd 




a 

a 

a 

cd 

O 



72 




a 

10$ 
+- 

CO 
ICtf 

OS 



QO 




ctf 

< 



o 

E 




DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 73 

The same remarks apply to her images and paintings which 
are rare in India* One specimen of her images is illustrated here 
(Fig. 35 ), In Tibet 1 and China 2 she is widely known. 

VISVAPANI 
Colour Green Symbol Visvavajra. i 

Visvapani, as the name indicates, is the holder of the Visvavajra 
or the double thunderbolt which is the symbol of the Dhyani 
Buddha Amoghasiddhi, whose spiritual consort is Tar a or Tarim. 
They all belong to what is called the Karmakula to which the 
green colour is assigned. Visvapani thus is green in colour and 
shows the Visvavajra on a lotus. When represented, he may. 
stand erect or sit in different sitting postures. His images are 
sometimes found, and one specimen is illustrated here ( Fig 36 ). 
Visvapani is known in Tibet r> 

5. RATNASAMBHAVA. 
Colour Yellow Mudra Varada 

Vahana Lion Symbol Jewel ! 

I The Nepalese Buddhists regard him as the Third Dh>uni Buddha 
in order, and the earliest mention of his name may be found in the 
Guhyasamaja which is believed to have been composed circa 300 A.D. 
He is the progenitor of the Ratnakula, and is described widely in the 
Buddhist Tantric works. Out of all descriptions the one given in 
the Pancakara section of the Advayavajrasahgraha is perhaps the besty 
Here Ratnasambhava is described as under : J 

"Daksinadale suryamandalopari TranVkarajah pitavarno Ratnasam- 
bhavo ratnacihnavaradamudradharo vedanasvabhava'piiunasanrah rak- 
tatmako ratnakull samatajnanavan vasantarturupo lavanasanrah Tavar- 
gavyap! trtlyacaturtliapraharatmakah". ADV, p. 41. 

^"Ratnasambhava originates from the yellow syllable Train placed 
on the orb of the sun on the southern petal./ He is yellow in cqlour* 
his recognitiqn symbol is the jewel and he exhibits the Varada (gift" 
bSstnwing) Mudra. He represents the cosmic element of VedanS 
(sensation) and is the embodiment of slander (pisuna). He presides 
over the blood in the human system, and belongs to the Ratna (jewel) 
family of deities. He possesses the knowledge of Samata (equality) 
and presides over the spring season, the saline taste, the Ta (dental) 
group of letters and the third and fourth parts of the day and night", \ 

1. Getty : GNB, p. 127 2 Clark: TLP, II, pp. 60, 107, 171. 

3. Getty: GNB, p. 10 i 
10 



74 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

When represented, his colour is yellow* and he alwayvS faces the 
South. His left hand rests on the lap with "opeiTpalm, and the TTgBt 
'exhibits the Varada Mudra or the gift bestowing attitude. His Vahana 
is a pair of lions, and theTCTOgnition symbol is the Jewel (Ratnacchata), 

He may have more arms than two and in such forms he is described 
in^lhe Nispannaybgavali. ~Such forms alre also represented iti art."f"Some 
oT"his two-armed forms are only illustrated here (Figs 37, 38), \ He 
is widely known and represented in Tibet 1 and China -./ 

^ , VAJRADHATVI&VARI 

J Colour Yellow Symbol Jewel 

/ Vajradhatvisvarl, according to a statement in the Advayavajrasam* 
graha is the deity of the centre surrounded by the four Buddhasaktis, 
bocana, Tara, Pandara, and MamakL She is said to be the embodi- 
ment of the highest truth in Mahayana Buddhism which is named 
differently as Tathata, Sunyata, Frajnaparamita and so forth :t . 
Vajradhatvisvan thus can be taken as the spiritual consort of Ratna- 
sambhava only, with the yellow colour and the jewel as symbol. 

Images and paintings of this deity are still rarer than those of the 
other Buddhasaktis. / One of her Nepalese paintings is illustrated 
here (Fig 39). / She is known in Tibet *./ 

; , RATNAPANI 

i / 

/ ' Colour Yellow Symbol Jewel 



Ratnapani, as the name signifies, belongs to the Ratnakula which 
is presided over by the Dhyani Buddha Ratnasambhava, whose 
spiritual consort is Vajradhatvisvan. Ratnapani is of the same 
nature as the Dhyani Buddha and when represented, he either 
stands erect, or sits in different sitting postures. He 



stalk of a lotus on which appears the" Kula symbol 
hefe~thne Jewel (Ratnacchata). He is represented sparingly in the 
BuddTiist Countries of "the North, and a metal image of his found 
in Nepal is illustrated here (Fig 40). Ratnapani is known and 
represented in Tibet 5 . 

6. VAJRASATTVA. 
Colour White Symbols Vajra and Ghanta 

( Vajrasattva, the Sixth Dhyani Buddha, is regarded by the Nepal 
Buddhists as the priest of the Five Dhyani Buddhas. He is not repre- 

1. Getty : GNB, p. 37. 2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 32, 57 119, 126. 

3* ADV, p. 43. 4- Getty : GNB, p. 139. 

5. Getty ; GNB, p 53, 54 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 75 

sented in the Stupa like the other Dhyani Buddhas, but independent 
shrines are dedicated to his worship. His worship is always performed 
in secret and is not open to those who are not initiated into the mys- 
teries of Vajrayana. Vajrasattva is represented in two forms, single 
and Yub-yum. 

The notable feature of this Dhyani Buddha is that he wears all 
ornaments, rich dress and a crown instead of the poor dress of the 
other Dhyani Buddhas consisting of three rags (tricivara). Thus 
Vajrasattva appears more to be a Bodhisattva than a Dhyani Buddha. 

He sits cross-legged in the meditative pose like the other Dhyani 
Buddhas, and exhibits no special Mudra. He carries the Vajra in his 
right hand with palm upwards against the chest and the Ghanta (Bell) in 
the left hand resting against the left thigh. His form is repeatedly 
described in Tantric works. jThe description given in the Advaya- 
vajrasafigraha is typical and is quoted below : 

"Vajrasattvastu Hurhkarajanma suklo dvibhuja ekavaktro vajra- 
vajraghantadharo Kasayarasasanrah saradrtuvisuddho Yaralavadyatma- 
kah ardharatratah prabhatakalaparyanto Dharmadhatuparanama", 

ADV, p. 41. 

"Vajrasattva originates from the syllable HUM and is white in 
colour. He is two-armed and one-faced and holds in his two 
hands the Vajra and Vajra-marked Ghanta. |He represents the as- 
tringent taste, the Autumn season, the letters of the alphabet ya, 
ra, la, and va, and the part of the night from midnight to day-break. 
His second name is Dharmadhatu". \ 

I When represented singly, he is exhibited before the public. The 
Yab"yum form is generally kept" secret. When represented in Yab- 
yumV'he is closely associated with his Sakti who is generally known 
as Vajrasattvatmika. He carries the Vajra and the Ghanta in the 
same manner as when single, but the Sakti holds the Kartri in the 
right hand and the Kapala in the left (Figs. 41, 42). * 

* He is represented widely in all Buddhist countries of the North. 
Some of his single and Yab-yum forms are illustrated here (Figs. 43,44)* 
'His white colour suggests that his spiritual sire is Vairocana of 
white colour. His position amongst the Dhyani Buddhas is anomalous. 
Vajrasattva is widely represented in Tibet l and China f 

I. Getty : GNB, p. 6 

2; Clark :TLP. II. p. 138. 



76 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

VAJRASATTVATMIKA. 

Colour White Symbol Kartri and Kapala 

Arms Two 

/ As all the Dhyani Buddhas have a Sakti each attached to them, 
even so the Sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva also can claim a 
Sakti. Vajrasattvatmika thus is the spiritual consort of the Sixth 
Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva. Hejr Dhyana is rarely found, in.. Tan- 
trie literature, but her form can Tie seen from the images where 
she is in close embrace with Vajrasattva in Yab-yum. In such cases 
she carries the Kartri in the right hand and Kapala in the left. / 

GHANTAPANI 
Colour White Symbol Ghanta 

The Sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva and his consort Vajrasa- 
ttvatmika claim Ghantapani as their Bodhisattva. The recognition 
symbol of this Bodhisattva is the Ghanta or the Bell Like his 
spiritual sire he must be white in colour. Ghantapani is rarely 
represented, and his images are very rare in Buddhist countries. 

MORTAL BUDDHAS" 

Both the Mahayanists and the Hmayanists hold that a Buddha 
is one who is endowed with the thirty-two major and eighty mi- 
nor auspicious marks known as "external characteristics" as enu- 
merated in the Dharmasarhgraha, attributed to Nagarjuna. He must 
have in addition, three kinds of mental characteristics, namely, the 
ten Balas or forces, eighteen Avenika Dharmas or peculiar proper- 
ties, and the four Vaisaradyas or points of self-confidence or 
assurance. 

The Hmayanists, even in their earlier stages, recognised 
four bygone Buddhas, each having a peculiar Bodhi tree. 
Mahayanists also give several lists, though not systematically and 
thirtyjjwp different names have been recovered. The last seven 
Jathagatas are well known, and are designated by the Mahyani* 
sts aT^MTOtlsi or^ Mortal Buddhas. These are, Vipasyin, Sikhi, 
Visvabhu, Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni, Kasyapa and Sakyasimha. 
The historicity of these Buddhas is still uncertain excepting of course 
that of the last, but there are good grounds for thinking that 
Kanakamuni and Krakucchanda really w^re^ historical personages* 

Attempts have been made to establish a fantastic connection 
between the last five Mortal Buddhas and the five Dhyani Buddhas 
and their Bodhisattvas by holding that the Divine Bodhisattvas 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 77 

discharge their duties of creation through the agency of the five 
portal Buddhas. The theory may be current in Tibet ; it may 
ingeniously establish a new connection and may find strong support 
from scholars, but it is against all Tantric traditions of India. 

When represented, the last seven Mortal Buddhas appear all alike ; I 
they are of one colour and one form, usually sitting cross-legged, 
with the right hand disposed in the Bhumigparsa 



touching attitude)", which is^the MudrOpeculiar to Aksobhya and 
as^a matter ot t'act, it is not possible to identify a sculpture of 
the latter unless it is coloured or if no other identification mark 
is present. In paintings, the Mortal Buddhas have -usually a yellow 
or golden complexion. The only possible chance of identifying 
them is when they appear in groups of seven. 1 

Sometimes they are represented as standing, in which case they 
appear under a distinguishing Bodhi Tree and with a distinguish- 
ing Mudra. The Indian Museum image No* B, G, 83 (Fig. 45) is 
an image of this kind. It may be noted, however, that Maitreya, 
the future Buddha, has been added to this group. 

VAJRASANA 

Gautama, the last of the group of the seven Mortal Buddhas, 
is widely represented both in sculptures and in paintings. His 
images date from a period anterior to the birth of Christ and the 
fascination of Indian sculptors for Buddha images seems never to 
have diminished. Innumerable images of Buddha in innumerable 
attitudes and with, innumerable expressions have been discovered 
in India, as in those other countries which came under the influ- 
ence of Buddhism, Images of Buddha, therefore, are an indepen- 
dent study by themselves. 

The Sadhanamala furnishes us with several descriptions of Buddha 
Vajrasana sitting in the Vajraparyahka attitude, with his right 
hand displaying the Bhumisparsa pose. The Dhyana, as given in 
one of the Sadhana is quoted below : 

"Savyakarena Bhusparsamudram utsahgasthitavasavyahastam kiisaya- 
vastravagunthanam mlagauraraktasyamacatur-Maropari visva-padmavaj- 
rSvasthitarh santam laksanavyanjanenanvitagatram. Tasya Bhagavato 
daksine Maitreya^Bodhisattvam gauram dvibhujarh jatamukutinam 
savyakarena camararatnadharinam avasavyena nagakesarapuspacchata^ 
dharinam, Tatha vamato Lokesvarram suklam daksinakarena cama- 

1* Colossal images of the Seven Mortal Buddhas representing them with the Bhu- 
mi^parla mudra appear in one of cave temples at Ellora. Fergusson and Burgess: Cave 
Templet of India, p. 383. 



78 , BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

radhararh vamakarena kamaladhararh Bhagavanmukhavlokanajparau ca 
tau bhavayet. 

Iti Vajrasanasadhanarh samaptam" 

Sadhanamala, p. 24- 

"The worshipper should meditate himself as (Vajrasana) who dis* 
plays the Bhusparsa Mudra in his right hand while the left rests 
on the lap. He is dressed in red garments and sits on the Vajra- 
marked double lotus placed on the four Maras of blue, white, red 
and green colour. He is peaceful in appearance and his body is 
endowed with all the major and minor auspicious marks, 

'To the right of the God is Maitreya Bodhisattva who is white, 
two^armed, and wears the Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair), and 
carries the chowrie-Jewel in the right hand, and the Nagakesara flower 
in the left. 

"Similarly, to the left of the principal God is Lokesvara of white 
complexion, carrying in his right hand the chowrie and the lotus in the 
left. 

'These two gods should be meditated upon as looking towards the 
face of the (principal) god 

"Here ends the Sadhana for Vajrasana" 

Images of this divinity are found in overwhelming numbers in almost 
all Buddhist centres in India. The Indian Museum image (Fig. 46) 
is an example of this form of Gautama. 

Buddha Sakyasirhha was conceived in another form which was called 
by the name of Durgatiparisodhana. This particular form of Sakya*- 
simha is described in the Nispannayogavali of Abhayakara Gupta. 

DURGATIPARISODHANA. 

Colour Yellow Face One 
Arms Two Mudra Dharamacakra 

Sakyasimha, the embodiment of Mahavairocana, is the principal deity 
in the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. He has 
been described in a short sentence : 

"Cakrasya vedyam visvasarojasthasimhopari snoakyasirhhoBhagavan 
Mahavairocanah suvarnavarno dhrtadharmacakramudrah, 

"NSP, p. 66. 

"On the centre of the wheel on a lion placed on a double lotus sits 
the god Sri Sakyasimha, the embodiment of Mahavairocana of golden 
yellow colour, dispalying in his two hands the Dharmacakra Mudra". 

Nepalese paintings of the deity are available, but sculptures are hot 
recorded anywhere, , ^ 



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 79 

MORTAL BUDDHA&AKTIS 

Like the Dhyani Buddhas, the Mortal Buddhas have also their res- 
pective Buddhasaktis through whom they obtained the seven Mortal 
Bodhisattvas. The Buddhasaktis are : 

1. Vipasyanti 4. Kakudvatl 

2. SikhimalinI 5. Kanthamalini 

3. Visvadhara 6. Mahidhara 

7. Yasodhara 

Representation of these are not met with anywhere in India. Only 
one Statuette of the last Yasodhara is found in China * . 

MORTAL BODHISATTVAS 

They were brought into existence by their respective Mortal Buddhas 
and their Saktis. They are : 

1. Mahamati 4 Sakamangala 

2. Ratnadhara 5. Kanakaraja 

3. A k a s a g a n j a 6. Dharmadhara 

7. A n a n d a L> 

The names of Yasodhara and Ananda are familiar names, the former 
being the name of Sakyasimha's wife and the latter that of his favourite 
disciple. 

The relation between the Mortal Buddhas, their Buddhasaktis and 
the Bodhisattvas may be thus shown in a tabular form : 



Mortal 
Buddha 


Mortal 
Buddhasakti 


Mortal 
Bodhisattva 


Vipasyi 

Visvabhu 
Krakucchanda 
Kanakamuni 
Kasyapa 
Sakyasimha 


Vipasyanti 
SikhimalinI 
Visvadhara 
Kakudvatl 
Kanthamalini 
Mahidhara 
Yasodhara 


Mahamati 
Ratnadhara 
Akasaganja 
Sakamangala 
Kanakaraja 
Dharmadhara 
Ananda N*^,.^- 


L Clark: TLP, II, p. 171. 
from Nfoal, Vo. If. 163 
2* Oldfield : Sketches from 


Vw %r* 

For the names of the Buddhasaktis see>OidfiftB : Batches 
and 185 ff. Vs. \ / 
Ni0a/;VoL II. pp. 163 and 185 ffS, Cr^ 



80 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

MAITREYA, THE FUTURE BUDDHA. 

It would not be out of place to mention here the name of 
Maitreya who partakes of the nature of a Mortal Buddha, though 
he is not a Buddha yet. He is supposed to be passing the life of 
a Bodhisattva in the Tusita heaven, preparatory to his descent to 
earth in human form. It is said that he will come to earth full 
4000 years after the disappearance of Buddha Gautama for the 
deliverance of all sentient beings. Asahga is said to have visited 
Maitreya in the Tusita heaven and to have been initiated by him 
into the mysteries of Tantra. He is the only Bodhisattva who is 
worshipped alike by the Hinayanists and the Mahayanists and his 
images can be traced from the Gandhara School down to the 
present time/ Hiuen Tsang records the existence of Maitreya in 
Udyana (U-chang-na). The sculptor, in order to ascertain his correct 
form, is believed to have gone several times to the Tusita heaven 
before carving it. 

Maitreya may be represented as a standing figure, adorned with 
rich ornaments and holding in his right hand the stalk of a lotus 
He is distinguished from Padmapani mainly by the figure of a 
small Caitya which he bears on his crown. Getty remarks that in 
Indian sculpture he shows in his hands the usual Dharmacakramu- 
dra ; in the left there is a vase, round, oval or pointed, or there 
may be the stems of flowers which support his two characteristic 
symbols, the vase and the wheel. Maitreya may also be represen- 
ted seated as a Buddha, with legs either interlocked or dangling 
down. His colour is yellow, and his images sometimes bear the 
figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas, on the aureole behind. 
The small Caitya on the crown of Maitreya is said to refer to the 
belief that a Stupa in the mount Kukkutapada near Bodh-Gaya 
covers a spot where Kasyapa Buddha is lying. When Maitreya 
would descend to earth he would go direct to the spot, which would 
open by magic, and receive from Kasyapa the garments of a 
Buddha. 

The Sadhanamala furnishes us with only one description of 
Maitreya as a principal divinity and several others in which he is 
represented as a minor god. When as a minor god, he accompa- 
nies others, he generally carries the chowrie in the right hand and 
the Nagakesara flower in the left. The Sadhana describing the 
procedure of his worship has Dhyana : 



DHYAN1 AND MORTAL BUDDHAS 81 

Pita* MamYkaraparina tarn visvakamalasthitam trimukham 

caturbhujarh krsnasukladaksinavamamukham suvarnagauram 
sattvaparyahkinam vyakhyanamudradharakaradvayam aparadaksi* 
navamabhujabhyam varadapuspitanagakesaramanjarldharam 

nanalahka radharam atmanam Maitreyarupam aiambya 

Maitreyasadhanam. Sadhanamala, p. 560. 

"The worshipper should meditate himself as Maitreya who ori- 
ginates from the yellow germ syllable "Maim". He is three-faced 
three-eyed, and four-armed. His right and left faces respectively 
are of blue and white colour. His complexion is yellow like that 
of gold. He sits in the Paryanka attitude on an animal His two 
hands are engaged in exhibiting the Vyakhyana Mudra and he 
shows in his other right and left hands the Varada Mudra and a 
full-blown Nagakesara flower with its branches He is decked in many 
ornaments. Meditating thus .. 

This is the Sadhana for Maitreya.'' 

A Nepalese drawing (Fig. 47) represents 'this form of Maitreya which 
follows the Dhyana in all .details except the vehicle. Maitreya is 
popular in Tibet 1 and his images are found in abundance in China 1 ', 



1. Gordon : ITL, pp. 104, 107; Getty : GNB, pp. 22, 23. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 1, 9, 59, 143, 195. 
11 



CHAPTER II 

THE BODHISATTVAS 

I The term Bodhisattva consists of two words Bodhi (enlightenrrent) 
and Sattva (essence) and they represent a class of deities who derive 
their origin from the five Dhyani Buddhas representing the five primor- 
dial elements. The Bodhisattvas 'thus connote all the ryale deities 
of the Buddhist pantheon, while their female counterparts are known 
by the generic name of Saktis. These Saktis should be distinguished 
from the Buddhasaktis who are fhe queens of the five Dhyani Buddhas-. 
The Bodhisattvas are sometimes represented in the company ot their 
Saktis who are seated either beside them or on their laps or in close 
embrace. Although all the male deities of the Buddhist pantheon can 
be called the Bodhisattvas, they are ncveitheless separated in icono- 
graphic studies as an independent group. Thus, in the Nispannayogavali, 
three distinct groups of sixteen Bodhisattvas are mentioned and it is 
necessary to refer to them here along with their iconography as found 
in this excellent book. Amongst the Bodhisattvas, Avalokitesvara 
ai^Maniyin are the chief and have wide popularity not only in this 
country, but also in other Buddhist countries such as Tibet, China and 
Japan.! As the images of Avalokitesvara and Manjusri are found in 
<rlt~ these countries in large numbers and in a wide variety of forms 
they require obviously a separate treatment in subsequent chapters. 
The Nispannayogavall of Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta men- 
tions altogether ihree sets 1 of sixteen Bodhisattvas. Some names 
occur in one or two or all the three lists, which when analysed, 
give an account of twenty-five Bodhisattvas in all. These three 
lists are headed in one by Samantabhadra and in two others by 
Maitreya, the Future Buddha. Images of many of these Bodhisa- 
ttvas are found in India, but their number is the largest in China 
as would be seen in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons by Walter 
Eugene Clark. The three lists as given by Abhayakara Gupta are 
stated below for facility of comparison, before the Bodhisattvas 
are actually described with the help of the Dlvyanas. 

List No. 1 Samantabhadra, Aksavamati, Ksirigarbha, Akasagarbha, 
Ganganaganja, Ratnapani, Sagaramati, Vajragarbha, Avalokitesvara, 
Mahasthamaprapta, Chandraprabha, Jalimprabha, Amitaprabha, Pra- 
tibhankuta, Sarvasokatamonirghatamati, Sarvanivaranaviskambhin. 



1. NSP, pp. 46, 50, 67. 



THE BODHISATTVAS 83 

List No. 2 Maitreya, Manjusri, Gandhahasti, Jnanaketu, Bhadra- 
pala, Sagaramati, Aksayamati, Pratibhanakuta, Mahasthamaprapta, 
Sarvapayanjaha, Sarvasokatamonirghatamati, Jaliniprabha, Candrapra- 
bha, Amitaprabha, Gaganaganja, Sarvanivaranaviskambhin. 

List No. 3 Maitreya, Amoghadarsin, Apayanjaha-Saivapayanjaha, 
Sarvasokatamonirghatamati, Gandhahasti, Surangama, Gaganaganja, 
Jnanaketu, Amitaprabha, Candraprabha, Bhadrapala, Jaliniprabha, 
Vajragarbha, Aksayamati, Pratibhanakuta, Samantabhadra. 



1. SAMANTABHADRA 1 
Colour Yellow and Blue Symbol Jewel 

/ The Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (Universal Goodness) is important 
as the leader of the sixteen Bodhisattvas and thus is not a whit less 
important than the Future Buddha Maitreya who is at the head of the 
two other lists of Bodhisattvas. Samantabhadra 's popularity is 
further exemplified by frequent mention of his name in the Nispanna* 
yogavali. Samantabhadra is popular both in Tibet and China where 
his images are frequent and numerous. 

/ He is described several times in the Nispannayogavall and in several 
places his form is identical with that of his sire. But there are places 
where his independent forms are described which are important for 
the purpose of iconographic studies. These are mentioned here./ 

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala Samantabhadra is described 
as follows : 

Samantebhadrah pltahsavyenavarado vamena utpalakhadgadharah. 

NSP, p. 58. 

*' Samantabhadra is yellow in colour, shows the Varada (boon) in the 
right Rand and holds on the left the sword on lotus." / 
| In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala he is described as :/ 

Samantabhadrah suvarnavarno ratnamanjaribhrddaksinapanih 
katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 67. 

"Samantabhadra is of golden colour, holds a bunch of jewels in the 
right hand", while the left rests on the hip,',' f 

I Once again Samantabhadra is described in the Kalacakra Mandala. 
There he is described as : / 

Samantabhadrah nllah savyairvajrakartriparasun vamah>ghanta> 
kapala*Brahmasirarhsi dadhanah. Brahmasirahsthane, utpalam va* 
Dharmavajrasamapanno'yam. NSP, p. 85. 

* Samantabhadra is blue in colour and holds in his three right hands 
the Vajra, the Kartri and the Para su, and in the three left hands the 



1. For a full description see Hetty : GNB, p. 47, f. 



84 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Ghanta, the Kapala and the severed head of Brahma. Sometimes the 
head of Brahma is replaced by the Utpala. He is embraced by his 
consort Dharmavajra/' I 

1 Although images of Samantabhadra are not rare in India, the bulk 
of his images are to be met with in China, At least five images of the 
Bodhisattva are found in Peiping alone. l \ Fig. 48 is a Nepalese drawing 
of the deity. 

I Samantabhadra is popular in the Sadhanamala, although only 
one description of his is available. In the Lokanatha Sadhana he is 
described as : / 

Samantabhadrah pitabho ratnotpalavarapradah 

Sadhanamala, p. 49 

"Samantabhadra is of yellowish colour, holds the jewel on a lotus and 
exhibits the Varada Mudra in his two hands." / 

fo 2. AKSAYAMATI 

\: Colour Yellow Symbol Sword or Jar 

IThe second Bodhisattva is Aksayamati (Indestructible mind) and 
his name is widely known in the Buddhist ritualistic literature. Aksa- 
yamati is described thrice in the Nispannayogavall.^ 

In the Manjuvajra Mandala Aksayamati is described as : 

Aksayamatih suvarnavarno vamamustim hrdyavasthapya savyena 
varadamudrah. NSP, p. 50. 

/ ''Aksyamati is of golden complexion, and shows the clenched 
left hand against the chest, and exhibits the Varada mudra in 
the right/' I 

/ In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala, he is described somewhat 
differently as :/ 

Aksayamatih pitah savyena khadgam vamenaabhayakamalam 
bibharti. NSP, p 58. 

/ "Aksayamati is yellow in colour and flourishes the sword in 
the right hand, while he exhibits in the left hand the Abhaya 
rnudra and the Kamala." j 

I A third description of this Bodhisattva occurs* in the Durgati- 
parisodhana Mandala and he is described in the following words : 
Aksayamatih sito h^stabhyarh jnanamrtakalasadharl 

NSP, p. 67. 

/ "Aksayamati is white in colour and with his two hands holds 
the bowl containing the nectar of knowledge." / 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 8, 9, 52, 133, 274. 



THE BODHISATTVAS 85 

( A Chinese statuette 1 depicts him in the form of the Dhyani 
Buddha Amoghasiddhi with the right hand raised against the chest 
in the Abhayamudra and the left resting on the lap. | Fig. 49 is a 
Nepalese drawing of the deity. Fig. 50 illustrates a Chinese 
specimen. 

3. KSITIGARBHA * 
Colour Yellow or Green Symbol Kalpa Tree on Jar 

The third Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha (matrix of the earth) is rarely 
represented. He is described twice in the Nispannayogavali. In 
one, he is identical with his sire Vairocana with the Cakra symbol. 
In another, Ksitigarbha is described in the following words : 

Ksitigarbhah pito daksinena krtabhusparso vamenabjastha*kalpa' 
drumadharah. ' NSP, p. 58. 

"Ksitigarbha is yellow in colour, shows the earth -touching 
mudra in the right hand, and a lotus with the wish-giving tree 
(kalpavrksa) in the left." 

Ksitigarbha is illustrated four times in the Peiping collection in 
different forms. y He is also found in Tibet. 1 Fig. 51 is a Nepalese 
drawing of the deity. 

Under Lokanatha Sadhana in the Sadhanamala a further des- 
cription occurs of the Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha. Here he is des- 
cribed in verse as : 

Ksitigarbhah syamavarnah kalasam cabhayaiii tatha. 

Sadhanamala, p. 49. 

"Ksitigarbha is of green colour, and shows in his two hands 
the jar and the Abhaya mudra/' 

4. AKASAGARBHA' 
Colour Green Symbol Jewel 

The Bodhisattva Akasagarbha (essence of ether) is also known 
by the name of Khagarbha, the words "Kha" and "Akasa" sig- 
nify the same thing "Sky" Akasagarbha is the Bodhisattva who 
lives in the womb of the sky. 

Akasagarbha is described in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala 
of the Nispannayogavali. His form is depicted in the following 



1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 132. 

2 For further information see Getty : GNB. p. 90, et, seq. 

3. Clark : TLP, II. pp. 8. 9, 56, 274. 

4. Gordon : ITL, p. 60. 

5. For futher information see Getty : GNB, p. 101. 



60 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

words : 

Akasagarbhah syamah savyena sarvaratnavarsl \amena ciritamani- 
bbrt. NSP, p 58. 

"Akasagarbha is green in complexion, with the right hands 
he showers all kind of jewels and with the left, he holds the 
Cintamani (wish-giving) jewel." 

Altogether four illustrations of Akasagarbha appear in the two 
Lamaistic Pantheons. In China, he is represented in three distinct 
forms. 1 Two statuettes show the lotus in the right hand and the 
Varada mudra in the left. The third is three-faced and Mx-armed 
while the fourth shows the jewel in the right hand and the Varada 
mudra with the jewel in the left. Fig. 52 is a Ncpalcse drawing of 
the deity. 

Akasagarbha is recognized by his second name of Khagarbba 
in the Sa llrmmala and under the Lokanatha Sadhana his form is 
described as follows : 

Khagarlho nabhahsyamabho cintamanivarapradah. 

Sadhanamala, p. 49 

"Khagarbha is green as the sky, holds the Cintamani jewel in' 
one hand and exhibits the Varada mudra in the other." 



5. GAGANAGANJA 
Colour Yellow or Red Symbol Kalpa Tree 

/ The Bodhtsattva Gaganaganja is described four times in the 
Nispannayogavall. His colour is yellow showing his affiliation to 
Ratnasambhavh of yellow colour with the Varada mudra and the jewel. 
In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as:/ 

Gaganaganjah suvarnavarno vame vajramustim garvena katyam 
nyasya daksinam gagane bhramayan. NSP, p. 50* 

/ "Gaganaganja is of golden yellow colour. In the left he holds 
the Vajra with in clenched hand which is proudly placed on the hip, 
while the right is flourished upwards in the sky." * 

/ The Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala describes him with the follow- 
ing words ; ' 

Gaganaganjah pirah savyena Cintamanibhrd-vamena bhadraghata- 
valambitakalpavrksam dadhanab. NSP, p. 58. 

I "Gaganaganja is yellow and shows the Cintamani jewel in the 
right hand. In the left, he holds the auspicious bowl from which 
is suspended a Kalpa (wish-giving) tree." I 



1. Clark : TLP, II. pp. 8, 9, 56, 273. Also NSP. introduction p 25. 



TH BODHISATIVAS S? 

/ A third description of Gaganaganja occurs in the Durgatipari* 
sodhani Mandala. There his form is as under: / 

Gaganagnnjah sitapitah savyena padmasthadharmaganjadhanilh 
katisthdvamahastah. NSP, p. 67 

I "Gaganaganja is whitish yellow in complexion. He holds the 
Dharmaganja on lotus in the right hand, while his left hand rests on the 
hip/ / 

/ Ga^anaganja is also represented in the same form as his sire Ratna- 
sambhiua of yellow colour. In the Two Larnaistic Pantheons Gagana- 
gnnja occurs only once and he is of the same form as his sire Ratnasam' 
bhava,) Fig. 53 is a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva. 

I Bodhisattva Gaganaganja is not unknown to the SaJhanamala. In 
the Loknatha Sadhana, a iJhort description of the deity is available. It 
runs as follows : ( 

Gaganaganjo raktavarno mlotpalavarapradah 

. Sadhanumala, p. 49. 

Gaganaganja of red colour, holds the blue lotus and exhibits the 
Varda rnudra in his two hands." I 

6. RATNAPAN1 2 
ColourGreen Symbol Jewel or the Moon 

The Bodhisattva Ratnapani (Jewel bearer) is described only once in 
the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. Here he 
is described as : 

Ratanapanih syamo daksinapanina ratnam vamenabjastha-candra- 
mandalam bibhranh. NSP, p> 58, 

"Ratnapani is green in colour, holds the jewel in the right hand, and 
the disc of the moon on lotus in the left hand/' 

He is the Bodhisattva of the Dhyani Buddha RatnasamHrava and as 
such, he is sometimes represented in Nepal and Tibet His image is not 
found in the Chinese collection. Fig. 54 is a Nepalese drawing of the 
Bodhisttva. 

7. SAGARAMATI 

Colour White Symbol Sea Wave or Conch 

Bodhisattva Sagaramati ( ocean mind ) is twice described in the 
Nispannayogavali. In the Manjuvajra Mandala, he is described as: 
Sagaramatih sito hastadvayaprasaritah sarvahgulibhistaran^abhinayi 

NSP, p. 50. 

1, Clark : TLP, II. p. 136. 

2. For futher information see Getty t GNB, p, 53, $4. 



33 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Sagaramati is white in colour with both hands outstretched and the 
fingers displaying the sea-waves. " 

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala he is once again described as : 

Sagaramatih sitah savyena samkhamvamena vajrakhadgam dadhanah. 

" NSP, p. 58. 

"Sagaramati is white in colour, holds in the right hand the conch, 
and in the left a sword marked with a Vajra." 
Fig. 55 is a Nepalese drawing of Sagaramati. 

8. VAJRAGARBHA 
Colour Blue or Bluish White Symbol juMbdonuiiuKa Scripture 

' The Bodhisattva Vajragarbha (matrix of Thunderbolt) is described 
twice in the NispannayogavalL In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala 
he is described as : I 

Vajragarbho mlotpaladalavarno daksmena vajram vamena dasabhii' 
mikapustakadharah. NSP, p. 58. 

''Vajragarbha is of the colour of the petal of a blue lotus and holds in the 
right hand the Vajra and in the left the book called the Dasabhumika." 
| In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala Vajragarbha's form is depicted 
thus : 

Vajragabho mlasitah savyena mlotpaladharah katinyastavamamustih. 

NSP, p. 67. ' 

"Vajragarbha is of bluish white colour and holds the blue lotus in the 
right hand while the clenched left rests on the hip." * 

His images are rare, and he is not represented in the Chinese collec- 
tion. Fig. 56 is a Nepalese drawing of Vajragarbha. 

9. AVALOKITESVARA 
(Colour White Symbol Lotus 

The Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara (The Watchful Lord) also called 
Padmapani (Lotus bearer) is the spiritual son of^ the Dhyani Buddha 
Amitabha. He is one of the most popular Bodhisattvas <pf the Buddhist 
Pantheon having as many as 108 different forms. A separate chapter 
is devoted to this Bodhisattva in this work. Here only his special form 
that occurs in the Nispannayogavali in the list of Sixteen Bodhisattvas 
will be referred to. * 

Avalokitesvara is described in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala as: 
Avalokitesvarah subhrah savyena varado vamena sarojadharah. 

NSP, p. 58. 

"Avalokitesvara is white in colour ; he displays the Varada mudra in 
the right hand and in his left, he holds the lotus," 



THE BODHISATTVAS 89 

Avalokitesvara is four times illustrated in the Two Lamaistic 
Pantheons ] Fig. 57 is a Nepalese drawing of Avalokitesvara, 

10. MAHASTHAMAPRAPTA 
Colour White or Yellow Symbol Six Lotuses or Sword 

The Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta (one who has obtained great 

strength) is described twice in the Nispannayogavali. In the Manjuvajra- 

Mandala he is described us : 

Mahasthamapraptah sito vamena sat-vikasitapadmadhari savyena 
varadah. NSP, p. 50. 

"Mahasthamaprapta is white in colour and holds in his left hand a 

bunch of six full-blown lotuses, while the right displays the Varada 

mudra." 

In the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala, he is once again described 

with the following words : 

Mahasthamapraptah pltah savyena khadgam vamena padmam 
dadhanah. NSP. p. 58 

''Mahasthamaprapta is yellow in colour. He holds the sword in the 

right hand, and the lotus in the left/' 

In the Chinese collection, Mahasthamaprapta occurs^ only once 1 '. 

Fij?. 58 is a Nepalese drawing of Mahasthamaprapta. 

11. CANDRAPRABHA 
r White Symbol Moon on Lotus 

I Bodhisattva Candraprabha (Light of the Moon) is described thrice 
in the NispannayogavalL In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : 
Candraprabhah candravamo vamenotpalastha'candramandaladharl 
daksinena varadah NSP. p. 50. 

,' "Candraprabha is of white colour like the moon. He holds in his left 
hand the disc of the moon on a lotus, and displays the Varada mudra 
in his right. "f 

\ Candraprabha is described in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala in 
the following words : \ 

Candraprabhah subhrah savyena vajracakram vamena padmastha^ 
candramandalam dhatte. NSP. p. 58. 

I "Candraprabha is white in colour. He holds in his right hand the 
discus marked with a Vajra, and in the left the disc of the moon on 
a lotus." i 




1. Clark : TLP, Vol. II, p. 7, 11, 161, 195. For further information on Avaloki- 
te^vara and his forms in Tibet, China and Japan, see Getty : GNB, p. 55 f. 

2* Clark: TLP, II. p 160. For further information on the deity see Getty : 

GNB, p. 115. , 

12 



90 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala he is described differently as 
follows : I 

Candraprabhah subhrah savyena padmasthacandrabimbam bibhri' 
nah katisthavamamustih. NSP. p. 67 

I "Candraprabha is white in colour. He holds the moon on a lotus in 
the tight hand while the clenched left rests on the hip." 1 

Thus the recognition symbol of Candraprabha is the moon on lotus. 
In the Chinese collection Candraprabha occurs only once 1 . Fig, 59 is 
a Nepalese drawing of Candraprabha 

^ 12. JALINTPRABHA 

Colours-Red Symbol Sun*disc 

The Bodhisattva Jaliniprabha (Light of the Sun) is also known by 
the name of Suryaprabha and he is described three times in the Nispan^ 
nayogavali. In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : ] 

Jaliniprabho rakto vamenotpalastha-suryamandaladhari savyena 
varadah, NSP. p. 50. 

i "Jaliniprabha is of red colour. He holds the disc of the sun on a 
lotus in the left hand while the right displays the Varada mudrS., 

I Jalimprabha is again described in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara 
Mandala as : 1 

Jalimprabhah sitaraktah savyenasirh vamenabjasthasuryarh' 

NSP. p. 58. 

1 ' Jalimprabha is whitish red in complexion. He holds the sword in 
the right hand and the disc of the sun on a lotus in the left hand/' 
i In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala he is described further as :J 
Jalimprabho raktah savyena vajrapanjararh bibhranah katisthavam- 
amustih. NSP. p. 67, 
| *'Jaliniprabha ^s red in colour. He holds the Vajrapanjara (Vajra 
marked cage) in the right hand while the clenched left rests on the hip.)' 
H The symbol of Jaliniprabha is the disc of the sun and his red 
colour suggests that he is the spiritual son of the Dhyani Buddha 
Amitabha. In the Chinese collection he is represented as Amitabha 2 J 
Fig. 60 is a Nepalese drawing of Jalimprabha. 

13. AMITAPRABHA 
Colour White or Red Symbol Jar 

' The Bodhisattva Amitaprabha ( Boundless Light) also spelt as 
Amrtaprabha (Light of Nectar) is described t^jice in the Nispannayoga- 

1. Clatk : TLP, II. p. 147. ~" 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p, 132 



THE BODHISATTVAS 91 

t 

vali. Twice he is mentioned as of white colour and only once as red. 
It thus appears that Amitaprabha should belong to the family of 
Vairocana because of his white colour. His spiritual father will be 
Amitabha when he is red in colour, f 

j In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala, Amrtaprabha is described as : I 
Amrtaprabhah subhrah mukutoparyamrtakalasabhrtsavyakarah katis* 
thavamamustih. NSP. p. 67. 

t "Amrtaprabha is white in colour. In his right hand he holds the jar 
of nectar on the crown of his head. His clenched left hand rests on 
the hip."| 

| In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is once again described as :< 
Amitaprabhah raktah hastadvayena abhisekakalasadharl, 

NSP. p. 50. 

| " Amitaprabha is of red colour and holds in his two hands the jar 
required in the bath of initiation. '| 

I In the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala a further description of the 
deity appears :l 

Amitaprabhah sitah savyena visvapadmarh vamena- 
bjasthakalasam bibhranah. NSP. p. 59. 

| "Amitaprabha it> of white colour. With the right hand he holds the 
double lotus and with the left hand a jar on lotus. "I 

| The jar of consecration is thus the recognition symbol of the 
Bodhisattva.i 

Fig. 61 is an illustration of a Nepalese drawing of Amitaprabha. 



14. PRATIBHANAKUTA 
Colour Green, Yellow or Red Symbol Whip 

* The Bodhisattva Pratibhanakuta is described thrice in the Nispanna^ 
yogavali. In one he is green in colour, in the second he is yellow and 
in the third red, thus affiliating himself to the families of Amoghasiddhi, 
Ratnasambhava and Amitabha./ 
( In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : I 

Pratibhanakutah syama utsangavamamustir-daksinena 
chotikapradah. . NSP. p. 50. 

("Pratibhanakuta is of green colour. His clenched left hand is placed 
on the lap, while he flourishes the whip with the right hand."/ 
i His description in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala is as follows ; 
Pratibhanakutah pito daksinena chotikam vamena 
padmasthakrpanam dhatte. NSP, p. 59. 

/ ^Pratibhanakuta is of yellow colour. With the right hand he holds 
the whip and with the left, a sword placed on lotus." / 



92 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

J 

The Durgatiparisodhana Mandala describes his form with the follo- 
wing words : f 

Pratibhanakuto raktah savyenabjasthamukutadharl 
katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 67. 

' "Pratibhanakuta is red in complexion. With the right hand he holds 
the crown placed on a lotus, while his clenched left hand rests on 
the hip."/ 

He is not represented in the Chinese collection, nor his images are 
found in India. Fig. 62 is a Nepalese drawing of Pratibhanakuta, 

15. SARVASOKATAMONIRGHATAMATI 

Colour Whitish Yellow. Yellow or Red Symbol Staff 

I' This Bodhisattva who destroys all sorrows and inertia is described 
thrice in the Nispannayogavali He is given twice the yellow colour or 
the colour of gold or whitish yellow and once the red. Thus the Bodhi- 
sattva undoubtedly belongs to the family of the Dhyani Buddha Ratna- 
sambhava, although red suggests Amitabha also. * 
d The Durgatiparisodhana Mandala describes him as :| 
Sarvasokatamonirghatamatih sitapltamisravarnah 
dandabhrtsavyakarah katisthavamamustih. NSP. p. 66. 
I r< Sarvasokatamonirghatamati is of mixed white and yellow colour. 
With his right hand he holds the staff while his clenched left hand 
rests on the hip. 5 ' 1 

I The Manjuvajra Mandala describes him with the following words): 
Sarvasokatamonirghatamatih kanakakantih 
hastadvayasamputena praharabhinayi. NSP. p. 50. 

* "Sarvasokatamonirghatamati is of golden complexion. With his two 
hands joined palm to palm, he displays the attitude of striking."! 
, | In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala his description is as undetfy 
Sarvasokatamonirghatamatih kurhkumavarnah savyena 
pancasucikakulisam vamena saktim dadhanah. fel $P, p. 59. 

| Sarvasokamonirghatamati is of the red colour of Kumkuma 
(vermillion). With his right hand he holds the Vajra with five thongs 
and with the left, the Sakti ( javelin )J t 

In the Chinese collection, this Bodhisattva is illustrated twice 
as Tamodghatamati and as Sokanirghatamati 1 . Fig. 63 illustrates a 
Nepalese drawing of Sarvasokatamonirghatamati. 

16. SARVANIVARANAVISKAMBHIN 
Colour White or Blue Symbol Sword and Book 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhin is the Bodhisattva who is the effacer 
1. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 192, 135. 



THE BODHISATTVAS 93 

of all sins. Two independent forms of this Bodhisattva are described 
in the Nispannayogavall. His colour is either blue or white and 
thus he is the spiritual son of Aksobhya in one psychic school 
and of Vatrocana in another. 

The Manjuvajra Mandala describes him as : 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhl mlah suklo va vamena bhusparsl daksine 

mustitarjanyangusthau sammllya prasamabhinayi. NSP. p. 50. 

"Sarvanivaranaviskambhl is of either blue or white colour. With 
the left hand he displays the Bhusparsa (earth-touching) mudra ; with 
the thumb\ind the index finger joined together in the clenched 
right hand he displays the act of pacification." 

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala he is described in the follow- 
ing words : 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhl mlah krpanabhrtsavyapanih vamena visva- 

vajrankapatakadharah. NSP, p. 59. 

"Sarvanivaranaviskambhl is blue in colour. With his right hand 
he holds the sword and with the left the banner marked with a 
double thunderbolt/' 

This Bodhisattva is also known by his shorter name of Viskambhin, 
and his statuettes occur at least four times in the Chinese collection 1 . 
He is popular also in Tibet-* Fig. 64 is a Nepalese drawing of the 
Bodhisattva. 

This Bodhisattva under his shorter name Viskambhin appears 
also in the Sadhanamala. In the Lokanathasadhana his description 
is as under : 

Viskambhl tu ksaravarno ratnottamavarapradah 

Sadhanamala, p. 50. 

" Viskambhin is of the colour of ash, and holds the excellent jewel 
and the Varada mudra in his two hands." / 

I* 17. MAITREYA ^ 

Colour Golden Yellow Symbol Nagakesara Flower 

] The Bodhisattva Maitreya who is supposed to be waiting in the 
Tusita heaven in order to come down to earth as the Future Buddha 
is described several times in the Nispamiayogavali Maitreya heads 
the list of Bodhisattvas in the Manjuvajra Mandala. Although he 
takes the form of his spiritual sires Vairocana and Aksobhya two 
of his independent forms are nevertheless available, / 

[ In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : / 

L Clark : TLP, II, pp. 7, Jl, 52, 274 

2. Gordon : ITL, p* 104 ; Getty : GNB, p. 107. 



94 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Maitreyah suvarnavarno dvabhyam krtadharmadesanamudro varada- 
savyakaro vamena sapuspanagakesarapallavadharah. NSP. p. 50 
( "Maitreya is of golden colour. With the two principal hands 
he displays the Dharmacakra mudra. The other two hands show 
the Varada mudra in the right and the twig of a Nagakesara with 
flower in the left."/ 
I In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala his description is as under : / 

Maitreyah pitah savyakarena nagakesarakusumarh vamena kundirh 
dadhanah. ' ' " NSP. p. 66. 

I "Maitreya is yellow in colour. He holds in his right hand the 
flower of Nagakesara and with the left the mendicant bowl/'/ 

/ In the Chinese collection his statuettes occur at least six times 
and he is variously represented 1 . The Nagakessra flower is his chief 
recognition symbol both in China and in India. He is found also 
in Tibet"/ Fig. 65 is a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva. 
/ In the Sadhanamala his description is simple : / 

Maitreyah pitavarnasca nagapuspavarapradah. Sadhanamala, p. 49. 
' "Maitreya is yellow in colour and shows the Naga flower and the 
Varada mudra/'/ 

18 MANJUSRI~> V 

Colour Golden Symbol Sword and Book 

Like Avalokitesvara Manjusri is worshipped in all Buddhist coun^ 

tries and has a variety of forms. Manjusri has several names such 

as Manjuvajra, Manjughosa, Dharmadhatuvagisvara and so forth. 

His wide variety of forms, and his legendary origin deserve a separate 

treatment in a later chapter. 

As one of the sixteen Bodhisattvas Manjusri is taken as second 

in the group headed by Maitreya. Manjusri does not find mention 

in the list headed by Samantabhadta. 

In the Manjuvajra Mandala Manjusri comes as a Bodhisattva in 

the third circle of deities surrounding the principal god Manjuvajra 

who is represented along with his Prajna or female counterpart. 

According to Nispannayogavall, Manjusri should have the same for An 

as the principal deity but he should have no Prajna, 

Thus the form of Manjusri will be of the following description : 
Pltanllasuklasavyetaravaktrah sadbhujo daksinaih khadgavarada- 
banan vamaih prajnaparamitapustakanllabjadhanurhsi bibhranah. 

__ * NSP. p." 48. 

1. Clark: TLP, II, 7, 9, 59, 143. 195, 202 * 

2. Gordon : H L, p. 104, 107 

3. For a detailed account of the legendary origin of the deity and his forms in 
Tibet, China and Japan. See Getty : GNB. pp. 112, 113 



THE BODHISATTVAS 95 

"Manjusri is three faced, with the three faces of yellow, blue and 
white colour. He is endowed with six arms ; in his three right hands 
he holds the sword, Varada mudra and the arrow, and in the three 
left shows the Prajnaparamita book, the blue lotus and the bow." 

Next to Avalokitesvara, Manjusri is important in the Buddhist 
pantheon as the God of Learning with the sword for destroying 
ignorance and the book of transcendental wisdom, His images are 
numerous, and the Chinese collection presents no less than five 
different statuettes showing his great popularity in China 1 , Fig 66 
illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva, 

Manjusri as one of the eight Bodhisattvas is recognised by the 
favourite name of Manjughosa (soft voice) and under this name he 
is described in the Lokanathasadhana of the Sadhanamala The 
text is : 

Manjughosah kanakabhah khadgapustakadharakah* 

Sadhanamala, p. 49. 

"Manjughosa is of golden colour and he holds in his two hands 
the sword and the book. 

19. GANDHAHASTI 
/I 

Colour Green or Whitish Green 

Symbol Elephant's Trunk or Conch 

1 The Bodhisattva Gandhahasti is mentioned in the Nispannayogavali 
as belonging to the group of sixteen Bodhisattvas headed by Maitreya 
and is described in two independent forms. In one prominence is given 
to the word 'Hasti' and in the other to 'Gandha'. ' 
t In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as follows : / 
Gandhastih syamo vamena kamalasthahastikaradhari 
savye varadah. NSP. p. 50. 

/ ''Gandhahasti is green in colour and holds in the left hand the trunk 
of an elephant on a lotus. The right hand exhibits the Varada 
mudra." / 

| In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala on the other hand the Bodhisatt> 
va is described somewhat differently as -J 

Gandhahastih sitasyamah savyena gandhasarhkhadharah 
katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 66* 

I "Gandhahasti is whitish green in colour. He holds in his right hand 
the conch containing sandal paste. The clenched left is placed on 
the hip." I 

1, Clark: TLP, II. pp. 7, 11, 53, 198 199 ~ 



96 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

1 This Bodhisattva is represented only once in the Chinese collection. 1 
His images are very rare. / Fig. 67 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of 
the Bodhisattva. 

20. JNANAKETU 

Colour ^llow or Blue Symbol -Flag with Cintamani jewel 

u \ 
I The Bodhisattva Jnanaketu is mentioned as one ol the sixteen 

Bodhisattvas under the leadership of Maitreya. Two independent 
forms of his are described in the Nispannayogavall. / 
( In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : / 

Jnanaketuh plto vamena cintamanidhvajadharl 
savyena varadah. NSP. p. 50. 

I "Jnanaketu is yellow in colour. He holds in his right hand the flag 
marked with the Cintamani jewel. The left hand displays the Varada 
mudra " / 

In the Durgatiparisodhana Mimdala he is described somewhat differ^ 
ently as : t 

Jnanaketu nilah cintamanidhvajabhrddaksinapanih 
katisthavamamustih. . NSP. p. 67. 

I **Jnanaketu is blue in colour. He hold& in his right hand the flag 
marked with the Cintamani jewel. The clenched left hand rests on 
the hip." / 

I Jnanakaketu occurs only once in the Chinese collection, where his 
form is identical with his sire Ratnasambhava L '| Fig. 68 is a Nepalese 
drawing of the deity. 

21. BHADRAPALA 

Colour Red or White Symbol Jewel. 

1 
The name of Bhadrapala occurs in the second list of sixteen Bodhis- 
attvas headed by Maitreya. At least two independent forms of this 
Bodhisattva are to be found in the Nispannayogavall. / j 
i In the Manjuvajra Mandala his form is described with the following 

words : i 

Bhadrapalo raktavarno vamena ratnabhrd^daksinena varadah." 
. " ' ' NSP. p. 50. 

/ Bhadrapala is of red colour. He holds in his left hand the jewel, 

while the right displays the Varada mudra." J 
I In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala again he is described Vsomewhat 

differently as : / 

Bhadrapalah subhrah savyena sajjvalaratnadhari 
katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 67 

1, Clark ; TLP, II, p. 135. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 146, 



THE BODHISATTVAS 97 

I "Bhadrapala is white in colour. He holds in his right hand the 
glistening jewel, while his clenched left hand rests on the hip " / 

t Bhadrapala is represented only once in the Chinese collection and 
there his form is identical with that of his sire Amitabha */. Fig, 69 
illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Bhadrapala, 

H 22. SARVAPAYANJAHA. 
Colour White Symbol Act of removing sin or goad. 

Bodhisattva Sarvapayanjaha (Remover of all miseries) is also known 
by his shorter name of Apayanjaha and is described twice in the 
Nispannayogavali in two independent forms. I 

( In the Manjuvajramandala this interesting Bodhisattva is described 
as : / 

Sarvapayanjahah suklo hastadvayena papaksepanabhinayl. 

' NSP. p. 50. 

v "Sarvapayanjaha is white in colour. With his two hands he displays 
the act of removing all sins." / 

(.In the Durgatiparisodhanamandala he is described as Apayanjaha 
with the following words : / 

"Apayanjahah sveto'nkusabhrtkaradvayah. NSP. p. 66. 

L" Apayanjaha is of white colour. With both hands he carries the 
Ahkusa (goad)/' / 

I He is represented twice in the Chinese collection. In one he is 
identical with his spiritual sire Aksobhya with the Bhusparsa mudra 
and in another his right hand with open palm rests against the chest 
while the left shows the act of forbidding. Perhaps this attitude is 
identical with the act of removing sin | y . Fig. 70 is a Nepalese 
drawing of tjae deity. Fig. 71 illustrates his Chinese stautette. 
% S 23. AMOGHADARSIN <</ 



Colour Yellow Symbol Lotus 

1 The name of Bodhisattva Amoghadarsin appears in the third list of 
sixteen Bodhisattvas headed by Maitreya in the Nispannayogavali. The 
Durgatiparisodhanamandala contains the only one description as 
available in the work.- There his form is described in the following 
words : \ 

, AmoghadarsI pltah sanetrambhojabhrd*daksinakarah 
katisthavamamu^tih. NSP. p. 66, 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 147- - , j. 

2, Clark: TLP, II, pp. 143, 169. 

13 



98 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

' "Amoghadarsi is yellow in colour. In his right hand he holds the 
lotus with its central core, while the clenched left rests on the hip."/ 

Amoghadarsin's statuette occurs thrice in the Chinese collection 1 . 
Fig. 72 is a Nepalese drawing of Bodhisattva Amoghadarsin. 



24. SURANGAMA. 
Colour White Symbol Sword. 

\ Surahgama's name occurs in the third list of the sixteen Bodhis* 
attvas headed by Maitreya. In the Nispannayogavali his name is 
referred to twice only and his single independent form is described in 
the Durgatiparisodhanamandala as under : | 

Surangamah subhrah savyena asidharah katisthavamamustih 

NSP. p. 67. 

V " Surangama is white in colour. He holds the sword in the right 
hand, while the clenched left is placed on the hip." / 

I In the Chinese collection Surangama is represented only once, and 
that too in a different form l> . I Fig. 73 illustrates a Nepalese drawing 
of the Bodhisattva Surangama. 

25. VAJRAPANL 
Colour White Symbol Vajra. 

The Bodhisattva Vajrapani although not included in the three lists 
of Bodhisattvas as available in the Nispannayogavali, is nevertheless 
important as one of the eight principal Bodhisattvas enumerated in the 
Sadhanamala in Sadhana No. 18 for Lokanatha. This list of eight 
Bodhisattvas is also headed by Maitreya and consists of : 

1. Maitreya 5. Manjughosa 

2. Ksitigarbha 6. Gaganaganja 

3. Vajrapani 7. Viskambhin 

4. Khagarbha 8. Samantabhadra 

The description of Vajrapani also occurs under the Lokanathsadhana 
in the Sadhanamala. A half verse here describes Vajrapani : 

Vajrapanisca suklabho vajrahasto varapradah. 

Sadhanamala, p. 49. 

"Vajrapani is of white colour, carries the Vajra in one hand and 
displays the Abhaya mudra in the other." 

1. Clark :TLP, II, pp. 20, 143, 247. 

2. Clark : TLP. II, p. 135. 



THE BODHISATTVAS 99 

This Bodhisattva of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya is popular in 
China and at least five statuettes are noted in the Two Lamaistic 
Pantheons, Vol. II. l Tibetan specimens 2 of his image are also 
found. 

GENERAL REMARKS, 

This Chapter on the Bodhisattavas cannot be closed without 
a reference to a very important passage in the Nispannayoga- 
vali, where the Bodhisattvas are connected with their spiritual sires, 
whose forms they assume. In the Vajradhatumandala 3 it is said that 
the four Bodhisattvas : 

1. Maitreya ^^ 3. Sarvapayanjaha 

2. Amoghadarsi 4 Sarvasokatamonirghatamati 
have the same form as that of the eastern Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya 
of blue colour. 

The four Bodhisattvas : 

1. Gandhahasti \X" 3. Gaganaganja 

2. Surahgama */ 4. Jnanaketu ^ 

have the same form as that of the southern Dhyani Buddha Ratnasam^ 
bhava of yellow colour. 

The fouj: Bodhisattvas : 
1. Amitaprabha 3. Bhadrapala 



2. Chandraprabha ^ 4. Jalimprabhs 

have the same form as that of the western Dhyani Buddha Amitabha of 
red colour. 

The four Bodhisattvas : 

1. Vajragarbha 3. Pratibhanakuta 

2. Aksayamati */ 4. Samantabhadra 

have the same form as that of the northern Dhyani Buddha Amogha- 
siddhi of green colour. 

Although this is a valuable iconographic information, it should, 
however, be noted that these are not absolute laws, but the views of 
only certain psychic schools of Buddhist Tantra. Be it noted, however, 
that the Central Dhyani Buddha Vairocana has no place in this classi- 
fication and none of the sixteen Bodhisattvas is affiliated to him* 
Nevertheless, the information as given in the Vajradhatumandala of 
the Nispannayogavali will be found to be of value in identifying some 
of the Chinese statuettes where Bodhisattvas are given Dhyani Buddha 
forms. 

1. Op. Cit. pp. 8, 11, 56, 197,201. For further cletaila see Getty : GNB, 
pp. 5051. 

2. Gordon ITL, p. 64. 

3. NSP. p. 46. 



CHAPTER III 

BODHISATTVA MANJUSRI 

There is no doubt that the place assigned to Manjusri in the 
Buddhist pantheon is one of the very highest. The MahSyanists 
consider him to be one of the greatest Bodhisattvas. They believe 
that the worship of Manjusrl can confer upon them wisdom, re- 
tentive memory, intelligence and eloquence, and enables them to 
master many sacred scriptures. It is no wonder, therefore, that 
his worship became widely prevalent amongst the Buddhists of the 
North. They conceived him in various forms and worshipped 
him with various mantras. Those who could not form any con^ 
ception of him according to Tan trie rites, attained perfection only 
by muttering his numerous mantras. 

It is difficult to fix the exact time when Manjusrl entered the 
pantheon of the Northern Buddhists. His images are not found 
in the Gandhara and Mathura schools of sculpture, and Asvaghosa, 
Nagarjuna, Aryadeva do not mention him in their works. His 
name occurs for the first time in the Aryamanjusrimulakolpa 
which is obviously a pre'Guhyasamaja work, and then in the 
Guhyasamaja Tantra which is dated circa 300 A.D. In this work 
there are at least four 1 references to Manjusrl and three- to Man- 
juvajra. His name also occurs in the Sukhavati Vyuha or the 
Amitayus Sutra in its smaller recension 8 which was translated into 
Chinese between A.D. 384 and 417. Subsequent Buddhist works 
however give many references to Manjusrl, and in the accounts of 
foreign travellers like Fa-hien 1 , Hiuen-Thsang, I*Tsing, Manjusri also 
finds mention. His images are to be found in the sculptures of Sarnath, 
Magadha, Bengal, Nepal and other places. 

Many details about Manjusri are to be found in the Svayambhu 
Parana, dealing with the glories of the Svayambhuksetra in Nepal. 
The Adibuddha manifested himself here in the shape of a flame of 
fire, and so it is called the Svayambhuksettra ( place of the Self- Born ). 
This place is consecrated with a temple of Adibuddha, and close to it 
is the Manjusri Hill now known as the Sarasvatisthana. The information 
about Manjusrl as gleaned from the Svayambhu Purana is given below 
in brief. 

1. Guhyasamaja Tantra, G. O. S. pp. 46, 69, 93, 133. 

2 Ibid, pp. 51, 87, 121. 3. Sukhavatlvyuha, p. 92. App. II. 

4. There is a considerable difference of opinion with regard to the divinity of 
Manjusrl mentioned by Fa-Hien. Legge ; Travels of Fa-Hien, p^ 46 



BODHISATTVA MA^JUSRf 101 

It is said therein that Manjusri hailed from China, where he was 
living on mount Pancasirsa (the Hill of Five Peaks). He was a great 
saint with many disciples and followers, including Dharmakara, the 
king of the country. Receiving divine intimation one day that the 
self-born Lord Adibuddha, has manifested himself as a flame of fire on 
a lotus on the waters of Lake Kalihrada in Nepal, he forthwith set out 
for that country along with a large number of his disciples, his two 
wives and king Dharmakara, with the intention of paying homage to 
the deity. When he came to the lake, however, he found a great 
expanse of water surrounding the god rendering him quite inaccessible, 
and it was with immense difficulty that he could approach the flame and 
offer his obeisance. Having at last succeeded in doing so, however, 
he cast about in his mind for some means of making the god accessible 
to all and he began a circuit of the lake. When he reached the south- 
ern barrier of hills, he lifted his sword and clove it asunder. The 
hill was split into two, and the water rushed through that opening, 
leaving behind a vast strench of dry land, which is now known as the 
as the Nepal Valley. The waters of the Baghmatl flow down even to 
this day through that opening, which is still called *'Kot-bar" or 
"sword-cut". 

Manjusri lost? no time in erecting a temple over the flame of fire 
and on a hillpck nearby he made his own abode, and also a Vihara 
(or monastery) still known as the Manjupattana, for his disciples. 
Lastly, he made Dharmakara the King of Nepal. These and many 
other pious deeds are ascribed to Manjusri in the Svayambhu Purana. 
Putting everything in proper order, Manjusri returned home and soon 
attained the divine form of a Bodhisattva, leaving his mundane body 
behind >. 

From above it appears that Manjusil was a great man who brought 
civilization to Nepal from China. He had apparently extraordinary 
engineering skill, and was a great architect. It is not definitely known 
when he came down to Nepal from China, but there is no doubt that 
in 300 A. D, he was well-known as a Bodhisattva. He wielded great 
influence on the minds of the Buddhists, and the Mahayanists 
worshipped him in various forms and in various ways. He is known 
in almost all the countries in the continent of Asia where Buddhism 
had its sway* Various countries conceived various forms of Manjusri, 
but there was a definite Indian tradition with regard to the conception 

1. An account of the story recorded in the Svayambhu Purana with many details 
will be found in R. Mitra : Sanskrit Buddhist Literature, pp. 249258 ; in Hodgson's 
Essays, p. 115 ft. and in Oldfield : Sketches from Nipal, Vol. II, p. 185 ff. 



102 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

of Manjusn and it is the purpose of this section to deal with the images 
that are purely Indian or are influenced largely by the Indian tradition. 

It has been made abundantly clear that the Buddhists believe that 
their gods and goddesses affiliate themselves to the families of the five 
Dhyani Buddhas, and as such, various attempts were made to assign 
ManjusrI to a particular Dhyani Buddha. Sometimes in the Sadhanas 
he is made an offspring of Amitabha of red colour, and sometimes 
of Aksobhya with the blue colour. Manjusri also shows several 
colours showing his allegiance to several Kulas or families* The human 
origin of Manjusri seems to be responsible for this kind of confusion. 
ManjusrI seems to have been deified in the same manner as Asvaghosa, 
Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Asanga and many others were regarded as 
Bodhisattvas in the time of Hiuen Thsang. 

Forty-one Sadhanas in the SadhanamSla are devoted to the worship 
of Majnusn, and in them are described several distinct forms of the 
Bodhisattva. In finding out the names of the different varieties of 
Manjusri special stress has been laid on the mantras rather than on 
the colophons of the Sadhanas. It should always be noted that in 
determining the names of gods the mantras are the safest guides, 
especially when one deity has several divergent forms. The different 
forms of Manjusri are described in the following pages one by one 
having distinct iconographic peculiarities. 

In his simplest form Manjusri carries the sword in his right hand 
and the Prajn5paramita manuscript in his left* In representations 
sometimes the two symbols are placed on lotuses. Sometimes he 
is accompanied only by Yamari, sometimes only by his Sakti or 
female counterpart, sometimes by Sudhanakumara and Yamari and 
sometimes again by the four divinities, Jalimprabha (also called Suryya- 
prabha), Candraprabha, Kesini and Upakesini. Though the last four 
are required to be present with Arapacana, they are nevertheless found 
in others also. 

Under the general name of Manjusri several of his Chinese images 
are noticed by Clark in his Two Lamaistic Pantheons 1 . A remarkable 
specimen showing Manjusri in the company of two principal Hindu 
gods, Ganapati and Visnu is found in the Baroda Museum (Fig. 74). 

1. VAJRARAGA 

Colour White Mudra Samadhi 

Asana Vajraparyahka 

Vajraraga Manjusri is also known by the two names of Vak and 
Amitabha Manjusri showing his allegiance to the Dhyani Buddha 
Amitabha of red colour. Vajraraga is one-faced and two-armed. His 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp.7, 11, 53, 198. 



BODHISATTVA MANJUSRI 103 

two hands are joined on his lap forming what is called the Samadhi or 
the Dhyana mudra. In this respect he is identical with the Dhyani 
Buddha Amitabha whose effigy he bears on his tongue. He differs 
from the Dhyani Buddha in respect of his ornaments and dress. Images 
of this form of Manjusri are not altogether rare in India or in the 
Buddhist countries of the North. The Sadhanamala describes his form 
in the following Dhyana : 

Dvibhujaikamukharh sitarh vajraparyankopari samadhimudrahastarh 
asesakumarabharanabhusitarh pancaclrakarh Manjusrlbhattarakarh... 
nispadya . vajrajihvopari Buddharh Amitabharh vicintya.. Orh Vakye- 
darh namah iti japamantrah". Sadhanamala, p. 129 

'The worshipper should think himself as Manjusri Bhattaraka who 
is two-armed and one^faced and has white colour. His two hands are 
joined in forming the Samadhi mudra. He is decked in all princely 
ornaments, wears the five pieces of monkish garments... thus meditating 
...he should think of the figure of Buddha Amitabha on v the adamantine 
tongue.. /Orh Vakyedarh namah' is the Mantra for muttering". 

Fig. 75 illustrates a metal statuette of the god in the Baroda Museum. 
Fig. 76 illustrates a Nepalese drawing. Vajraraga is known in Tibet 1 
and China 2 . 

2. DHARMADHATU VAOI^VARA 
Colour Reddish White Face Four 

Asana Lalita Arms Eight 

Stone or bronze images of Dharmadhatu Vagisvara are by no means 
common, but paintings are still made of him by the Citrakaras in Nepal. 
When represented he is white in colour with four faces, and eight arms, 
and he bears five jewels on his diadem. He is clad in celestial garments 
and the leading sentiment displayed by him is one of Srhgara (amour). 
The two principal hands carry the bow and the arrow, the second pair 
has the noose and the goad, the third the book and the sword, and the 
fourth the Ghanta and the Vajra. He may also have another form, 
exhibiting the Dharmacakra mudra in the first pair of hands instead 
of the bow and the arrow, and in the second pair the arrow and the 
vessel instead of the noose and the goad. The Dhyana describing the 
former is given below : 

"...Astabhujarh caturmukharh mulamukharh raktagaurarh daksinarh 
kumkumarunarh pascimarh padmaraktarh, uttararh pltaraktarh, dvabhy- 
am hastabhyarh dhanurbanandhararh, aparabhyarh pasankusadhararh, 

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 66 illustrates his statue under the general title of Manjusri. 
I. Clark i TLP, II, pp. 120, 227. 



104 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

punaraparabhyamPrajnaparamitapustakakhadgadharam,tathaparabhyam 
ghantavajradharam maHaragasrngararasojjvalam lalitasanastham visva- 
padmacandre divyavastrabharanam Amitabhajatamukutinam... 

Sadhanamala, p. 128. 

"The worshipper should think himself as the god Dharmadhatu- 
Vagisvara who is eight-armed, four-faced and of reddish-white colour. 
His right face is red, the face behind is of lotus-red colour, and the left 
is of yellowish-red colour. He holds the bow and the arrow in one 
pair of hands, the noose and the goad in another pair, the Prajnapara- 
mita manuscript and the sword in the third and the Ghanta and the 
Vajra in the fourth. He displays the sentiment of Srngara (amour), and 
sits on the moon on a double lotus in the Lalita attitude. He is 
decked in celestial garments and ornaments and bears on his Jatamukuta 
(crown of matted hair) the effigy of Amitabha", 

(ii) 

Colour Golden Yellow Faces Four 

Arms Eight 

Manjughosa is the principal deity in the Dharamadhatuvagisvara 
Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. His form may be given briefly as 
follows : 

"Manjughoso Vajraparyanki. . .suvarnavarnah pita-nlla-rakta-sita- 

mula-savyapascimavamamukho astabhujo dvabhyam Dharmacakra- 
mudrah savyaih krpana-bana-vajrani vamaih prajnaparamitapustaka- 
capavajra-ghanta vibhranah". NSP. p. 54. 

"Manjughosa sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude is of golden 

colour His four faces show the yellow colour in the first, blue in 

the right, red behind, and white left. He is eight-armed. With the 
two pricipal hands foe exhibits the Dharmacakra Mudra. The remaining 
right hands show the sword, the arrow and the Vajra, while the re- 
maining left carry the Prajnaparamita manuscript the bow and 
the bell". 

Three of his images are known to the Chinese collection of Peiping. 1 
He is also found in Tibet 2 

3. MANJUGHOSA. 

Colour Golden Yellow. Mudra Vyakhyana 

Vahana Lion Symbol Lotus in the left. 

Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe this variety of 
Manjusri, which is known by the name of Manjughosa. When repre- 
sented, he closely resembles Manjuvara, with the difference that the 

~~1. TLP, II p. 115, 124, 241, 262. 

2. Getty : GNB, PL. XXXV, 6 is a good illustration of this form* 



105 




I 




S 

Tc5 




14 



106 




I 

CO 
cO 

CO 



oi 
CO 




CO 

4-> 

ICO 

I" 

O 



O 
-tf> 

CO 



VD 
OJD 




107 





!*- 

f-< 

^ 
CO 




co 

3 



108 







103 

u 

103 



tu 





109 




-rt 

Ctf 



05 

J-. 



CO 









110 










03 
DJD 



""O 




,-rH .52' g 

^ > 8 



PL, 



Ill 




CTJ 
CO 
OJ 

ICO 

z 



uu 





112 




2 

03 



00 

$ 

E 



03 

'"*' ** 

^ 3 

vC/) g 

''So 
\ti 

C 
00 ^ 

^ 

E 




oo bo 

ci c 

co - r 



o 

CO 



.2? 
E 



BODHISATTVA MAN^USRI 113 

lotus here does not bear the book. It may also be pointed out that 
Manjughosa should have the lotus only in his left, but Manjuvara may 
have it on either side bearing the book. His complexion is golden 
yellow, he rides a lion, and is decked in all sorts of ornaments. He is 
two-armed and displays the Vyakhyana mudra, and in his left there is 
the lotus. He is sometimes accompanied by Yamari in the left and 
Sudhanakumara in the right. The Dhyana as found in one of the 
Sadhanas is given below : 

"Manjughosarupam-atmanam pasyet simhastham kanakagauravarnarh 
sarvalankarabhusitam Vyakhyanamudravyagrakararh vamaparsve utpala* 
dharam Aksobhyamukutinam. Daksme Sudhanakumararh vame Yaman. 
takam pasyet... man tram japet Om Vagjsvara Muh'* Sadhanamala p. 109 

The worshipper should meditate himself as the deity Manjughosa 
who rides a lion, and is of golden yellow colour. He is decked in all 
ornaments, and his hands are engaged in forming the Vyakhyana 
(teaching) mudra. He displays the night lotus in his left, and bears 
the image of Aksobhya on his crown. On his right there is Sudhana^ 
kumara and on the left Yamantaka ... The Mantra Om Vaglsvara Muh 
should be muttered*'. 

Some of the Sadhanas mention that he should sit in Lalitasana 
on the back of a lion while others are silent about the attitude or 
Asana. It is thus possible to conclude that he may sit in other attitudes 
also, such as the Vajraparyahka or the Ardhaparyahka. His colour is 
generally yellow, but he may have the colour of Kunkuma as well. 

4. SIDDHAIKAVfRA. ^ 
Colour White Mudra Varada 

Symbol Lotus. 

Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the form of Siddhaika* 
vira and in one of these he is said to bear the image of the Dhyani 
Buddha Aksobhya on his crown (Mauli) thus showing the family 
connection with Aksobhya the progenitor of the Vajra family. When 
represented, his left hand holds the blue lotus while the right displays 
the Varada mudra. The Dhyana in the Sadhanamala describes his 
form in the following words : 

" Siddhaika viro Bhagavan candramandalasthah candropasrayah 
jagadudyotakan dvibhuja ekamukhah suklah vajraparyahki divyalan- 
karabhusitah pancavlrakasekharah.. vame nilotpaladharah daksine 
varadah.-.tato Bhagavato maulau Aksobhyam devatyah pujarh kurvanti". 

Sadhanamala, p. 140. 

"God Siddhaikavira sits on the orb of the moon, is supported by 
the moon, and illumines the world. He is two-armed, one^faced and 

15 



114 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

of white colour. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, and is decked 
in celestial ornaments. His head is decorated with the effigies of the 
five Dhyani Buddhas....He carries the Utpala in the left hand and 
exhibits the Varada mudra in the right. The goddesses pay homage 
to Aksobhya who is on the crown of the God", 

In another Sadhana the description of the Mandala for Manjusri 
is given. The god in the form of Siddhaikavlra is painted red and is 
placed in the centre. He is accompanied by four deities, Jalimprabha, 
Candraprabha, Kasinl and Upaksinl. These four deities more often 
accompany Arapacana, another from of Manjusri which will be 
described later, The Sadhanas are not generally explicit as to the 
Asana of the god. In Saranath his image is shown in a standing 
attitude (Fig, 77). 

A confusion is likely to arise between the forms of Loknanatha 
and Siddhaikavlra if they are both represented without companions 
and without the figure of the parental Dhyani Buddha on their crown, 
for both these deities have the same symbol, the lotus and the same 
mudra, the Varada pose. In that case the image would most likely be 
identified as that of Lokanatha, who happens to be widely represented. 
Images of Siddhaikavlra, it may be added, are extremely rare. 

5. VAJRANANGA. 

Colour Yellow 
Asana Pratyalidha. Hands Six or Four. 

This form of Manjusri bearing the image of Aksobhya on the crown 
is known as Vajrananga, who is worshipped in the Tantric rite of 
Vasikarana, or bewitching men and women. His complexion is yellow, 
he is in the prime of youth, and bears the image of Aksobhya on 
his crown. The two principal hands hold the fully expanded bow of 
flowers charged with the arrow of a lotus bud. The four remaining 
hands carry the sword and the looking-glass in the two right hands, 
while the two left carry the lotus and the Asoka bough with red flowers. 
In another Sadhana the Asoka bough is replaced by Kankelli flowers. 
He may have an alternative form with four hands, in which case the 
hands carrying the mirror and the Asoka bough are dropped. The 
Dhyana describing the six-armed variety of Vajrananga is given below: 

Vajranahganama Arya-Manjughosam pltavarnam sadbhujam mula* 
bhujabhyam akarnapuritaraktotpalakalikasarayukta-kusumadhanurdha- 
ram; daksinadvayena khadgadarpanabhrtarh vamayugalenendlvararakta- 
sokapallavadharam; Aksobhyadhisthita-jatamukutinarh pratyalldha- 
padam sodasavarsakaram mahasrhgaramurtim pasyet". 

Sadhanamla, p. 124 



BCDHISATTVA MANJUSRf 115 

"The worshipper should think himself as Arya-Mafijughosa in the 
form of Vajrananga with yellow complexion, and six arms. With the two 
principal hands he draws to the ear the bow of flowers charged with 
an arrow of a red lotus bud; the two remaining right hands carry the 
sword and the mirror, while the two left hold the lotus and the Asoka 
bough with red flowers. He bears the image of Aksobhya on his 
Jatamukuta, stands in the Prat^alidha attitude, appears a youth of 
sixteen years and displays the intense Srngara Rasa " 

Vajrananga as the name implies, is the Buddhist God of Love, the 
prototype of the Hindu God Madana in the Buddhist Pantheon. The 
flowery bow and the arrow of flowers are strikingly common to both. 
Unlike the Hindu Anahga, however, several other weapons besides these 
are also attributed to the Buddhist God of Love, and an account is 
given below of how he makes use of them. 

It is said in the Sadhanamala that in the act of bewitching a woman, 
the worshipper should imagine himself as piercing her bosom with the 
arrow of the lotus bud. The woman falU flat on the ground in a 
swoon, whereupon the worshipper should visualise her legs as being 
tied by the chain which is the bow. Then he should imagine that 
the noose of the lotus stalk is flung round her neck, and she is drawn 
to his side. Thereupon, he should think that he is striking her with 
the Asoka bough, is frightening her with the sword, and subsequently 
he has only to confront her with the mirror by which she LS completely 
subjugated ] . Fig. 78 illustrates a Nepalese drawings of the deity. 

6. NAMASANGm MANJUSRF 

Colour Reddish white Asana Vajraparyaiika 

Faces Three Arms Four 

This form of Manjusrl with the effigy of the Dhyani Buddha 
Aksobhya on the crown is known as Namasahglti Manjusrl, to whom 
only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is assigned In this Sadhana 
he is described as three-faced and four-armed, and as bearing 
the image of Aksobhya on the crown. The first or the principal 
face is red, the second blue and the third white. Of his four hands, 
the first pair holds the bow and the arrow and the second the 
book and the sword. He sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude on 
the lotus. The Dhyana describes him in the following terms : 

"...Raktagauram padmacandropari vajrapar>afikanisannah ; pratha* 
mamukham raktaih, daksinam nifam, vame suklam iti trimukham, 
hastacatustayena yathayogam Prajnakhadgadhanurbanayoginam ratna- 

1 Sadhanamala, p. 123 



116 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

kiritinamdvatrimsallaksananuvyanjanavirajitarh kumarabharanabhusitarh 
atmanam vibhavya tadanu sarva-Tathagatabhisekapurvakarh Akso- 
bhyamaulinarh atmanam vicintya . ... Sadhanamala p. 159*160 

"The worshipper should meditate himself as Aryanamasangiti, 
who is reddish white in colour and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude 
on the orb of the moon on a lotus. His principal face is red, the 
right blue and the left white and thus he is three-faced In his 
four hands he carries the Prajna(paramita), the sword, the bow 
and the arrow according to custom. He wears a bejewelled crown 
and is endowed with the thirty-two major and eighty minor auspicious 

marks. He appears a prince with princely ornaments Then the 

worshipper after offering Abhiseka to all the Tathagatas, should further 
meditate himself as bearing the effigy of Aksobhya on the crown.' 1 

Rare are the images of this form of Manjusri Fig. 79 illustrates 
a Nepalese drawing of the deity. 

Namasangiti Manjusn is known in China 1 . Fig. 80 illustrates 
his statuette in China. 

7. VAGlSVARA 

Colour Red of Yellow Asana Ardhaparyanka 

Vahana Lion Symbol Utpa la 

Vaglsvara is the tutelary deity of the Nepalese Buddhists and is 
widely worshipped in Nepal. The fact that innumerable prayer- 
wheels in Nepalese temples bear, in monumental Newari characters, 
the mantra "Om Vaglsvara Muh" stands witness to his popularity. 

One of the Sadhanas describes him as red in colour with all 
princely ornaments, and as seated on a lion in the Ardhaparyanka 
attitude. He carries the Utpala in his left hand, and the right is 
disposed in a graceful attitude. He may have a yellow variety, 
which is known as the Maharajalila ManjusrI, and the Dhyana 
describing that form has already been quoted and translated by 
Professor Foucher. The red variety of Vaglsvara is described in the 
Dhyana thus : 

"Pancavirakasekharam kumaram sarvabharanabhusitarh kuhkuma- 
runarh vamenotpalam daksinena Hlaya sthitarh sirhhasajiastharh atma* 
nam kumararupena cintayet...Om Vaglsvara Muh". 

Sadhanamala, p. 105 

'The worshipper should think himself as Vaglsvara whose head 
is beautified by the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas. He looks 
a prince, is decked in all ornaments, and has the complexion of 
Kunkuma. He carries the night lotus in his left hand while the 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 263. 



BODHISATTVA MANJUSRT H7 

right is displayed artistically. He rides a lion and possesses princely 

grace Orh Vaglsvara Muh. 

The Indian Museum image (Fig. 81) of this divinity carries a bell 
in the right hand, and sits on a lion throne instead of a lion. The 
other image in bronze (Fig. 82) is a recent one, and represents the 
god somewhat differently. Vaglsvara statuettes are found in Tibet 1 . 

8. MANJUVARA 

Colour- Golden Yellow Mudra Dharmacakra 

Asana Lalita or Ardhaparyanka Symbol Prajnaparamita on lotus 

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship 
of Manjuvara who is widely represented. He is yellow in colour, 
sits on the back of a lion, in the Lalita or the Ardhaparyanka attitude, 
and displays the sentiment of Srngara (amour) lavishly. His two 
hands are joined against the chest in forming the Dharmacakra 
mudra which is the eternal symbol of instruction on the secrets of 
Dharma. He holds the stalk of one or two lotuses on which appears 
the Prajnaparamita manuscript. The text of the Dhyana in one of 
the Sadhanas is givea below : 

"Taptakancanabham pancavirakakumararh Dharmacakramudra- 
samyuktarh Prajnaparamitanvitotpaladharinarh simhastharh lalitakseparh 
sarvalankarabhusitarh...Orh Manjuvara Hum". Sadhanamala, p. 111. 

"The worshipper should think himself as god Manjuvara of golden 
yellow colour with head decorated with the images of the five 
Dhyani Buddhas. His hands display the Dharmacakra mudra and 
he shows the blue lotus bearing the Prajnaparamita manuscript. He 
rides a lion, sits thereon in the Lalita attitude and is decked in all 
ornaments... Orh Manjuvara Hum". 

According to a second Sadhana Manjuvara should have the lotus 
in his left hand with the Prajnaparamita on it. He may sit in the 
Ardhaparyanka attitude and may be accompanied with the fierce 
god Yamantaka of blue colour, whose face distorted with bare fangs 
is terrible to behold. Yamantaka carries the staff in one of his hands 
and touches the feet of Manjuvara with the other. 

The image (Fig. 83) discovered at Bara in the district of Birbhum in 
Bengal 2 probably represents this form of Manjusn, with the miniature 
figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas over the head, and of the two 

1. Gordon ; ITL, p. 68 under the title of Maharajalila ManjusVl. 

2, This image was first identified as that of the Hindu goddess, Bhuvanelvari 
in the Birbhum Bibarana ( in Bengali ), then as that of Simhanada Lokelvara in A. S. I. 
Eastern Circle, Annual Report. 192021, p. 27 and later on as that of MaKjuIrl in 
Ibid, Plate 1, Fig. 2 



118 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

divinities to the right and left of him. The figure to the right probably 
represents Sudhanakumara and the figure to the left is Yamantaka. The 
principal god here displays the Dharrnacakra mudra and from under his 
left armpit rises a lotus which bears the Prajnaparamita manuscript as 
required by the Sadhana. The lotus to the right is added in order to 
maintain the balance with the lotus to the -left. 

The lion vehicle of Manjuvara is sometimes absent, and in later 
images he may be found sitting in the Paryahka or any other attitude 
(Fig. 84). The lotus to the right which is not expressly required by 
the Sadhana sometimes bears the book (Fig. 85), and sometimes the 
sword in order to preserve the balance in a better way (Fig. 86). 
One of the two Indian Museum images of Manjuvara has on either side 
of the god two feminine figures which no doubt represent the two 
wives of Manjusri, Kesini and UpakesinL Manjuvara is well known 
in Tibet ] 

9. MANJUVAJRA 

( i ) 

Colour Red Faces Three 

Arms Six Variety Yab-yum 

The form of Manjusri called bv the name of Manjuvajra is some- 
what popular amongst the Tanrric Buddhists. Several of his forms are 
described both in the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavali of 
Abhayakara Gupta. In the Sadhanamala the colour of his body 
including the principal face is red like Kunkuma, the right face is blue 
and the left white. He has six arms of which the principal pair is 
engaged in embracing his female counterpart. The remaining four 
hands carry the sword, the arrow, the bow and the night lotus. He sits 
in Vajrasana or in the Vajraparyahka attitude on the orb of the 
moon supported by a lotus. The Dhyar.a is in verse and may be quoted 
as follows : 

Kuhkumarunasanmurtir-nilasitatrayananah I 
Bhujadvayasamaslista"svabhavidyadharasyadhrk II 
Khadgabanabhujancapa^mlotpalaparigrahah I 
Visvadalabjacandrasthah vajrasanasasiprabhah II 

Sadhanamala, p. 163. 

"...His handsome body is red like Kunkuma and he is endowed with 
three faces of (Kunkuma) blue and white colour. He embraces his 
Svabha Prajna with two arms, of which one touches her face. He 
carries the Khadga, the arrow, the bow, and the blue Utpala, sits on the 
moon on a double lotus in Vajrasana, and is radiant like the moon." 

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 68 under the title of Dharmacakra Manjusri, Getty : GNB, 
pi. XXXV. 



BODHISATTVA MANJUSRl 119 

Manjuvajra is represented in Tibet } 

(ii) 
Colour Golden Yellow. Faces Three 

Arms Six. 

Manjuvajra is the principal deity of the Manjuvajra Mandala 
in the Nispannayogavali. His form has been described thus : 

"Shhhopari sattvaparyankanisanno Bhagavan Vairocanasvabhavo 
Manjuvajrah kamanlyakanakakantih... pita-mla-sukla'Savyetaravaktrah 
sadbhujo daksinaih khadgavaradabanan vamaih Prajnaparamitapustaka- 
nllabjadhanumsi vibhranah.'' NSP, p. 48. 

"God Manjuvajra is seated on the back of a lion, is of beautiful 
golden colour and resembles Vairocana, His three faces have yellow 
blue and white colour. He is six-armed. In the three right hands 
he holds the sword, the Varada mudra and the arrow. In the three left 
likewise he carries the Prajnaparamita manuscript, the blue lotus and 
the bow." 

(iii) 

Colour Red Arms Six 

Manjuvajra is the principal deity in a second Mandala dedicated to 
Manjuvajra in the Nispannayogavali. Here he is identified with the Sixth 
Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva. The Kulesa of this god is Aksobhya 
according to a definite statement in the Mandala. He is described thus : 
"Bhagavan Vajrasattvo Manjuvajra-rupah kuhkumarunah krsna- 
sitasavyetaravadanah pradhanabhujabhyam svabha'prajnalihgitosisa- 
rendivaracapadharo"... NSP, p. 2. 

"The god Vajrasattva in the form of Manjuvajra is red like vermi- 
llion. His right face is blue and the left white. With the two principal 
hands he embraces his Prajna ; in the others he carries the sword, the 
arrow the lotus and the bow." 

Under the name of Manjusri his different forms are to be found in 
the Chinese collection a . Fig. 8? illustrates an eight-armed Manjuvajra 
with the akti in the Baroda Museum. It is both remarkable and 
beautiful. 

10. MANJUKUMARA 
Colour Red Vahana Animal 

Faces Three Arms Six 

Only one Sadhana is assigned to this form of Manjusri in the 
Sadhanamala, which depicts him as three-faced and six- armed, riding 

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 66 with the Sakti under the title of Manjunatha. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 7, 11, 53, 198, 199. 



120 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

on an animal. In his three left hands he carries the Prajnaparamita, 
the Utpala and the bow while the three right show the sword, the 
arrow, and the Varada pose. The extract is given below : 

^Manjukumararh trimukharh sadbhujarh kunkumarunarh mlasitada- 
ksinetaravadanarh sattvaparyankinarh Khadgabanavaradam daksinakaia- 
trayarh, Prajnaparamitapustakanilotpalacapavad-vamakaratrayam sasrn- 
garakumarabharananivasanadikam nanapuspamahasobhaciratrayavira- 
jitarh Tathagataparamanu-parighatitarh atmanarh dhyatva..." 

Sadhanamala, p 151 

"The worshipper should think himself as god Manjukumara, who 
is three-faced and six-armed, of red Kuhkuma, colour. His right 
and left faces have (respectively) the blue and white colour. He is 
seated on an animaL His three right hands hold the sword, the 
arrow and the Varada pose, while the three left carry the Prajnapara- 
mita, blue Utpala and the bow* He is decked in princely ornaments 
and dress as befitting the Srfxgara (amour) sentiment hre displays. 
He wears the three rags of a mendicant, which are richly decorated 
with various kinds of flowers. His body is composed of the parti- 
cles of the Tathagatas Thus meditating..." 

Manjukumara is not known either in sculptures or in ancient 
paintings. Fig. 88 illustrates a drawing from Nepal. 

11. ARAPACANA 

Colour White or red Asana Vajraparyanka 

Companions Four Symbols Book and Sword 

Eight Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the form of this 
divinity, which is sometimes white and sometimes red. He sits 
always in the Vajraparyanka attitude, but when he sits on an animal 
he is called Prajnacakra. He is accompanied by the four divinities, 
Kesini, Upakesini, Candraprabha and Suryaprabha, and as the group 
of five originates from the five syllables, 'A', 'R', 'P, 'C' and 'N', 
the principal god is called Arapacana. When represented, the four 
companions of Arapacana resemble the principal god in all respects. 

None of the forms of Manjusri is so widely represented both 
in stone and in bronze as Arapacana. He is accompanied by his 
four attendants, but in some instances the companions are entirely 
absent. In one of the sculptures ( Fig. 89 ) preserved in the Dacca 
Museum 1 the four Dhyani Buddhas, Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, 
Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi (besides the usual four companions)* are 
pictured on the aureole behind, the centre at the top being occupied 

1. Bhattasali : 1BBS, p. Z8f, PI. VII, b. 



BODHISATTVA MA*3)USRf 121 

by one of the companion deities resembling the principal god. 
The Java figure (Fig. 90) belongs to this class and shows the four 
companions as required by the Sadhana 1 . 

The Nepal bronze (Fig 91) does not carry the book against the 
chest, but holds the stem of a lotus, which bears the book. The 
Baroda bronze (Fig. 92) also does likewise. Both these are without 
companions. 

Arapacana is also called Sadyonubhava-Arapacana, or Sadyonu* 
bhava-Manjusrl. He is resplendent like the full moon, has a smiling 
face, is decked in all sorts of princely ornaments, and sits on a double 
lotus in the Vajraparyanka attitude. He brandishes the sword in 
his right hand, while his left holds the Prajnaparamita book against 
his chest. Jalimkumara (or Suryaprabha) is in front of him, Candra^ 
prabha behind, Kesini to the right and UpakesinI to the left. All 
these four divinities are replicas of the principal god. The Dhyana in 
one of the Sadhanas describes the principal god in the following terms : 

' *. . .Khadgapustakadharinam akuncitapancaclram, raktavastrayuga- 
yutam srngaravesadharinam smitavikasitavadanam Sasankakantjtulya- 
sobharh visvadalakamalasthabaddhaparyahkam Sadyonubhavarapacan^ 
arupam atmanam-ikseta". Sadhanamala, p. 121. 

'The worshipper should think himself as Sadyonubhava'Arapecana, 
who carries the Khadga and the book, and wears the five cirakas(rags) 
which are slightly folded. His garments are of red colour, which 
befits the Srfigara Rasa he displays. His face is radiant with a smile, 
and is resplendent like the moon. He sits on a double lotus in the 
Vajraparyanka attitude..." 

This Sadhana further adds that the principal god should originate 
from the first syllable "A", Jalimkumara from the syllable "R", 
Candraprabha from P", Kesim from "C" and UpakesinI from "N". 
Manjusri should be in the middle, Jalimkumara in front, Candra^ 
prabha behind, Kesini to the right and UpakesinI to the left. All 
of them should have white colour and should be identical with the 
principal god in appearance. 

Arapacana is popular in Tibet 2 and China \ In Tibet his sword 
in the right hand is replaced by the bell in a remarkable statuette. 

1. First published and identified as Manjusri in Grunwedel : Buddhist Art in 
India, p. 199. 

2. Gordon : ITL, p. 68. Getty : GNB, pi. XXXV illustrates a unique image 
with the Ghanta in the right hand instead of the sword. By the sound of the 
holy gong ignorance seems to disappear. 

3. Clark : TLP, II, p. 199 illustrates an image of Arapacana under the title 
ofManjus'ri. 

16 



122 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

12. STHIRACAKRA. 

Colour White Symbol Sword 

Mudra Varada Companion Sakti 

The Sadhana for the worship of Sthiracakra has one remarkable 
feature which distinguishes it from the other Sadhanas in the 
Sadhanamala, namely, that it does not give the Dhyana at a 
stretch, but the information about his form is scattered through- 
out the Sadhana, which again, is in verse. From the information 
gleaned from the Sadhana about his form it appears that in one of 
his hands he carries the sword, which by radiating light destroys the 
darkness of ignorance, while the other is engaged in bestowing boons of 
all kinds, or in other words, displays the Varda pose. His colour is 
white and he is decked in garments of the colour of the bee ; he sits on 
the moon, supported by a lotus, and wears the Cirakas which makes 
his body resplendent. He wears princely ornaments and displays the 
sentiment of passionate love. He is accompanied by a Prajna, who 
is beautiful, displays the sentiment of passionate love and laughs 
profusely. 

Images of this form of Mafijusn are rarely met with. The Vahgiya 
Sahitya Parisad (Calcutta) image No. C(d) 8/16 has a feint resemblance 
with the description given above, and may quite conceivably represent 
Sthiracakra. The special feature of this image is that the sword appears 
on a lotus, the stem of which is held in the left hand of the god, while 
the right hand exhibits the Varada pose. He sits in the Lalitasana on 
the moon over a lotus, and is accompanied by his Sakti who according 
to Indian custom occupies a position to the left of her consort 
(Fig. 93) '. 

Sthiracakra is represented in the Chinese Collection 2 . 

13. VADIRAT 

Asana Ardhaparyahka Vahana Tiger 

Mudra Vyakhyana 

This form of ManjusrI is rarely to be met with either in stone or in 
bronze. One Sadhana only is devoted to the worship of this divinity 
which shows that this form was not very popular amongst the Vajraya- 
nists. Vadirat is of medium height, neither very short nor very tall, 
and appears a youth of sixteen years. He sits on the back of a tiger in 

1. This image is described in the Hand book to the Scluptures in the Museum of the 
Vangiya Sahitya Panshad, p. 33. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 261, 



BODHISATTVA MANJUSRf 123 

the Ardhaparyafxka attitude with his left leg slightly raised. He wears 
all sorts of ornaments, and exhibits the Vyakhyana mudra. The 
Dhyana which is in verse, describes the form of Vadirat in the follow* 
ing terms : 

Svaccham sodasavatsarakrtidharam sarddulaprsthasthitam 
Vyakhyavyakulapanipadmayugalam vamardhaparyankinam I 
Dlrgahm napi na capi kharvamasamam saundaryarasyasrayam 
Ratnasvarnamaniprakaravividhalankaramalakulam II 

Sarimad-Vadirat-Sadhanarh samaptam. Krtiriyam Panditasri 

Cintamani*Dattasya ". Sadhanamala, p. 98. 

''The worshipper should think himself as (Vadirat), who is hand- 

some in appearance (lit. pure or transparent), and appears a youth of 

sixteen years. He sits on the back of a tiger. His lotus-like hands are 

eagerly engaged in displaying the Vyakhyana mudra. His left leg is 

slightly raised in the Ardhaparyahka attitude. He is neither tall, nor 

very short, is unparalled by any, is the receptacle of all beauties in the 

world, and is decked in various ornaments consisting of jewels, gold, 

gems and other valuables. 

Here ends the Sadhana for Vadirat written by the author 
Sri Cintamani Datta." 

Vadirat is represented in the Chinese Collection J . 



1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 262. 



CHAPTER IV 

BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 

Avalokitesvara is famous in the Mahayana Pantheon as a Bodhisattva 
emanating from the Dhyani Buddha, Amitabha and his akti, Pandara. 
As Amitabha and Pandara are the presiding Dhyani Buddha and 
Buddhasakti of the present Kalpa (cycle), namely, the Bhadrakalpa, 
Avalokitesvara is said to be the Bodhisattva who rules during the 
period between the disappearance of the Mortal Buddha, Sakyasimha, 
and the advent of the Future Buddha, Maitreya. The Gunakaranda- 
vyuha 3 gives an account of his character, moral teachings and miracles 
and from it is learnt that he refused Nirvana, until all created beings 
should be in possession of the Bodhi knowledge and to that end he 
is still supposed to work and foster spiritual knowledge amongst his 
fellow creatures. One of the passages in Karandavyuha 2 characterises 
him as taking the shape of all gods of all religions, nay, even the shape 
of the father and mother, in fact, the form of the worshipped of any 
and every worshipper, to whom he might impart knowledge of Dharma. 
By a slow and gradual process, first human beings and then animals 
and other creatures would advance spiritually to obtain salvation. For 
all these reasons Avalokitesvara is characterised as the best of the 
Sangha, the Jewel of the Buddhist Church or Sahgharatna. 

The Sadhanamala gives altogether thirty-eight Sadhanas which 
describe a variety of forms of Avalokitesvara. Some of these forms 
have already been described by M. Foucher in his Etude sur V Iconogra- 
phie Bouddhique de Vlnde, Vol II with translations in French of the 
Sanskrit texts of the Sadhanas. 

From the Sadhanamala and allied works it is possible to individualize 
at least fifteen different forms of Avalokitesvara. All these forms are 
described in the following pages one by one. These fifteen by no means 
exhaust the forms of Avalokitesvara since there is evidence that these 
forms even numbered one hundred and eight, each of them bearing 
distinct features and distinct names. In the Macchandar Vahal one of 
the numerous Viharas of Kathmandu in Nepal, there are paintings in 
many colours of one hundred and eight varieties of the Bodhisattva, 

1. R. Mitra : Sanskrit Buddhist Literature, p. 95. 

2. Karandavyuha : ed. Samara ml, pp. 21*22. 



BODHISATTVA AVALOK1TESVARA 125 

executed on the wooden panel surrounding the main temple on three 
sides. These paintings appear to be at least two hundred years old, 
and they bear inscriptions in old Newari giving the names of deities 
they depict. 

Clearly, from the view point of antiquity, this discovery is of lesser 
importance than the ones obtained from earlier Tantric works, but 
as the overwhelming number of forms is likely to throw a flood of 
light on the iconography of Avalokitesvara, a description of all these 
varieties is given with their respective illustrations in a separate Appen- 
dix at the end of this volume. 

Out of the fifteen different forms of Avalokitesvara mentioned 
above fourteen bear the figure of Amitabha on the crown, thus clearly 
revealing their origin. The fifteenth, Vajradharma by name, is said 
to bear the figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas on his crown. 

Images of Avalokitesvara are found abundantly in India and 
Nepal. Out of these the typical one* are described in their appro- 
priate places. Such images are popular both in Tibet ] as well as 
in China 2 . 

1. SADAKSARI-LOKESVARA. 
Colour White Arms Four 

Mudra Anjali Symbols Rosary and lotus 

Companions Manidhara and Sadaksarl Mahavidya 

Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship 
of this form of Avalokitesvara, of which two describe him in a group 
of three. In a third he is accompanied by Sadaksari Mahavidya, 
and in the fourth he is single. In all these, the form of Lokesvara 
is the same. Below is quoted the Dhyana of the Sadhany describing 
him in a group of three :- 

"Atmanam Lokesvararuparh sarvalahkarabhusitarh suklavarnam 
vamatah padmadhararh daksinato'ksasutradharam aparabhyam hasta^ 
bhyarh hrdi samputanjalisthitarh dhyayat. Daksine Manidharam tatta* 
dvarnabhujanvitam padmantaroparistham. Vame tathaiva aparapadma- 
stharh Sadaksarlrh Mahavidyarh". Sadhanamala, p. 27. 

''The worshipper should think himself as [Sadaksarl] Lokesvara 
who is decked in all sorts of ornaments, white in colour, and four* 
armed, carrying the lotus in the left hand and the rosary in the right. 

L Gordon : ITL, p, 44 illustrates a Tibetan drawing of Lokelvara with eleven 
heads and eight arms. This form is not described anywhere in Sanskrit. Getty : 
GNB, pp. 60-64. 

2. References to statuettes from China are given at their appropriate places* 



126 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

The other two hands are joined in forming the mudra of clasped 
hand against the chest. To his right is Manidhara, with the same 
colour and the same hands, sitting on another lotus. To the left is 
Sadaksari Mahavidya with identical form sitting on another lotus". 

The Dhyana of this god has been extracted from the Karandavyuha 
according to a statement in one of the colophons of the Sadhanas, 
The Mantra assigned to this form of Avalokitesvara is the famous 
"Orh Manipadme Hum" consisting of six syllables which are here 
deified in the form of Sadaksari Mahavidya. When Lokesvara is 
associated with the Great Knowledge of the Six Syllables, he is called 
Sadaksari Lokesvara. 

An artistic sculpture ( Fig. 94 ) depicting all the three deities of 
the Sadaksari group is preserved in the Sarnath Museum ] . In 
this group, Sadaksari Lokesvara is in the middle, the figure to the 
right is Manidhara and the female figure to the left is Sadaksari 
MahSvidya. It may be noticed that under the seats of lotuses there 
are four diminutive figures which represent none else than the four 
guardians of the gates of the Sadaksari Mandala, as prescribed in 
the Karandavyuha 2 . 

Another artistic but mutilated image of the Sadaksari group 
(Fig. 95) is now to be found in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. In 
this piece both Manidhara and Sadaksari Mahavidya are shown in 
the peculiar attitude of sitting known as Virasana. 

A third image (Fig. 96) found in the district of Birbhum by 
Mr, K. N. Dikshit* of the Archaeological Department is also of the 
Sadaksari group, although it is mutilated beyond recognition. The 
central figure depicting Sadaksari Lokesvara has lost two hands 
bearing the rosary and the lotus, but the marks are still there on 
the stone. The two hands exhibiting the Anjali mudra hold also 
the jewel. 

Images of Sadaksari Lokesvara both singly as well as in groups 
abound in Nepal and almost every monastery in Nepal contains 
one or more images. A coloured image of this divinity appears in 
the temple of Bodhnath a famous place of pilgrimage in Nepal. 

Fig. 97 illustrates the principal deity as single in a beautiful bronze 
now preserved in the Baroda Museum. 

When he appears in a group of two in the company of Sadaksari 
Mahavidya, the goddess may have another form depicting her in 
Vlrasana with yellow colour and two hands. Her right hand remains 

1 Sarnath Catalogue, No. B (e) 6. PI XIV (b; 

2. Karandavyuha, p. 74* 

3. A. S. I* Eastern Circle, Annual Report, 1920-21, p, 27 and illustrated in pi. 1(2). 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA * 127 

empty, while the left holds the jewel. The Sarnath Museum image 
(Fig* 98) although mutilated, must represent this form of Sadaksari 
Mahavidya who can be readily recognised by the peculiar Asana which 
is uncommon in Buddhist iconography. 

Another alternative is also prescribed in the Sadhanumala for all 
the three deities, and the Sadhana adds : ''Sometimes in the Sadhana 
of Sadaksan Mahavidya, Lokesvara holds also the lotus bearing the 
jewel and the book, Manidhara may hold the jewel and the lotus but 
should be without the book. Sadaksan may hold the book and the 
lotus but should not have the jewel. 1 

2. SIMHANADA. 

Colour White 

Asana Maharajalila Vahana Lion 

Symbols (i)Sword on lotus, (n) Trisula entwined by a snake 

Four Sadhanas also are devoted to the worship of Sirhhanada, 
who is regarded by the Mahayanists as the curer of all diseases. He 
is one of the most popular forms of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, 
and his images are by no means rare in India, At Patan in Nepal, all 
the more important monasteries have two images of Simhanada, 
either in stone or in bronze, on either side of the staircase leading 
to the sanctum. He appears in many forms only slightlv different 
from one another. The four Sadhanas alike describe him as follows : 

"Atmanarh Simhanada-Lokesvararuparh bhavayet, svetavarnarh 
trinetrarh jatamukutinarh nirbhusanarh vyaghracarmaprabhrtarh sirhha- 
sanastharh maharajalilarh candrasanarh candraprabharh bhavayet. 
Dak sine sitaphanivestitarh trisularh svetarh, vame nanasugandhikusuma* 
paripuritapadmabhajanarh. Vamahastat uttharh padmopari jvala- 
tkhadgarh". Sadhanamala, p. 63. 

'The worshipper should think himself as Simhanada Lokesvara 
of white complexion, with three eyes, and the jatamukuta (crown of 
matted hair). He is without ornaments, is clad in tiger-skin, and 
sits on a lion in the attitude of princely ease. He is seated on the 
orb of the moon and is radiant like her. In his right there is a 
white trident entwined by a white snake, and in his left there is a 
lotuS'bowl full of fragrant flowers. From his left hand rises a lotus 
on which there is a sword burning like fire". 

Images of Simhanada are by no means rare and are rather easy 
to identify because of clear-cut symbols. Fig. 99 is the famous image 

1 Sadhanamala, p. 36. 



128 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

of Simhanada from Mahoba carrying a rosary 1 . Fig. 100 is a Nepalese 
statue at the gate of a monastery. Fig. 101 illustrates a sculpture 
from Magadha, while Fig. 102 is a small bronze of Simhanada with- 
out the lion, from Nepal. Simhanada wears no ornaments and this 
feature of his images differentiates him from Manjusri when he is 
on the back of a lion. 

Simhanada is popular both in Tibet 2 and in China 8 . 

3. KHASARPANA 

Colour White Symbol Lotus 

Mudra Varada Asana Lalita or Ardhaparyahka 

Companions Tara, Sudhanakumara, Bhrkuti, Hayagriva 

Khasarpana is described in a number of Sadhanas in the Sadhana- 
mala, which fact points to his popularity. The peculiar feature of 
this god is that he is invariably accompanied by the four divinities 
Tara, Sudhanakumara, Bhrkuti and Hayagriva. The principal figure 
is the same as Lokanatha, two-armed, and one faced, carrying the 
same symbol and exhibiting the same Mudra ; the difference lies in 
the fact that Lokanatha has only two companions, Tara and Hayagriva 
while Khasarpana has two in addition, namely, Bhrkuti and Sudhana- 
kumara. He is of white complexion, and sits either in the Lalita 
or the Ardhaparyahka attitude. Below is given a somewhat lengthy 
Dhyana describing the god : 

"Atmanam Bhagavantam dhyayat himakarakotikiranavadatarh 
deham, urdhvajatamakutam Amitabhasekharam visvanalinanisannam 
sasimandale, ardhaparyahkanisannarh sakalalankaradharavigraham 
smeramukham dvirastavarsadeslyam daksine varadakaram vamakarena 
sanalakamaladharam , karavigalatpiyusadhat abhyavahararasikam tada^ 
dhah samaropitordhvamukham mahakuksim atikrsam atisitivainarh 
Sucimukham tarpayantam srimat-Potalakacalodaranivasinam karuna^ 
snigdhavilokanarh srhgararasaparyupasitaih atisantam nanalaksanalah- 
krtarii. Tasya puratas-Tara daksinaparsve Sudhanakumarah. 

Tatra Tara syama, vamakaravidhrtam sanalam utpalam daksina* 
karena vikasayanti nanalahkaravati abhinavayauvanodbhinnakucabhara. 
Sudhanakumarasca krtanjaliputah kanakavabhasidyutih, kumararu- 
padhari vamakaksavinyastapustakah sakalalankaravan. 
Pascime Bhrkuti Hayagriva uttare. 

Tatra Bhrkuti caturbhuja hemaprabha jatakalapini, vame tridandlka- 
mandaludharihasta daksine vandanabhinayaksasiitradharakara trinetra. 

1. First published by K.N. Dik shit. : Six Sculptures fiom Mahoba in the A. S. I, 

Memoir No. 8, pi. la, p 2. 2, Getty : GNB, pp. 60, 61, 69* 

3. Clark : TIP, II, pp. 199, 265. For the Magadha specimen see JR AS, 1894t pi. 1. 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 129 

Hayagrivo raktavarnah kharvalambodarah urddhvajvalatpingalakesah 
bhujagayajnopavitl kayilatarasmasrusremparicitamukhamandalah rakta* 
vartulatrinetrah bhrkntikutilabhrukah vyaghracarmambarah danda- 
yudhah daksinakarena vandanabhinayi. 

Ete sarva eva svanayakananapreritadrstayo yathasobham avasthitas* 
cintanlyah... 

Iti Khasarpanasadhanam''. Sadhanamala, pp. 39-41 

"The worshipper should think himself as the god (Khasarpana) 
from whose body radiate rays of a crore of moons* He wears the 
Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair), holds the image of Amitabha on 
his head, and sits on the moon over a double lotus in the Ardhapary- 
afika attitude. He is decked in all sorts of ornaments, has a smiling 
face, is aged about twice eight years, exhibits the Varada pose in 
the right hand, and holds the lotus with a stem in the left. He is 
an expert in distributing the stream of nectar that flows from his 
hand, and Sucimukha who stands below with an uplifted face, a 
protruding belly and very pale appearance receives the same. He 
resides in the womb of the mount Potalaka, looks beautiful with 
compassion, is full of the sentiment of Srngara (amour), is extremely 
peaceful and is endowed with various auspicious marks 
"Before him is Tara and to the right is Sudhanakumara 
"Here Tara is green. She causes to blossom with her right hand 
the lotus flower with a stem held in her left. She has many ornaments 
and her breasts are oppressively heavy due to adolescence 

"Sudhanakumara, again, has his two hands joined ( anjali ), is 
resplendent like gold, and has the appearance of a prince. He 
carries the book under his left arm-pit and is decked in all ornaments. 
"To the West of the god is Bhrkun and to the North Hayagrlva 
"Here Bhrkutl has four arms, is resplendent like gold has matted 
hair, carries the staff with three horns and the Kamandalu in the 
two left hands. The two right show the mudra of bowing in 
one and the rosary in the second. She has three eyes. 

"Hayagriva is red in colour and is short, with a protruding belly. 
His hair rises upwards in the shape of a flame, and he has a snake 
as his sacred thread. His face is recognised by a deep brown pair 
of moustaches; his eyes are red and round; his eye-brows are distorted 
in a frown. He is clad in tiger-skin, has the staff as a weapon, 
and his right hand exhibits the act of bowing. 

"All these deities should be meditated on as disposed in a befitting 
and artistic manner, with their eyes directed towards the face of 
the principal deity. Here ends the Sadhana for Khasarpana.'* 
17 



130 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

The finest image (Fig. 103) of Khasarpana was discovered by the 
late N. K. Bhattasali in the Pargana Vikrampur in Eastern Bengal *. 
The sculpture is recognized to be one of the best products of Bengal 
art. Had the central figure been mutilated like the one reproduced 
in Fig. 104 it would still be possible to identify Khasarpana by means 
of the four companions to the right and the left of the principal god. 
Images of Khasarpana are found in Tibet 2 and China *. 

4, LOKANATHA 

Colour White Symbol Lotus 

Mudra Varada 

Four Sadhanas are devoted to the worship of the Lokanatha 
form of Avalokitesvara. He is single in three Sadhanas and only 
one Sadhana describes him as accompanied by Tara and Hayagriva. 
The same Sadhana adds further that Lokanatha should be accom- 
panied also by the eight Bodhisattvas : Maitreya, Ksitigarbha, Vajrapaiji, 
Khagarbha, Viskambhin, Samantabhadra, Manjughosa, and Gagana- 
gafija, and by the four goddesses : Dhupa, Puspa, Gandha, and Dlpa, 
and by the four guardians of the gates : Vajrahkusi, Vajrapasi, Vajras- 
phota and Vajraghanta, In other words the Sadhana gives the 
constitution of the whole Mandala of Lokanatha. The principal god 
has two hands and carries the lotus in the left hand and exhibits the 
Varada pose in the right, exactly like Khasarpana previously described. 
The Sadhana which is in verse is given below : 

"Purvavat-kramayogena Lokanatham sasiprabharh I 
Hrihkaraksarasambhutam jatamukutamanditam II 
Vajradharmajatantahstham asesaroganasanam I 
Varadam daksine haste vame padmadharam tatha II 
Lalitaksepasamstham tu mahasaumyam prabhasvaram I 
Varadotpalakara saumya Tara daksinatah sthita II 
Vandanadandahastastu Hayagrivo'tha vamatah I 
Raktavarno maharaudro vyaghracarmambarapriyah' 1 II 

Sadhanamala, p. 49, 

"Following the same procedure as before, the worshipper should 
think himself as Lokanatha, resplendent like the moon, as springing 
from the sacred syllable Hrih and wearing the Jatamukuta, 

"He has within his matted hair the figure of the god, Vajradharma, 
is the destroyer of all diseases, exhibits the Varada tnudra in the 
right hand and carries the lotus in the left. 



1. Bhattasali : IBBS, p. 24f, PI. VII,a. 

2. Gordon : ITL, p, 66 3. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 202, 264. 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 131 

"He sits in the Lalita attitude, is peaceful and resplendent. To 
his right is Tara, who has a peaceful appearance, exhibits the Varada 
mudra and carries the lotus. 

"To the left is Hayagnva, who displays the gesture of bowing 
and carries the staff in his two hands. He is red in colour, appears 
terrible and is clad in the" garment of tiger-skin". 

Later, the Sadhana adds an account of the deities constituting 
the Lokanatha Mandala, including the Bodhisattvas and the gate- 
keepers. The relevant text is given below : 

'Tadvaratakastadale padme Maitreyadirh ca vinyaset I 
Maitreyah pitavarnasca nagapuspavarapradah II 
Ksitigarbhah syamavarnah kalasarh cabhayarh tatha I 
Vajrapanisca suklabho vajrahasto varapradah II 
Khagarbho nabhahsyamabho cintamani-varapradah I 
Manjughosah kanakabhah khadgapustakadharakah II 
Gaganaganjo raktavarno nilotpalavarapradah I 
Viskambhi tu ksaravarno ratnottamavarapradah II 
Samantabhadrah pitabhah ratnotpalavarapradah I 
Dhupadicaturddevi ca Vajrankusyadidvaragah II 
Varnayudhe yathapurvarh mandalasyanusaratah I 
Evamvidhaih samayuktarh Lokanathsrh prabhavayet II". 

Sadhanamala, pp. 49-50 

(t On the eight petals of the lotus [on which the god sitsj should be 
placed the gods Maitreya and others. Maitreya is yellow in colour 
carries the Naga [kesara] flower and exhibits the Varada pose. Ksitigar- 
bha is of green colour, carries the Kalasa and exhibits the Abhaya 
pose. Vajrapani is whitish in colour, carries the Vajra and exhibits 
the Abhaya mudra. Khagarbha has the colour of the blue sky, 
carries the Cintamani and exhibits the Varada mudra. Manjughosa 
is of golden complexion and carries in his two hands the sword and 
the book. Gaganaganja is of red colour, carries the lotus and 
exhibits the Varada mudra. Viskambhin is ash-coloured, carries 
the excellent jewel and exhibits the Varada mudra. Samantabhadra 
is yellowish in complexion, carries the jewel on a lotus and exhibits 
the Varada mudra. The four goddesses Dhupa and others (accom- 
pany Lokanatha) and the (four goddesses) Vajrankusi and others 
guard the gates, their colour and weapons being in accordance with 
the canons the Mandala. In this way Lokanatha should be meditated 
upon by the worshipper". 

When represented, Lokanatha is generally alone and is occasion- 
ally accompanied by Tara and Hayapilva. In paintings of the com- 
plete Mandala alone all the companion deities are expected to be 



132 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

present. Lokanatha may sit in three attitudes according to three 
different Sadhanas ; he may have the Lalita, the Paryanka or the 
Vajraparyahka attitude. Out of all images of Lokanatha so far 
discovered, the one from Mahoba is perhaps the best and the most 
artistic (Fig. 105), There is a fine bronze of Lokanatha (Fig 106) in 
the Baroda Museum. The Sarnath image (Fig- 107) shows the 
miniature figure of Amitabha in the Samadhi mudra on the crown. 
The Nepal image is made of pure ivory (Fig. 108). These last two 
represent Lokanatha in the standing attitude, 

5 HALAHALA 

Colour White Faces Three 

Hands Six Companion Prajna 

Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of 
Halahala Lokesvara. Images of this divinity are rarely to be met with 
in India, but in Nepal there are some, though they do not strictly follow 
the Sadhana. The distinguishing feature of Halahala is that he is 
generally accompanied by his Sakti or female energy whom he carries 
on his lap. The Sadhanas all enjoin the presence of the Sakti, but in 
a stone image from Nepal (Fig. 109), he is represented alone. According 
to the Sadhana the god should be seated, but the image above referred 
to represents him in a standing attitude. The Dhyana contained in one 
of the Sadhanas is in verse and reads as follows : 

"Hrlhkarabijanispannarh Halahalam mahakrpam I 
Trinetrarh trimukham caiva jatamukutamanditarh II 
Prathamasyam sitam niladaksinam vamalohitam I 
Sasankardhadharam murdhni kapalakrtasekharam II 
Jatantahsthajinam samyak sarvabharanabhusitam I 
Sitaravindanirbhasam srngararasasundaram II 
Sadbhujam smeravaktram ca vyaghracarmambarapriyam I 
Varadam daksine panau dvitiye caksamalikam II 
Trtlye saranarttanam ca vame capadharaih tatha I 
Dvitiye sitapadmam ca trtlye stanameva ca II 

Vamajanuna sitam Svabhadevlrh dadhanam. Vamena kamaladharam 
daksinena bhujena Bhagavadalifiganaparam kusumasobhitajatakalapam, 
Daksinaparsve sarpavestitam trisulam, vamaparsve padmasthakapalam 
nanasugandhikusumaih sampurnam, raktapadmacandre Hlaksepasthi- 
tam vibhavayet Bhagavantam. M Sadhanamala, pp. 65-66. 



1. K. N. Dikshit : Sx Scu!ptitfis from Mahoba, in the Memoir No, 8 of A.SJ. 



B3DHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 133 

"The worshipper should think himself as Halahala, the Great Com- 
passionate, originating from the sacred syllable Hrih, with three eyes, 
three faces and matted hair rising upwards in the shape of a crown. 
The first (or the principal) face is white, the right blue and the left red. 
He bears on his head the crescent and the Kapala. The Jma Amitabha 
is within his matted hair and he is decked in all ornaments. He is 
resplendent like the white lotu.s and appears beautiful by the sentiment 
of passionate love he displays. He has six arms, a smiling face and is 
fond of garments of tiger-skin. He displays the Varada mudra in the 
first right hand, the second has the rosary, while the third flourishes 
the arrow. The first left hand carries the bow, the second the white 
lotus and the third touches the breast (of his Sakti). He carries the 
Sakti of his own creation on the left lap. She shows the lotus in the 
left hand and the right is engaged in the act of embracing the god Her 
Jata (matted hair) is decorated with flowers. To their right is the 
Trisula entwined by a snake, and on the left is the Kapala on the lotus, 
full of fragrant flowers. The god sits in the Lalita attitude on the red 
lotus 1 '. 

One image of Halahala is found in China ] . 

6. PADMAN4RTTESVARA 

(I) Eighteen Armed 
Face - One Arms Eighteen 

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka 
Symbol Double lotus in all hands 

Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of 
this variant of Avalokitesvara, all entirely different and describing 
three widely different forms of the deity. It is, therefore, necessary 
that all the three Dhyanas should be quoted and translated. There is 
no difficulty in taking the three to refer to Padmanarttesvara, because 
all doubt is set at rest by the fact that the Mantra, where mentioned, is 
in all cases the same, and that the Sadhanas always designate him as 
Padmanarttesvara. 

Images of Padmanarttesvara are rare in India. Fig. 110 illustrates 
one good example from Nepal. It follows the Dhyana given below : 

'Tadmanarttesvaramnayena Arya-Avalokitesvara-Bhattarakarh atma- 
narh vibhavayet ekamukham astadasabhujarh ardhaparyahkinam Ami* 
tabhajatajutamandalam sarvakarair-visvapadmadharinam, yoginlvrnd- 
aparivrtam, daksinavamaparsvasthita-Tara-Sudhana-Bhrkuti-Hayagrlvam 
divyalahkaravastrabhusanam ." Sadhanamala, p. 77. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, 265. 



134 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"The worshipper should think himself as Bhattaraka Avalokitesvara 
in the form of Padmanarttesvara, who is one-faced and eighteen^armed. 
He stands in the Ardhaparyahka attitude, and on his Jatamukuta there 
is an effigy of Amitabha. He carries the double lotus in all his 
(eighteen) hands and is surrounded by a host of Yoginis. His right 
and left sides are occupied by Tara, Sudhana, Bhrkuti and Hayagnva. 
He is decked in all kinds of divine ornaments and dress". 

The Asana prescribed in the Sadhana is the Ardhaparyanka. This 
Asana may have two \arieties ; the ordinary, which is also called the 
Maharajalila, as in the cases of Vaglsvara and Simhanada, and the dan- 
cing variety, (ardhaparyankena natyastha) as in the cases of Heruka, 
VajravSrahi and others. As the word 'narttesvara' means the "God of 
Dance 7 ' or the "God in a dancing attitude" the Asana of Pad man antes- 
vara may be taken as the dancing variety of Ardhaparyanka, and this is 
borne out by the fact that the Nepal image illustrated in Fig. 110 shows 
the god in this particular attitude. This image hails from the Sarasvatl- 
sthana or the Manjusri Hill at Svayambhuksettra in Nepal. Though 
the god is here represented with only two of the companion deities, 
yet the principal figure corresponds in all details, to the description 
given in the Sadhanamala. 

One statuette of this god is found in China l . This Chinese 
statuette is illustrated in Fig. 111. 

(II) Two-Armed 

Colour Red Companion Sakti 

Mudra Sue! Symbol Lotus 

Vahana Animal 

Another form of Padmanarttesvara is described in a second Sadhana. 
and the Dhyana contained therein runs -as follows : 

"Padmanarttesvaram atmanam bhavayet sattvaparyankanisannarii 
dvibhujaikamukham raktam sakalalankaradharam Amitabhamukutam 
vamaparsve Pandaravasinlsamaslistam alinganabhinayasthitavamabhu' 
jena raktapadmadharam, narttanabhinayena Sucimudraya vikasayada- 
paradaksinakaram...". Sadhanamala, p. 75. 

'The worshipper should think himself as Padmanarttes\ ara, who 
is seated on an animal, is two-armed and one-faced. His colour is red, 
and he is decked in all kinds of ornaments ; he bears the effigy of 
Amitabha on the crown and is embraced by Pandaravasinl in the left. 
His left hand, which carries the lotus, is raised in the act of embracing 
( the Sakti ), while the right shows the Sucimudra in the act of 
dancing... J \ 

1. Calrk : TLP, II, 193. "" 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 135 

The same Sadhana which contains the Dhyana quoted above, gives 
a description of the Mandala, and adds the information that the lotus 
on which the god sits has eight petals. The petals contain one goddess 
each. For instance, on the East petal there is Vilokinl, white in colour 
and carrying the red lotus. The South is occupied by Tara of green 
colour, holding the Palasa and the lotus flowers. Bhurim is in the 
West, is yellow in complexion and carries the Cakra and the blue lotus* 
Bhrkuti is in the North, with white colour holding the yellow 
lotus. In the North-East there is Padmavasini, who is yellow in 
colour and holds the red lotus. The South-East is occupied by 
Visvapadmesvari, who is sky-coloured and holds the white lotus. The 
South* West is occupied by Visvapadma, who is white and carries the 
the black lotus. In the Norh-West there is Visvavajra of variegated 
colour holding the double lotus ] . 

Fig. 112 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the principal deity 
although it does not agree with the Sadhana in all details. 

(Ill) Eight- Armed 

Colour Red Arms Eight 

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka 

One Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes an eight-armed form 
of Padmanarttesvara. The Dhyana contained therein is given below : 

"Namah Padmanarttesvaraya. 

Tatra Visvapadmopari candre rakta-Hrihkaraparinatam Padmanar- 
ttesvaram raktavarnam ekamukham jatamukutinam trinetram, asta- 
bhujam sarvalankarabhusitam sarpayajnopavitam ardhaparyahkena 
tandavam. Prathamabhujadvayena nrtyabhinayam, dvitiyadaksinabhu- 
jena hrdi vikasayantam sucimudram, vamabhujena raktapadmam sirasi 
dhrtam, trtlyabhujadvayena vajravaddandatrisuladharam, caturtha- 
bhujadvayena aksasutrakundikadharam, astadevlparivrram, evambhutarh 
Padmanattesvaram Lokanatham bhavayet/' Sadhanamala, p. 76. 

4 Salutation to Padmanarttesvara ! 

Here the worshipper should think himself as Padmanattesvara, 
on the moon over the double lotus, originating from the sacred 
syllable Hrlh. He is red in colour with one face, the Jatamukuta, 
three eyes and eight arms. He is decked in all sorts of ornaments, 
wears the sacred thread of a snake, and dances in the Ardhaparyaftka 
attitude. The first pair of hands exhibits the dancing pose ; the 
second right shows the Sucimudra against the chest, the second left 
holds a red lotus over his head.; the third pair carries the staff and 
the Trisula, stamped with the Vajra ; while the fourth pair carries the 

1 Sadhanamala, pp, 7576. 



136 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

rosary and the water^pot. The principal god is surrounded by eight 
goddesses. In such a manner the god Padmanarttesvara Lokanatha 
should be meditated upon". 

7. HARIHAR1HARIVAHANA 
Colour White Arms Six 

Vahana Sithha, Garuda and Visnu 

The composition of the deity is so queer that great difficulty is 
experienced in recognizing the images of this form of Avalokitesvara, 
called by the peculiar name of Harihariharivahana. The Sadhana 
gives a description of the god, but is practically silent as ro why such 
a special name is given to this particular variety of Lokesvara. India 
has not given uptil now any image of Harihariharivahana and it is 
rare even in Nepal. There is only one sculpture at Svayambhuksettra 
and a bronze in one of the monasteries at Pattan, and both of them 
follow the Sadhana faithfully. The lion is lowermost, on it rides 
Garuda. On the back of Garuda, again, rides the Hindu god Visnu 
with the four symbols, the conch, the discus, the mace and the lotus. 
On the shoulder of Visnu rides Lokesvara. The lion, the Garuda 
and the god Visnu, all have 'Hari' as their synonym and because the 
vehicle of Lokesvara is composed of three 'Hari's, the principal god 
acquires the name of Harihariharivahana. Two Sadhanas in the 
Saclhanamala are devoted to the worship of this form of Arya 
Avalokitesvara and the Dhyana in one of them describes the god in 
the following terms :- 

Harihanharivahanodbhavam Bhagavantarh Arya-Avalokitesvaram 
sarvangasuklam jatamukutinam santavesam daksinakarena Bhagavantarh 
Tathagatam saksinam kurvantam dvitl>ena aksamaladharinam trtlyena 
duhkuhakam lokam upadesayantam vamena dandadharam dvitiyena 
krsnajinadharam trtlyena kamandaludharam simha*garuda-visnu- 
skandhasthitam atmanam dhyatva..." 

Sadhanamala, p. 77 

"The worshipper should think himself as the Harihariharivahana form 
of god Avalokitesvara, white in all limbs, with the Jatamukuta (crown 
of matted hair) and clad in graceful garment?. He cites the Tathagata 
as witness with one of his right hands, carries the rosary in the second, 
and instructs deluded people with the third. He carries the staff in 
one of his left hands, the deer-skin in the second and the Kamandalu 
in the third. He sits on the shoulder of Visnu below whom there 
are Garuda and the lion. Thus meditating..." 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 137 

In the drawing of Hariharharivahana illustrated in the Appendix 
there is a snake below the lion. The snake also has the synonym 
of 'Hari' in Sanskrit, and that is how a snake is added, although it is 
not required by the Sadhana. Fig. 113 is a Nepalese drawing of 
the god and here instead of the deer-skin in one of the left hands, 
an actual elephant is seen. In other respects the drawing represents 
the principal god in all details. This deity is also known in China 1 . 

8. TRAILOKYAVASANKARA 
Colour Red Asana Vajraparyanka 

This variety of Lokesvara is also known by the name of Uddivana 
or Oddiyana Lokesvara or Lokesvara as worshipped in Uddiyana 
which was, in the middle ages, a great centre ofTantric learnmg.lt 
has already been shown that there are good grounds for identifying 
this Uddiyana with the village of Vajrayogini in the Pargana Vikrampur 
in the district of Dacca now in Eastern Pakistan. This form of 
Lokesvara does not seem to have been widely represented. There 
is a bronze image of the god in the Kva Vahal at Pattan in Nepal, 
but it does not follow the Sadhana in all details. Two Sadhanas in 
the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of Trailokyavasahkara 
and the Dhyana contained in one of them is given below :- 

"Lokesvaiam sarvahgamaharagaraktarh ekamukham dvibhujam 
trinetram jatamukutamanditam vajrankitapasahkusahastam raktapadme 
vajraparyahkanisarmam div^abharanavastravibhusjtam atmanam 
vicintya". Sadhanamala, p. 80 

"The worshipper should think himself as Lokesvara whose limbs 
are reddened b> the intense sentiment of passion, ar d who is one-faced, 
two-armed and three*eyed. He w r ears a crown of matted hair, and 
carries in his two hands the noose and the goad stamped with the 
Vajra. He is seated on a red lotus in the Vajrapar>ahka attitude and 
is decked in celestial garments and ornaments. Thus meditating.. " 

The Dhyana, it may be noticed, does not expressly mention the 
name of Trailokyavasankara which is given in the colophon. It 
further says that the Sadhana is composed by the great Tantric savant, 
Sarahapada, famous in the Middle Ages as one of the eighty-four 
Mahasiddhas 'Great Mystics'. Two illustrations of this form 
of Avalokitesvara occur in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons of Clark 2 * 
Fig. 114 illustrates one of the statuettes in China. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 266 

2. Clark TLP, pp. 219, 266. 
18 



138 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

9. RAKTAIOKESVARA 

( I ) Four Armed 
Colour Red Arms Four 

Companions Tara and Bhrkuti 

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to his worship, but 
the two Dhyanas describe two widely different forms of the god. It is 
necessary, therefore, to quote and translate both the Dhyanas. One 
of the Dhyanas describe him thus : 

"Daksinottaraparsve Tara-Bhrkutidevidvayasahitam Arya^Avalo- 
kitesvara-Bhattarakarh raktavarnam raktama.yambaranulepanarh pasah- 
kusadhanurbanadharamcaturbhujam,.raktakusumavatasokataroradhastat 
avasthitam atmanarii vicintayet... 

Rakta-Lokesvarasadhanam" Sadhanamala, p. 83 

"The worshipper should think himself as Arya^Avalokitesvara, 
who is flanked in his right and left by the two goddesses Tara and 
Bhrkuti. He is red in colour, wears red garments and is besmeared 
with red unguents. He carries in his four hands, the noose, the goad, 
the bow and the arrow., and stands under the Asoka tree, which has 
blossomed into red flowers. 1 ' 

The colophon of the Sadhana attributes to him the name of Rakta- 
Lokesvara and this name is given simply because his colour is red. 
Images of Rakta-Lokesvara are rare. A few can be seen in the Kva 
Vahal at Pattan in Nepal. Statuettes of Rakta-Lokesvara are found in 
China under the title of Caturbhuja Avalokitesvara *. This Chinese 
statuette is illustrated in Fig. 115. 

( II ) Two-Armed 

Colour Red Symbol Lotus 

Mudra Opening of the Petals 

The second Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes a two-armed 
form of the god Rakta-Lokesvara* This two-armed form is not met 
with either in painting or in stone. The Dhyana contained in the 
Sadhanamala describes this two-armed form in the following words : 

* 'Raktavarnam Amitabhagarbha jatamukutadharam vamakaragrhita- 
raktapadmam tacca daksinakarena vikasayantam vividhalankaravastra- 
vibhusitam...". Sadhanamala, p. 84 

"The worshipper should think himself as Rakta-Lokesvara of red 
colour, having a Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair) bearing the effigy 

1. Clark : TLP, II. p. 219. 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 139 

of Amitabha. He carries the red lotus in the left hand, and opens its 
petals with the right and is decked in various ornaments and dress../' 

A reference may here be made to the Dhyana of Vajradharma 
another variety of Lokesvara, equally unrepresented, whose form will 
be described later in this chapter. The forms of Rakta-Lokesvara and 
Vajradharma are almost identical with the difference that the Sadhana 
enjoins for Vajradharma, the Vahana of a peacock. 

10. MAYAjALAKRAMA 
Faces Five Hands Twelve 

Asana Pratyalidha Colour Blue 

As the Sadhana for the worship of this particular form of Avalokit* 
esvara, occurs originally in the Mayajala Tantra, this peculiar name 
has been given to the deity. This is the only fierce form of Lokesvara 
known to the Indian Buddhists, although fiercer forms are to be met 
with in the Tibetan Buddhist Iconography. The Dhyana given in the 
Sadhanamala describes him in the following terms : 

"Bhagavantam Arya-Avalokitesvaram krsnavarnam pratyalldhasthaih 
suryamandalasthitarh pancamukham trinetram dvadasabhujarh sita- 
raktadaksinamukhadvayam tatha pitaharitavamamukhadvayam daksina" 
bhujaih damaru-khatvanga-ahkusa-pasa"vajra'Saradhararh, vamabhujaih 
tarjam-kapala'raktakamala'mani'cakra-capadharam darhstrakaralasakal' 
avadanarh sanmudropetam sardramundamalalankrtasai Iram nagnam 
sarvahgasundafarh atmanam jhatiti pratyakalayya..." 

Sadhanamala, p. 86 

"The worshipper should think himself as Arya^Avalokitesvara, whose 
colour is blue. He stands in the Pratyalidha attitude, on the orb of the 
sun. He is five^faced, three-eyed, twelve-armed, with the two right 
faces of white and red colour, and two left of yellow and green colour. 
He carries in his right hands the L Damaru, 2. the Khatvanga, 
3. the goad, 4. the noose, 5. the Vajra and the 6. the arrow, and 
in the left hands the 1. raised index finger, 2. the Kapala, 3. the red 
lotus, 4. the jewel, 5. the discus, and 6. the bow. His faces look 
terrible with bare fangs. He wears the six bone ornaments and his 
person is embellished by the garland of heads. He is nude and appears 
beautiful in all limbs. Thus quickly meditating..." 

One illustration of this form of Lokesvara occurs in the Two 
Lamaistic Pantheons of Clark l . His statue can be seen in Nepal at 
Svayambhuksettra. A Nepalese drawing of this form is illustrated in 
the Appendix. 

1. Clark V TUMI, p. 267 ~~~ 



140 . BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

11. NfLAKANTHA 

Colour Yellow Asana Vajraparvahka. 
Mudra Samadht Symbol Bowl of Jewels 
Companions Two serpents on either side 

One Sadhana only is devoted to the worship of this form of Lokes- 
vara, which is almost identical with that of Amitabha, his sire, whose 
image he bears on his head. Indeed, this mark of descent and the 
sacred thread he wears, constitute the only points of difference between 
them. Amitabha being a Dhyani Buddha, has no father. Nilakantha, 
according to the Sadhana, is accompanied by two serpents. The Dhyana 
is given below 

"Bhagavantam pitavarnam ardhacandrahkitajatamukutinam Amita- 
bhopalaksitasirahpradesam raktapadmoparisthitam ; krsnasaraharina- 
carmani vajraparyankinam samadhimudropari nanaratnaparipurnaka- 
paladharinam eneyacarmakrtayajnopavltinam, vyaghracarmambara- 
dharam nirabharanam Nilakantham nilagutikavisistakantham ; parsva- 
dvaye parasparabhisambaddhapuccha'Samaniphanavisista-Bhagavadavalo- 
kanaparordhvamukhakrsnasarpadvayopalaksitam atmanam evarh 
vibhavayet-.. Sadhanamala, pp. 85-86 

"The worshipper should think himself as the god Nilakantha, who is 
yellow in colour and whose Jatamukuta is adorned with the crescent and 
the effigy of Amitabha. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a red 
lotus, on which is spread the skin of black deer. He exhibits the 
Samadhi mudra with his two hands carrying the Kapala (bowl) filled 
with a variety of gems. His sacred thread is made of the deer-skin 
(eneya-carma). He wears the tiger-skin, and bears no ornaments (on his 
person). His throat shows the blue pill (of poison). The two sides 
of the god are occupied by two cobras with jewels on their hoods and 
tails entwined with each other. They look towards the god. Thus 
mediating..." 

Apparently, the conception of this god has been modelled on the 
Hindu deity Siva, who is said to have saved the world from destruction 
by swallowing the poison that issued from the mouth of Vasuki, the 
lord of serpents, while the gods and demons were churning the ocean 
together. The poison, could it have entered Siva's stomach, would 
surely have destroyed him, but it remained in his throat, and as the 
colour of the poison is said to be blue, there is a blue spot in the 
white throat of the god. That is the reason why the name Nilakantha 
(Blue- throat) has been given to Siva. As this particular form of 
Lokesvara has also the same name, it may well be that its origin was the 
Hindu god Siva Nilakantha. 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 141 

A confusion is likely to arise in the identification of the images of 
Nilakantha and Vajraraga, a variety of Manjusrl, if rheir respective 
sires are not represented. The only point of distinction in that case 
would be the total absence of ornaments and rich garments in the case 
of Nilakantha. If the image bears princely ornaments and is richly 
clad, it must be identified as that of ManjusrL 

In the temple of Bodhnath in Nepal, a coloured image of this 
god is found, but here he is alone, without the serpents. The other 
image, (Fig. 116) hails from the monastery at Sarnath. In this sculpture 
two tiny figures carrying bowls are seen instead of two serpents. 

One statuette of this deity occurs in the Chinese collection l . 

12. SUGATISANDARSANA 
Colour White Arms Six 

One short Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes this form of 
Avalokitesvara. The Dhyana for Sugatisandarsana describes his form 
in the following words : 

''Sugatisandarsana-Lokesvara-Bhattarakam suklavarnarh sadbhujam 
varadabhayaksamaladharam daksme, vame padmakunditridandidharam 
ca ratnabharanabhusitarh vratasutradharinarh jatamukutarh padmopari 
candramandalasthitam saumyaruparh bhavayet". Sadhanamala, p. 88 

The worshipper should think himself as Bhattaraka Sugatisandarsana 
Lokesvara white in complexion, six-armed, showing the Varada and 
Abhaya poses and the rosary in the three right hands, and carrying 
the lotus, the water-pot and the staff with three horns in the three left 
hands. He is decked in ornaments and jewels, wears the sacred thread 
and a crown of matted hair. He stands on the moon over lotus 
and is peaceful in appearance'*. 

Fig. 117 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Sugatisandarsana Lokesvara 
which agrees with the Sadhana in major details. 

13. PRETASANTARPITA. 
Colour White Arms Six 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes this form of 
Avalokitesvara. The Dhyana describing the form of Pretasantarpita is 
brief and is worded as follows : 

"Jatamukutinarh sadbhujam prathamabhujadvayena varadau dvitlya- 
bhujadvayena ratnapustakau trtiyabhujadvayena aksamalatridandikam, 
sarvalankarabhusitarh vratasutradharinam saurnyamurtim, padmopari 
candramandale sthitam svetavarnarh vibhavayet". 

Sadhanamala, p. 89 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 267, 



142 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"The worshipper should think himself as Pretasantarpita Lokesvara 
who bears the Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair), is six^armed, exhibits 
in the first pair of hands the Varada poses r carries in the scond pair the 
jewel and the book, and in the third pair holds the rosary and the 
Tridandi (staff with three horns). He is decked in all sorts of 
ornaments, wears the sacred thread, has a graceful appearance, stands 
on the orb of the moon on lotus, and is white in colour/' 

Fig. 118 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Pretasantarpita Lokesvara. 

14. SUKHAVATl LOKESVARA 
Colour White Faces Three 

Arms Six Asana Lalita 

Companion Sakti 

A description of the deity occurs in the Dharmakosasafigraha of 
Amrtananda. Nepal abounds in images of SukhavatI Lokesvaia both 
in stone and in bronze, though his images are not found in any other 
Buddhist country of the North. The description above referred to 
runs as follows : 

**Trimukhah svetavarnah sadbhujah dakse mudrah, saraksepa-japa- 
mala-varadani, vamesu dhanuh-kamala-Tarorusamarpanani lalitasanah 
kamalopari, Vajratara-Visvatara-Padmatarabhih parivrtah. Upari 
caityah. 

SukhavatI Lokesvarah" 

"Sukhavati Lokesvara is three-faced, white in colour, and six-armed. 
One of his right hands is in the act of shooting an arrow, the remain- 
ing two have the rosary and the Varada pose. In two of his left hands 
he carries the bow and the lotus, and the third is placed on the thigh 
of Tara. He sits in Lalitasana on the lotus, and is surrounded by the 
goddesses Vajratara, Visvatara, Padmatara and the like. There is a 
Caitya on the top". 

Fig. 119 illustrates a sculpture from Nepal representing the deity 
SukhavatI Lokesvara. Here the god is in the company of his Sakti but 
is without the other companions as prescribed. 

15. VAJRADHARMA 
Colour Reddish White 
Vahana Peacock Symbol Lotus 

One Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes this form of Avalo* 
kitesvara. The distinguishing feature of this god is that he rides a 
peacock. The Sadhana in question is entirely in verse, and the 



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA 143 

relevant portion containing the description of the form of Vajradharma 
is given below : 

'Tarn sitarh raktavarnam tu padmaragasamadyutirh 1 
Pancabuddhamukutadharam harsenotphullalocanarh II 
Vamato spardhaya nalam dhrtva sodasapatrakam I 
Padmam vikasayantanca hrdi daksinapanina II 
Mayuropari madhyasthe nisannam candramandale I 
Sattvaparyankamabhujya sasrngararasotsavam II 
Caityantahsthamahakarma-kutagaraviharinam I 
Bhavayet Vajradharmagryam nityam Bodhim avapnuyat." II 

Sadhanamala, p. 33. 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as excellent Vajradharma, 
of reddish white complexion, bright as the Padmaraga gem, who 
bears the effigies of the Five Dhyani Buddhas on the crown. His 
eyes beam with delight ; and he holds with pride the stem of a lotus 
with sixteen petals in his left hand and with the right causes it to 
blossom against his chest. He sits on the moon over lotus on 
the back of a peacock, enjoys his seat of the animal and displays 
the delightful sentiment of amour. He moves in the sanctum of the 
Caitya, the place for great performances. He ( the worshipper ) 
certainly receives the Bodhi who meditates (upon him) in this manner." 

Fig. 120 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity. A statuette 
also occurs in the Chinese collection ] . 

GENERAL 

The conception of Avalokitesvara is as old as the third century 
B. C. He was first ushered into existence by the Mahasanghikas, 
about the time of Asoka, in their work, entitled, Mahavastu Avadana, 
where he has been characterised as the "Bhagavan who takes the 
form of a Bodhisattva, whose duty it is to look round (Avalokita) 
for the sake of instructing the people and for their constant welfare 
and happiness" 2 . This Avalokita Bodhisattva no doubt gave rise to 
the concrete form of Avalokitesvara, even before the second century 
A. D. and his images can be traced from the Gupta period onwards. 
He first appears in the Sukhavati Vyuha 3 , and a passage in the 
Karandavyuha where he is said to manifest in all possible forms of 
godhead for the sake of the ignorant and to bring salvation to 

1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 265. 

2. Senart : Le Mahavastu, Vol. II, p. ,294 

3. This work was first translated into Chinese between A.D. 1 48 and 1 70 while 
the smaller recension was translated into the same language between A.D. 384 
and 417. Max Muller : Sukhavati Vyuha, introduction* pp. iii-iv. 



144 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

mankind, accounts undoubtedly for the great number of his forms. 
As different people belonged to different faiths, this Compassionate 
Bodhisattva wa* obliged to assume the shape of all gods of all faiths, 
nay, even the shape of father and mother. Avalokitesvara thus is 
given no less than 108 forms which are painted on the walls of the 
Macchandar Vahal atKuthmandu in Nepal with inscriptions for the 
purpose of identification. All these paintings have been copied out 
by an expert Nepalese artist, and are illustrated in this book in an 
Appendix. To this a reference mav be made for the numerous forms 
of Avalokitesvara. 



CHAPTER V 

EMANATIONS OF AMITABHA 
I. GODS 

Besides Avalokitesvara and a few forms of Manjusn already des* 
cribed, only two male divinities in the Sadhanamala emanate from 
the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. These are Mahabala and Saptasatika 
Hayagrlva. Their parental Dhyani Buddha, it may be remembered, is 
distinguished by his red colour, the family symbol of lotus, and the 
Samadhi mudra he displays. His offsprings Mahabala and Hayagrlva 
belong, therefore, to the lotus family and should show the signs 
characteristic of the family. They are studied below in the order 
of their importance. 

1. MAHABALA 

Colour Red Asana Pratyalidha 

Arms Four 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is devoted to the worship 
of Mahabala- a fierce emanation of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha 
The Dhyana is given below : 

"Mahabalarh ekamukharh caturbhujarh sarvangaraktam urdhva- 
pingalasarpavabaddhakesarh daksinabhujabhyarh sitadanda-sitacamara- 
dhararh vamabhujabhyarh vandanabhinaya-sapasatarjamkararh \yaghra- 
carmanivasanarh sarpabharanarh pratyalldharh damstrakaralavadanam 
suryamandalaprabhumalinarh Amitabhamukutinarh dhyatva..." 

Sadhanamala. p. 507. 

'The worshipper should think himself as Mahabala with one 
face, four arms and red complexion. His brown hair rises upwards 
and is tied by a snake. He carries in his two right hands the white 
staff and the chowrit while the two left show the mudra of bowing 
and the raised index finger. He is clad in tiger-skin, wears ornaments 
of snakes and stands in the Pratyalidha attitude His face looks 
terrible with bare fangs and he is bright like the orb of the sun. He 
holds the effigy of Amitabha on the crown". 

Two statuettes of Mahabala are known to the Chinese collection 
at Peiping l . 



Clark- TLP t II,pp. 49, 217. 
19 



146 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

2. SAPTASATIKA HAYAGRIVA 

Colour Red Symbols Vajra and Danda 

Special Feature Horse-head 

I Hayagriva has several other forms and these will be described at 
their appropriate places. One of these forms is said to bear the effigy 
of Amitabha on its crown This particular form of Hayagriva, therefore, 
should refer to the spiritual son of Amitabha with the red colour and 
the Samadhi mudra, The present Sadhana describing his form 
states in the colophon that it is restored from the Saptasatika Kalpa. 
This particular form of Hayagriva, therefore, is designated as the 
Saptasatika Hayagriva. \The Dhyana contained in the Sadhana is 
given below : 

"Raktavarnarh mahabhayanakarh trinetrarh kapilasmasruraudrarh 
brhadudararh damstrakaraimarh dantausthakapalamahnarh jatamuku- 
tinarh Amitabhasiraskarh, Dvitlyamukharh bhimabhayanakarh nilarh 
hayananarh hihikaranadinarh Brahmandasikharakrantarh dvitlyena 
bhavagraparyantarh astanagopetarh kharvavamanakararh vyaghrcarma- 
nlvasanarh sarvalankarabhusitarh sakaladevasurarh tarjayantarh grhita- 
vajradandarh...vicintayet". Sadhanamala, p. 509* 

V'The worshipper should conceive himself as (SaptasatikaJHayagnva) 
of red complexion, who is t erFi BIy a w e ^inspirTng , with three-eyes, 
and a brown beard. He is angry and has protruding belly. His face 
appears terrible with bare fangs ; he wears a garland of skulls with 
teeth and lips, is crowned with his Jata and the figure of Amitabha. 
His second face is distorted like that of a horse, which is blue in 
colour and neighs incessantly. He tramples on the top of the wqrld 
with one leg and the bottom of the world with the other. He wears 
ornaments of eight serpents, is short and dwarfish, is clad in tiger- 
skin and decked in all ornaments. He threatens all the gods and 
Asuras, and holds the Vajra and the staff (in his two hands)". 

It may be noticed that the Dhyana is not clear about the number 
of hands and faces ; but it seems from the description that Hayagriva 
is endowed with a principal face, terrible in appearance, over which 
there is the horse's head. This horse's head over the principal face, 
is found only in case of Hayagriva, and distinguishes him from all 
other Buddhist deities. But when, as a minor god, he accompanies 
others, the horse's head is not seen as a rule. In such cases, the 
Danda or the staff serves as the identification mark. From the 
Dhyana it also appears that he is two-armed and carries the Vajra 
and the Danda, the Vajra being generally held in the right hand, while 



EMANATIONS OF AMITABHA 147 

the Danda is carried in the left. About the name, however, the 
colophon is certain, and it asserts that this Sadhana has been restored 
from the Saptasatika Kalpa, that is to say, a ritual work consisting of 
letters that can make up seven hundred verses in the Anuscubh metre. 

Images of Hayagriva are found in Tibet J and China -. 




The female divinities that emanate from the Dhyani Buddha 
Amitabha are three in number, the most important and popular among 
them being Kurukulla, to whose worship no less than fourteen 
Sadhanas are devoted in the Sadhanamala. Two Sadhanas are devoted 
to Bhrkuti and one Sadhana only to Mahasitavati. who is also included 
in the list of the Pancaraksa deities or the Five Great Protectresses. 
These goddesses as a rule are not represented in stone or bronze ; 
paintings, however, are made by the Nepalese artists even in modern 
times. 

3. KURUKULLA 

She is one-faced and may have two, four, six or eight arms. When 
she is six -armed, she bears the effigies of the five Dhyani Buddhas 
on her crown. When two-armed, she is called Sukla Kurukulla, and 
when she is four-armed she is called by the names of Tarodbhava 
Kurukulla, Uddiyana Kurukulla, Hevajrakrama Kurukulla and Kalpokta 
Kurukulla. 

Kurukulla is said to confer success in the Tantric rite of Vasikarana 
or the rite of enchanting men, women, ministers, even kings. Some 
of the Sadhanas contain many interesting methods of casting spells 
on different people. The mantra of Kurukulla is 



Hum Hnh Svaha". When this mantra is muttered ten thousand 
times, mi merilffe~~T?ewitched. Thirty thousand times would prove 
sufficient to subdue a minister, but the subjugation of a king requires 
no less than a lakh. She can even confer on her devotees the power 
of subduing all ministers and kings. 

Images of Kurukulla are found in Tibet ix and China 4 and she is 
very popular in these countries. The different forms of Kuiukulla as 
available in the Sadhanamala are dealt with in the following pages. 

). Gordon : ITL, pp. 90, 93 ; Getty : GNB, p. 163 as Hayagriva. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 59, 164, 172, 198 under the title of Hayagriva. 

3. Getty : GNB, pp. 126, 127. 

4. Clark : TLP, II, 105, 239, Also Gordon ; ITL, p. 75. 



148 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(1) SUKLA KURUKULLA 

Colour White Symbols Rosary and the Bowl of Lotus 

Vahana Animal Asana Vajraparyahka 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala states the method whereby 
she should be propitiated. The Dhyana contained therein is a long 
one and runs as follows : 

"Atmanam Bhagavatlrh aksasutrotpalamrtakundim savyavasavya- 
panibhyam dadhanam, trinetram Padmadhrkpramukhaih sarva-Tatha- 
gataih Vmadisodasadevlbhir-abhisiktam Amitabha-virajitananapuspo- 
pasobhitajatamukutam srhgaradirasopetam, kincit-savyapanipallava- 
sthaksasutramalokamanam, ksirambhodhisvetavarnabjastham-amrtafxko* 
pari sattvaparyahkasanastham, kahkana^keyura-kundala-nupuramukta- 
haradivyavastradivibhusitam nllanantabaddhakeslm piyusavarna-Vasu- 
kikrtaharam, rakta-Taksakakitakarnograkundalam, durvasyama-Kar- 
kkotakakrtayajnopavltam, sukla-Padmanagendrakrtaharam, mrnalavar- 
na-Mahapadmakrtanupuram, pita-Sankhapalakrtakankanam, dhuma 
bhravat-Kulikakrtakeyuram, subhravarnam sravadamrtavigraharh karu- 
nardracittam bhavayet. 

Sukla-Kurukulla'Sadhanam". Sadhanamala, pp. 362-363 

"The worshipper should think himself as the goddess (Kurukulla), 
who carries the rosary and the cup of Utpala full of nectar in the 
right and left hands respectively. She is three- eyed and is offered 
bathing water by (the Bodhisattvas) Padmapani and others, by all the 
Tathagatas and the sixteen damsels beginning with Vina. She wears 
the Jatamukuta which is decorated with various flowers and the 
miniature figure of Amhabha. She displays the sentiment of passion- 
ate love, and other sentiments, and turns slightly to have a look at the 
rosary which she carries in her leaf-like hand. She sits on an animal 
and rests on the nectar- like lap of the white lotus, that rises from 
the ocean of milk. She is decked in bracelets, armlets, ear-rings, 
anklets, pearl-necklace, and is clad in celestial garments. Her hair 
is tied up by the serpent Ananta of blue colour, her necklace is formed 
by the milk-coloured Vasuki, and her prominent ear-ornament 
(Kundala) by red Taksaka, her sacred thread is the green Karkkotaka, 
her girdle is the white Padma the lord of serpents, her Nupura (anklet) 
is the serpent Mahapadma of the colour of the lotus stalk, her 
bracelet is the yellow Sahkhapala, her armlet is Kulika of the colour 
of smoky clouds. She is white in colour, and seems to diffuse nectar. 
She possesses a heart which is melting with compassion." 



EMANATIONS OF AMITABHA 149 

This lengthy description is sufficient to give one a vivid picture 
of the form of Sukla-Kurukulla, which has many features in common 
with the other varieties to be described briefly hereafter. It is not 
necessary to quote and translate all the Dhyanas given in the Sadhana- 
mala, because that would only serve to increase the bulk of the 
book unnecessarily. 

(II) TARODBHAVA KURUKULLA 

Colour Red Arms Four 

Asana Vajraparyanka Vahana Kamadeva with wife on Rahu 

Five Sadhanas differing but slightly from one another describe this 
form of Kurukulla designated as Tarodbhava Kuiukulla in the 
Sadhanas According to the information supplied by the Sadhanas, 
Tarodbhava is red in colour with red garments, red ornaments and 
the seat of a red lotus. She has four arms. The two left hands 
show the Abhaya mudra and the arrow, and the two right carry 
the bow and the red lotus. She sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude 
and under the seat appear Kamadeva and his wife riding on the 
demon Rahu. She has a red aureole behind her, she wears the effigy 
of Amitabha on the crown, and resides in the Kurukulla mountain. 
She is in the fulness of youth and displays amorous sentiments. 
Sometimes she is seen charging a flowery arrow on the flowery bow, 
ready to strike. 

Fig. 121 illustrates a recent Nepalese drawing of the deity. 

(Ill) UDDIYANA KURUKULLA 

Appearance Terrible Colour Red 

Asana Ardhaparyahka Vahana Corpse 

Arms Four 

This form of Kurukulla is called in Sadhanas Uddiyana Kurukulla 
or Kurukulla as worshiped in Uddiyana (mod. Vajrajogini). This form 
of the goddess looks rather fierce, with the garland of heads, the five 
skulls on the head, protruding teeth and tongue, garments of tiger-skin, 
and brown hair rising above her head in the shape of a flame. Her eyes, 
red, round and moving, are three in number. She is four-armed ; the 
principal pair of hands is engaged in drawing to the full the flowery 
bow charged with an arrow of red lotus, while the second pair holds the 
goad of flowers and the red lotus.. She is red in colour and sits in the 
Ardhaparyahka attitude on a corpse. 

Fig. 122 illustrates one of her statuettes found in Peiping. Here the 
Vahana of corpse is present. 



150 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

( IV ) ASTABHUJA-KURUKULLA 
Arms Eight Colour Red 

Asana Vairaparyahka Mudra Trailokyavijaya 

As has already been pointed out, Kurukulla may have another form 
with eight arms which is described in the only Sadhana devoted to her 
worship. This Sadhana is attributted in the colophon to the great 
Siddhacaryya Indrabhuti, who flourished about 700 A. D. and who had 
a daughter even more illustrious than himself, Laksmmkara by name, 
well-versed in the doctrines of both Vajrayana and Sahajayana. The 
goddess described in this Sadhana is not terrible like the six-armed 
Mayajala Kurukulla or the four-armed Uddiyana Kurukulla, but is 
mild, youthful and compassionate The most important feature of the 
Sadhana us that it gives the description of a complete Mandala which 
comprises the principal goddess and twelve surrounding divinities. For 
a better understanding of the form of this goddess and of the consti- 
tution of the Mandala, it is desirable that the Dhyana should be quoted 
in extenso and translated : 

"Kurukullam Bhagavatim astabhujam raktavarnam raktastadala- 
padmasuryye Vajraparyankanisannarh kutagaramadh^anivasinirii pra- 
thamakaradvayena Trailokyavijayamudradharam, avasistadaksinakaraih 
ankusarh akarnapuritasaram varadamudram dadhanam. parisistavama- 
bhujaih pasam capam utpalam dadhanam, sakalalankaravatlm 
bhavayet. 

Purvadale Prasannataram, daks nadale Nispannataram, pascimadale 
Jayataram, uttaradale Karnataram, aisanadale Cundam, agneyadale 
Aparajitam, nairrtyadale Pradipataram, vayavyadale Gaurltarafica 
dhyayat. Etasca sarvah raktavarnah Panca-Tathagatamukuta vajra 
paryahkanisanna daksinabhujabhyam varadamudra-akamapurita'Sara- 
dhara. vamabhujabhyam utpalacapadharah. 

Purvadvare Vajra vetallrh lambodaram vikrtamukhim raktavarnam 
Aksobhyamukutam, daksinahastabhyarh tarjany-ankusadharam, vama* 
karabhyam vajraghantapasadharam 

Daksinad\'are Aparajitam pltavarnam Ratnasambhavamukutam dak- 
sinahastabhyam dandahkusadharam, vamahastabhyam ghantapasa- 
dharam. 

Pascimadvare Ekajatam krsnavarnam urdhvakesam lambodaram 
dantavastabdhaustham Amitabamukutam, daksmakarabhyam vajrahk- 
sadharam vamakarabhyam ghantapasadharam. 

Uttaradvare VajragSndhanm kanakasyamarii Amoghasiddhimukutam 
vikrtamukhim lambodaram, daksinabhujabhyam khadgankusadharaih 



EMANATIONS OF AMITABHA 151 

vamabhujabhyarh ghantapasadharam vicintayet. 

Etascatasra alldhapadasthah" Sadhanamala, pp. 351-352 

"The worshipper should think himself as goddess Kurukulla, who 
is eight-armed, red in colour, sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, on the 
orb of the sun over the lotus with eight petals and resides in the 
sanctum ; she displays the Trailokyavijayamudra in her first pair of 
hands, and shows in the other right hands, ahkusa, the arrow drawn 
up to the ear and the Varada pose, In the remaining left hands she holds 
the noose, the bow and the Utpala ; she is decked in all kinds of 
ornaments. 

On the east petal is Prasannatara, on the south is Nispannatara, on 
the west Jayatara, on the north Karnatara ; on the north-east petal 
is Cunda, on the east Aparajita, on the south-west Pradlpatara, and on 
the north-west is Gauritara. All these deities have red colour and the 
five Dhyani Buddhas on their crowns. They sit in the Vajraparyahka 
attitude and show in the two right hands the boon and the arrow 
drawn up to the ear, and in the two left hands the Utpala and the bow. 

In the eastern gate is Vjijravetali, who has a protruding belly, distort- 
ted face, red complexion, the effigy of Aksobhya on her crown, and 
carries in the two right hands the Tarjani and the goad, and in the two 
left the Vajraghanta and the noose. 

In the southern gate is Aparajita, who is yellow in colour and has 
the effigy of Ratnasambhava on her crown ; she carries in her two right 
hands the staff and the goad, and in the two left the bell and the noose. 

In the western gate is Ekajata, who is blue in colour with hair rising 
upwards over head, and a protruding belly ; she bites her lips with 
her teeth, bears the image of Amitabha on her crown and carries in 
her two right hands the Vajra and the goad, and in the two left the 
bell and the noose. 

In the northern gate is Vajragandhari, golden in complexion, who 
bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on her crown, has a distorted face 
and portruding belly, and carries in her two right hands the sword and 
the goad, and in the two left the bell and the noose. 

All these four goddesses stand in the Alidha attitude" 

(V) MAYAjALAKRAMA KURUKULLA 

Asana Vajraparyanka Arms Six 

ColourRed 

Another form of Kurukulla is known as Mayajalakrama Kurukulla 
since the Sadhana describing it is said to have been restored from 



152 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

the now lost Mayajala Tantra by the Tantric author Krsnacarya l . 
This form of Kurukulla is six-armed. In accordance with the Sadhana 
she sits in the Vajraparyafika attitude, on the sun over the red lotus 
of eight petals. She is red in colour and is clad in red garments. 
She exhibits the Trailokyavijaya mudra in the first pair of hands, 
shows the Abhaya mudra and the sprout of a white Kunda flower 
in the second, and the rosary and the Kamandalu in the third. She 
bears the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas on the crown, and sits 
on the back of the serpent Taksaka. She has another form with six 
arms, which is not expressly called the Mayajala Kurukulla, and is 
described in another Sadhana. According to that Sadhana, she 
exhibits the Trailokyavijaya mudra in the first pair of hands, and 
carries Ankusa and the red lotus in the second pair, and the full- 
drawn bow charged with an arrow in the third. Images of Kurukulla 
are rare. 

4. BHRKUTf 

Colour Yellow Arms Four 

Bhrkuti is another goddess emanating from the Dhyani Buddha, 
Amitabha of red colour. She is already familiar as a companion of 
Avalokitesvara as a minor goddess. When she accompanies Khasar- 
pana she is yellow in colour and four^armed. She carries in her 
two left hands the Tridandi and the Kamandalu. One of the two 
right hands is raised in the attitude of bowing, while the other 
carries the rosary. Bhrkuti is also worshipped as a principal goddess, 
and two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to her worship. 
She is described in the following words : 

"Caturbhujaikamukhirh pltarh trinetrarh navayauvanarh Varada- 
ksasutradharadaksinakaram tridandikamandaludhaiavamakararh Amita- 
bhamudritam padmacandrasanastharh Bhagavatlrh dhyatva... 
Bhrkutisadhanarh.' 1 Sadhanamala, p 341. 

"The goddess Bhrkuti should be conceived as four-armed, one- 
faced and yellow in colour, three-eyed and as blooming with youth. 
She shows the Varada mudra and the rosary in her two right hands, 
and carries the Tridandi and the Kamandalu in the two left. Her 
crown is stamped with the effigy of Amitabha. She sits on the orb 
of the moon over a lotus. Thus meditating.,.." 

Another Sadhana adds the information that she should be peaceful 
in appearance and should wear a crown of matted hair. Images of 

1. Sadhana No. 181, Sadhanamala p. 372. 



EMANATIONS OF AMITABHA 153 

Bhrkuti are rare, but they are known in Tibet ] and China 2 . Fig. 123 
illustrates one of the Peiping images. 

5. MAHASITAVATl. 

Colour- Red Arms Four 

Asana Ardhaparyanka 

All the five goddesses constituting the Pancaraksa group are said to 
emanate from one or another of the Dhyani Ruddhas. Mahasltavatl is 
affiliated to her parental Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. The short Sadhana 
describing her form is as follows : 

"Mahasita (sicsita) vati caturbhujaikamukhi rakta daksinabhujadvaye 
aksasutiavaradavati vamabhujadvaye vajrankusahrtpradesasthapustaka- 
van Jlrhbija Amitabhamukutl ardhaparyahkasthita nanalahkaravatl 
suryasanaprabha ceti 1 '. Sadhanamala, p. 401 . 

"Mahasitavati js four-armed, one-faced, and red in colour. 
She shows in her two right hands the rosary and the Varada pose, 
and in her two left hands the Vajra and the Book against the chest. 
She originates from the syllable 'Jim', bears the effigy of Amitabha on 
the crown, sits in the Ardhaparyanka attitude, and is decked in various 
ornaments. She sits on the orb of the sun ynd glows like the sun". 

Images of this goddess are found in Tibet " and China 4 . 



1. Getty: GNB, pp, 124-125. 

2. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 160 t 171, 288. 

3. Getty : GNB, p, 139. 

4. Clark : TLP, II. pp, 206 and 275 under the title of SttavatL 
20 



CHAPTER V 

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 
I. GODS 

The number of deities emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Akso- 
bhya is quite large, larger than that of the emanations of any other 
Dhyani Buddha. The blue colour of Aksobhya is associated with 
the terrible deities in the Sadhanamala and with the gruesome rites 
in the Tantras, and the deities emanating from this Dhyani Buddha 
are generally of blue colour and terrible in character both in deed 
and in appearance. With the exception of Jambhala, the God of 
Wealth, all the male emanations of Aksobhya have a terrible appear- 
ance with distorted face, bare fangs, three blood-shot eyes, protruding 
tongue, garland of severed heads and skulls, tiger-skin and ornaments 
of snake. 

Amongst the deities emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya 
Heruka stands pre-eminent. Heruka and his yab-yum form Hevajra 
are the chief gods in this group and they have numerous forms, 
many with different names. For the sake of clarity and convenience 
these forms have been separated for treatment, especially when a 
characteristic name is supplied by the Sadhanas to such forms. The Four 
Guardians of Gates treated later under the Chapter : 'Collective 
Deities' are of fierce appearance and figure prominently amongst 
the offsprings of Aksobhya. The deities coming under the Vajra Family 
of Aksobhya are described below one by one. 

1. CANDAROSANA. 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbols Sword and Tarjanipasa 

Candarosana is also called Mahacandarosana, Candamaharosana 
and Acala. Four Sadhanas are devoted to his worship and he is 
always represented in yab-yum. Prabhakarakirti is said to be the 
author of one of the Sadhanas the major portion of which is ia verse. 
Another Dhyana describing the god runs as follows : . 

"rI-Candamaharosanam Bhagavantam atasipuspasaftkasamLAcala- 
paranamanam dvft>htrjaih kekaraksaih damstravikliralamahaghoravada- 
nam ratnamaulinaih damstraniplditadharam mundamalasiraskam 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 155 

araktacaksurdvayam daksine khadgadhararh tarjampasahrdayasthavama- 
kararh sitasarpayajnopavltarh vyaghracarmanivasanam nanaratnaviraci- 
tabharanarh bhumilagnavamacaranam isadunnatadaksinacaranam 
suryyaprabhamalinarh atrnanarh vicintya.. Aksobh^amukutinarh 
dhyayat." Sadhanamala, p. 172. 

"The worshipper should think himself as Sri-Candamaharosana, 
whose colour is like that of the Atasi flower and whose second name 
is Acala. He is one-faced, two-armed and is squint-eyed. His face 
appears terrible with bare fangs. He wears a jewelled head-dress, 
bites his lips and wears on his crown a garland of severed heads. 
His eyes are slightly red, and he carries the sword in his right hand 
and the noose round the raised index finger against the chest in 
the left. His sacred thread consists of a white snake ; he is clad in 
tiger-skin and he wears jewels. His left leg touches the ground 
while the right is slightly raised. He is radiant as the sun and.. bears 
on his crown the effigy of Aksobhya. Thus the god should be 
meditated upon". 

It should be noticed that the Dhvana is silent about the Sakti 
in whose embrace the god should remain in yab-yum, but if the 
Buddhist priests are to be believed and if the testimony of the 
Nepalese Citrakaras has any value, it must be assumed that Candaro* 
sana is always represented in yab-yum and should not be represented 
singly. Candarosana is the most important figure in the celebrated 
Candamaharosana Tantra dedicated to his worship. His worship 
is always performed in secret and the god is kept secluded from 
public gaze. Even if there be a bronze image it is practically inacces- 
sible to any one except the initiated. 

Fig. 124 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity. As Acala and 
Acala-Vajrapani he is popular in Tibet ' . 

2. HERUKA 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbols Vajra and Kapala Variety Single 

Heruka is one of the most popular deities of the Buddhist pantheon 
and a regular Tantra, the Heruka Tantra, is devoted to his worship. 
Heruka is worshipped singly as well as in yab-yum. When he is 
in yab-yum he is generally known as Hevajra and in this form he 
is popular in Tibet, Many of his forms aie described in the Sadhana- 
mala in its numerous Sadhanas, arid the additional ones are derived 
from the Nispannayogavall of Abhayakara Gupta. 

1. Getty: GNB, pp. 52 and 170. ~ 



156 -BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

In the Sadhanamala the worship of Heruka is said to confer 
Buddhahood on his worshippers, and he is said to destroy all the 
Maras (mischievous beings) of the world* A Dhyana in verse in 
the Sadhanamala describes his form in the following words ; 
Savastharfa ardhaparyahkam naracarmasuvasasam I 
Bhasmoddhulitagatranca sphuradvajranca daksinam II 
Calatpatakakhatvahgam vame raktakarotakam I 
Satardbamundamalabhih krtaharamanoramam II 
Isaddamstrakaralasyam raktanetrarii vilasinam 1 
Pihgorddhvakesam Aksobhyamukutam karnakundalam II 
AsthyabharanavSobham tu siralvpancakapalakam I 
Buddhatvadayinam dhyayat jaganmaranivaranarh II 

Sadhanamala, p. 473. 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as the god (Heruka) who 
stands on a corpse in the Ardhaparyahka attitude. He is well clad in 
human skin and his body is besmeared with ashes. He wields the Vajra 
in the right hand and from his left shoulder hangs the Khatvahga with 
a flowing banner, like a sacred thread. He carries in his left hand 
the Kapala full of blood. His necklace is beautified by a chain of 
half-a- hundred severed heads. His face is slightly distorted with bare 
fangs and blood-shot eyes, His brown hair rises upwards and forms 
into a crown which bears the effigy of Aksobhya. He wears a Kundala 
and is decked in ornaments of bones. His head is beautified by five 
skulls. He bestows Buddhahood and protects the world from the 
Maras (wicked beings)' 5 . 

In another Sadhana for the worship of this particular kind of 
Heruka the Khatvahga is described as being marked with a Vajra of 
five thongs and decorated with a banner with jingling bells, human 
heads and double lotus, the lower part of the Khatvahga resembling 
the Vajra with one thong. The Sadhana does not mention the number 
of heads in the necklace, but says simply that they are strung with 
guts. His left leg rests on the double lotus (and not on the corpse) 
while the right is placed on the left thigh in a dancing attitude. 

The image ( Fig. 125 ) discovered by Mr. N. K. Bhattasali and 
deposited in the Dacca Museum, agrees in all details with the descrip- 
tion given above. Though the hands are broken it can yet be discerned 
that the right wielded the Vajra and the left carried the Kapala against 
the chest. The attitude in which he stands is called the dancing 
attitude in Ardhaparyahka. His head-dress in decorated with five 
skulls and the effigy of Aksobhya. The Khatvahga has an overflowing 
banner attached to it, and at the end of the banner small bells can 
be seen. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 157 

3. HEVAJRA. 

In the Hevajra Mandala of the Nispannayogavall, Heruka ij> the 
principal deity, thus showing that their is only a very thin line of 
demarcation between the two, Heruka and Hevajra , When Heruka 
is accompanied with his Prajna, he begets the name of Hevajra. In 
the Mandala no less than four distinct forms of Hevajra are described. 
In all these Hevajra is accompanied with his Sakti whose name differs 
according to the numbers of his hands. 

( i ) Two-Armed 
Colour Blue Face One 

Arms Two Prajna Nairatma 

When two-armed, Heruka gets the name of Trailokyaksepa and his 
form is described in the following words : 

"Trailokyaksepah krsno Ardhaparyanki ..ekamukho Jvibhujo 
vajrahkitaraktapurnakapalabhrd-vamakarakrodita... Nairatma.. Vajrodd- 
andasavyabhujah." NSP, p. 14 

4 'Trailokyaksepa (Heruka) is blue in colour and dances m the 
Ardhaparyahka attitude... He is one-faced and two-armed. With the 
left hand carrying the skull cup, full of blood and marked with a 
Vajra, he embraces his Prajna Nairatma... The right holding the Vajra 
is raised*". 

The same form is again described in the Sadhanamala which gives 
the additional information that the Sakti carries the Kartri in the right 
hand and the Kapala in the left ] . 

(n) Four Armed, 
Colour Blue Face One 

Arms Four Prajna Vajravarahi 

When four-armed, Hevajra shows all the characteristics of the two- 
armed variety with the difference that here the Prajna is known by the 
name of VajravSrahi. His description in the Nispannayogavall is short 
and is worded thus : 

"Athava caturbhujo dvibhujavat. Aparabhujabhyam savabha-Vajra- 
varahisamalingita ityeva visesah". NSP, p. 14 

"Or, he may be four-armed and appear similar to the two-armed 
form. In the two other hands he embraces his Sakti VajravarUhl of 
his own creation. This is the only difference". 

1. Sadhanamala, p. 462* 



15tt BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

In the Sadhanamala, one Sadhana is also devoted to the worship of 
this particular form of Hevajra. Here also Hevajra is four-armed and 
is embraced by his Sakti who is identical with him in all respects/ 
Hevajra carries in his four hands the blue Vajra, the sword, the Khat> 
vahga and the jewel. The Khatvanga does not however hang from his 
shoulder but is carried in one of his hands. 

(ill) Six-Armed 

Colour Blue Face Three 

Arms -Six Prajna Vajrasrnkhala 

When Hevyjra is six-armed and in yab-yum his main form remains 
the same, with the difference that here he is three-faced and six-armed, 
carrying additional symbols. He is described thus : 

"Athava Sadbhujah krsnah krsnasitaraktatrimukhah...Vamair-vajra' 
ghantam dhanuh kapalam ca dadhanah savyair-vajram banam trisulam 
ca vajravajraghantanvitahastabhyam svabha-Vajrasrhkhalamalihgitah. ' 

NSP. p. 14. 

"Or, he (Hevajra) may be six-armed and blue in colour. The 
principal, the right and left faces show blue, white and red colour. In 
the three left hand& he holds the bell marked with a Vajra, the bow 
and the skull-cup. In the three right hands he carries the Vajra, the 
arrow and the trident. He embraces with the two hands carrying the 
Vajra and the Ghanta the Prajna Vajrasrhkhalaj^f his own creation''. 




ColourVBlu 

Arms Sixten Prajna Nairatma 

Legs Hour 

The fourth type of Hevajra according to Hevajra Mandala is sixteen- 
armed and is alike in appearance with the three other forms described 
before. The difference lies in his having eight faces and four legs ; 
with his four legs he tramples upon four Hindu gods instead of 
standing upon a corpse as in the three others. His form is described 
rather elaborately in the Mandala in question as under : 

"Caturtho Hevajrah sodasabhujo Aksobhyamudrito Nairatmasama 
pannah. Kintvasya catvaro marah praguktasavasthane. Tatra Skandha- 
maro rupato Brahma pltah, Klesamaro Visnuh krsno, Mrtyumaro 
Mahesvarah subhro, Devaputramaro Sakrah gaurah. Tesu Bhagavan 
dvabhyam Ardhaparyafikavan aparabhyam Alidhastha iti catuscaranah 
krsno astasyah. Mukhantu mulam krsnaifa hasat savyam suklam, 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA , 159 

vamam raktam, urddhvam vikatadamstram sesam krsnani. Daksina- 
bhujesu vajram khadgam banam cakram casakam trisulanvankusarh 
ca ; vamesu ghantam, padmam, dhanur-udyatakhatvahgam, kapalam, 
tarjanipasam ca." (NSP, pp. 14-15). 

"Hevajra of the fourth* class is sixteen-armed and bears on his 
crown the effigy of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. He embraces his 
Sakti Nairatma. Instead of the corpse under his legs as aforesaid, 
he has four Maras under his four legs. The first is Skandha Mara in 
the form of Brahma of yellow colour, the second is Klesa Mara in 
the form of Visnu of blue colour, the third is Mrtyu Mara in the 
form of Mahesvara of white colour, and the fourth is Devaputra Mara 
in the form of Sakra of white colour. On them the four-legged god 
stands with two legs arranged in Ardhaparyanka and two others in 
Alldha. He is blue in colour and has eight faces. The principal 
face is blue, the right has a smile and is white, the left is red, the 
fourth is on the top of his head with distorted teeth. All other 
faces are blue in colour. In the right hands he carries 1, the Vajra, 
2. the sword, 3. the arrow, 4- the discus, 5. the wine-glass, 6, the 
staff, 7. the Tusula, and 8. the goad. In the left hands the holds 
1. the bell, 2. the lotus, 3. the bow, 4. the raised Khatvahga, 5. the 
skull-cup, 6. the jewel, 7. the raised index finger and 8. the 
noose-..", 

Hevajra is popular in Tibet ] and China -. 

4. BUDDHAKAPALA 
Arms Four Colour- Blue 

Sakti Citrasena Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyanka 

Only one Sadhana gives the description of this god, who is, in all 
probability, another form of Heruka. The Sadhana says that when 
Heruka is embraced by Citrasena he gets the name of Buddhakapala, 
He has one face and four arms, and his hands hold the Khatvahga, 
the Kapala, the Kartri and the Damaru ; he is embraced by his Prajna, 
Citrasena, and remains in yab-yum. He is slightly different from the 
four-armed variety of Heruka as the following Dhyana in the Sadhana 
will show : 

"Mahaviro ghorasamharakarakah mlavarno mahavapuh asthyabhara- 
nam-afdhaparyahkanrtyastham mundamalavibhusitam mukute Akso* 
bhyadharinam ekavaktram caturbhujam, vame Khatvahgakapalam, 
daksine kartridamarukam Prajnalihgitam ; vame Citrasena matta 
nagna muktakesi sarvabhayarahita devi." 

lr -Getty * GNB, 142, 1431 " A Tibetan image is" illustrated in Gorden : ITL, p. 83. 
2. TLP, II, p. 236. 



160 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Srimato Buddhakapalasya Sadhanam" Sadhanamala, pp. 501-502 

"The worshipper should think himself as (Buddhakapala) who 
is a great hero, the supreme destroyer, of blue complexion and 
gigantic stature. He has ornaments of bones, stands in Ardhapa- 
ryahka in a dancing attitude, is decked in garlands of heads, 
bears the effigy of Aksobhya on the crown, is one-faced and four- 
armed. He carries the Khatvanga and the Kapala in the left 
hands and the Kartri and the Damaru in the right, and is embra- 
ced in the left by the Prajna, Citrasena by name, who is intoxi- 
cated, nude, and fearless, Thus meditating.. " 

The same Sadhana later on gives the details of the Mandala, 
and goes on to say that Buddhakapala is surrounded by twenty - 
four goddesses arranged in three circles. The first circle has 
Sumalim (blue) in the east, Kapalim (yellow) in the noith, Bhima 
(green) in the west and Duija>a (white) in the south. The next 
circle has Subhamekhala (east), Rupim (north), Jaya (west) and 
Kauven (south) , KaminI (north-east), Mahodadhi (north-west) 
Karim (south-west) and Marini (south-east). The outermost circle 
has Bhimadarsana (east) Ajaya (north), Subha (west) OstarakI 
(south) , Suraksmi (north-east), Vikalaratri (north-west), Mahayasa 
(south-west) and Sundari (south-east). Besides these, there are the 
four guardians of gates : Sundara (east) Subhaga (north), Priya- 
dar&ana (west) and Nairatma (south). Excepting the four deities 
of the innermost circle, all the goddesses have blue colour two 
arms, one face, ornaments of bones, brown hair rising upwards 
but no garlands of heads. They carry the Kapala in the left and 
the Kartri in the right, and dance in the Ardhaparyahka attitude* 

Fig. 126 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the principal god in the 
embrace of his Sakti Citrasena but without attendants. Buddhakapala 
is represented in the Chinese collection at Peiping l . He is also 
represented singly in a remarkable statuette in the Baroda Museum. 
(Fig. 127). 

5. SAMBARA 

(i) Two-Armed 

Colour Blue Asana- Alidha 

Vahana Kalaratri Symbols Vajra and Ghanta 
Prajna Vajravarahi 

One Sadhana only in the Sadhanamala describes the procedure for 
the worship of Sambara who is only another form of Hevajra- He is 

1. TLP, II. pp. 103, 237, 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 161 

two-armed and one-faced, and bears the effigy of Aksobhya on 
his crown. He appears terrible with his garment of tiger-skin, the 
garland of heads, a string of skulls round the head, three eyes 
and the Alidha attitude, in which he tramples, upon KalaratrL 
The Dhyana is in verse and describes the god in the following terms : 

"Lalatasthakapalani candrardham murdhni dharayet I 
Sanmudra-mundamall ca visvavajri trilocanah II 
Alidhapadavinyaso visvaksaravivartinim I 
Sabhairavam Kalaratrimarudho vyaghracarmabhrt II 
Aksobhyasekharah kubjo vajraghantajatanvitah 1 
Viro'sau Vajravarahl vajrasrkpurnakapalabhrt II 
Khatvangamekhala rakta trmetra mundamalim I 
Pancamudra muktakesl digvastra Buddhasekhara II 

Dvibhuja-Sambaropadesah samaptah " 

Sadhanamala, p. 504 

"The worshipper should think himself as Sambara with a string 
of skulls over his forehead and the crescent moon on the top. 
He wears the six auspicious ornaments and a necklace of heads. 
He shows the Visvavajra [on his head-dressj and is three-eyed. He 
stands in the Alidha attitude and originates from a combination of 
all the letters of the alphabet. He trample** upon Bhairava and 
Kalaratri and is clad in tiger-skin. He shows the effigy of Aksobhya 
on his crown and is blue in colour. He carries the Vajia and the 
Ghanta ; has matted hair, displays heroism and is embraced by his 
Sakti Vajravarahi holding the Vajra and the Kapala full of blood. 
Her girdle is the Khatvahga, her colour is red and she is three-eyed, 
bhe wears a garland of severed heads, is endowed with the five 
auspicious symbols, has dishevelled hair and no garment. She shows 
the image of Buddha (Vairocana) on her crown." 

Sambara has another form with four faces and twelve arnii> and in 
this form he is mentioned in the Nispann ay OE avail. 

(ii) Twelve- Armed 
Colour Blue Faces Four 

Arms Twelve Sakti Vajravarahl 

Sambara is the principal deity in the Sambara Mandala of the 
HispannayogavalL The Sakti of Sambara is Vajravarahl. Sambara thus 
* 



162 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

is only another form of the great god Heruka. Here he is four-faced 
and twelve^armed. The description is quoted below in brief : 

**Bhagavan...BhairavakalaratryavalIdhacaranabhyam akrantah krsnah 
krsnaharitaraktapitapurvottaradi-caturmukhah...Dvadasabhujah savajra- 
vajraghantabhujayugmalingita-Vajravarahlko bhujabhyam...saraktaprasr> 
tagajacarmadharah tadaparaih damaru-parasu-kartri-trisulani vibhrat, 
vamairwajrankitakhatvafiga-raktapuritakapalaih vajrapasam Brahmasi- 
rasca navanatyarasarasih." NSP, P. 26 

"God (Sambara) ..stands in the Alidha posture on the prostrate forms 
of Bhairava and Kalaratri. He is blue in colour and his four faces on 
the east, south, west and north are blue, green, red and yellow in 
colour.. He is twelve-armed. With the two principal hands carrying 
the Vajra and Vajra-marked bell, he embraces his Sakti Vajravarahi. 
With the second pair... he carries the elephant skin from which blood 
trickles down. In the remaining four right hands he holds the Damaru, 
the axe, the Kartri and the trident. The four left hands show the 
Vajra-marked Khatvahga, the skull cup full of blood, the Vajra-marked 
noose and the the severed head of Brahma... He displays in full the 
nine dramatic sentiments". 

The parental Dhyani Buddha of Sambara is Aksobhya and that of 
Vajravarahi is Vairocana according to a statement contained in the 
aforesaid Mandala J . 

Sambara is popular in Tibet 2 and China '. 

6. SAPTAKSARA 
Faces Three Arms Six 

Asana Alidha Prajna Vajravarahi 

This variety of Hevajra is called Saptaksara or 'seven-syllabled' 
because his Mantra consists of seven syllables. Like Dvibhuja-Sambara 
mentioned above, he is also embraced by Vajravarahi, who in all 
respects resembles her consort. Like Sambara this god also tramples 
upon Kalaratri and holds the Visvavajra on the crown. He has also 
the crescent on his head, is endowed with the six suspicious symbols, 
and stands in the Alidha attitude on the orb of the sun* He has three 
faces of blue, yellow and green colour and carries the Vajra, the 
Ghanta and the human skin in the three left hands and the Kapala 
the Khatvahga and the TrisQla in the three right. 

1. MSP, p. 28. 

2. Two images oi Sambara are illustrated in A, K. Gordon : ITL, pp. 83, 84. 
See also Getty : GNB, pp. 145. 150 

3. As Sambararaja Buddha he is mentioned in Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 80 and 90. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 163 

The Sadhana further adds that on each of the six spokes of the 
wheel of the sun on which the god stands there are six deities, namely, 
(commencing from the right) Herukl, Vajravarahi, Ghoracandi, Yajra- 
bhaskan, Vajraraudri and Vajradakinl. They have respectively blue, 
yellow, red, green, smoky and white colour. All of them ha\e dis- 
hevelled hair, fierce appearance, three eyes and the quarters as 
garments. They carry the resounding Damaru and the Ghanta in the 
first pair of hands, and the human skin in the other pair. They stand on 
the orb of the sun placed on a corpse. Their head-dresses are decora- 
ted with rows of skulls, and they stand in the Alidha attitude. 

In another Sadhana devoted to the worship of Saptaksara, a slight 
variation is noticed. In it, it is said that the god carries, in the first 
pair of hands, engaged in embracing the Prajna, the Vajra and the 
Ghanta ; m the second pair, the human skin only, and in the third 
pair the Kapala and the Trisula. The Khatvunga hangs from his 
shoulder as usual. Vajravarahi is identical with the Prajna men* 
tioned before, with this difference that she should have in her second 
pair of hands the bow and the arrow instead of the human skin. 

1. MAHAMAYA 
Colour Blue FacesFour 

Arms Four Prajna Buddhdakinl 

''Mahamayahvayam devam caturmukham caturbhujarh I 
Ahke yasya tatha devi catasro diksu caparah M II 

"The god called Mahamaya is four-faced and four-armed. He has 
on his lap a goddess and four others in the four cardinal directions''. 

Hevajra takes the name of Mahamaya when he is embraced by his 
Sakti BuddhadakinI and remains with her in yab-yum. This variety of 
Heruka, as the verse above indicates, has four faces and four arms and 
is accompanied by four goddesses in the four cardinal points. Two 
Sadhanas (Nos. 239, 240) in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the 
worship of the deity, one of which is attributed to Kukkuripada 
celebrated as one of the eighty- four Mahasiddhas who flourished 
in early times. Below is given a summary of the description of the 
Mandala of Mahamaya. 

Mahamaya is terrible in appearance. His body is besmeared with 
ashes and his hair streams upwards in the shape of a flame of fire. 
He is blue in colour and his head-dress is decorated with a row of 
skulls. His four faces are of blue, yellow, white and green colour, 
and he carries in his four hands the Kapala, the arrow, the Khatvahga, 
and the bow. He is endowed with five auspicious symbols, has a torque 
round the neck and bracelets on his wrists* He is clad in human skin, 



164 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

has three eyes in each head, and flames of fire radiate from his body. 
He appears beautiful in his sentiment of mixed anger and delight, and 
stands in the Ardhaparyanka in a dancing attitude. He is embraced by 
Buddhadakim, who is red, carries the same weapons and has the same 
appearance and symbols as those of Mahamaya. Her four faces are 
red, yellow, white and green. 

The four petals in the four cardinal directions of the lotus seat are 
occupied by the following goddesses, ' 

(1) VajradakinI in the east, who is blue in colour with four faces 
of blue, yellow, ,white and green colour, and carries the 
Khatvahga and the Ghanta in the two left hands and the Vajra 
and the Kapala in the two right. 

(2) RatnadakinI of yellow colour is in the south, with four faces 
of yellow, blue, red and green colour. She carries the flag 
and the jackal in her two left hands and the Trisula and the 
jewel in her two right. 

(3) Padmadakim in the west is of reddish white colour, has 
four faces of red, yellow, blue and green colour, and 
carries the bow and the Kapala in her two left hands arid* the 
arrow and the double lotus in the two right. 

(4) Visvadakim in the north, of green colour, who has four faces 
of green, yellow, red and blue colour, and who carries the 
Pasa and the Kapala in her two left hands and the Khatvanga 
(or the sword) and the Damaru in the two right. 

These four deities exhibit wrath, have their heads decorated with a 
number of skulls, have garlands of heads still wet with blood, three 
eyes and portruding teeth. Their brown hair stream upwards in the 
shape of a flame, and flames of fire radiate from their {persons. 

In the Nispannayogavali, Mahamaya also finds mention and the 
description given therein is quoted below : 

"Mahamayahva-Herukah krsno-'rkaprabho.. nilapkasvetaharita- 
mulasavyapascimavama-caturmukhah. . .savyabhujabhy am kapalasarau 
vamabhyam khatvahgadhanusi dadhanah...ardhaparyahkena tandavi." 

NSP.p.*22. 

4 *The form of Heruka called Mahamaya is blue in colour and resem- 
bles the dazzling sun.... He is four-faced ; the principal face is blue, the 
right yellow, the one behind is white and the left green. ...He holds in 
his two right hands the skull cup and the arrow, and in the two left the 
Khatvanga and the bow... He dances the Tandava dance in Ardha* 
paryahka". 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 165 

Mahamaya is known both in Tibet ] and in China '. 

8. HAYAGRIVA 
Colour Red Faces Three 

Arms Eight Asana Lahta 

Appearance Terrible. 

[One form of Hayagrlva, as an emanation of Amitabha, has already 
been discussed in the previous chapter, but there is another form of 
the god that emanates from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya.J The 
Dhyana describing him runs as follows : 

"Arya-Hayagrivarh raktavarnurh trimukharh astabhuiarh prati- 
mukharh trinetrarh nilasitadaksmetaravadanarh sarpabharanam lahtak- 
sepapadanyasarh sakrodhadrstmiriksanam, prathamamukharh smerarh 
lalajjihvarh, daksinamukharh darhstravastabdhaustharh, vyaghracarmam- 
.vasanarh vajra-danda^karanamudra-sarodyatadaksinakaracatustayarh tar* 
janika-svakucagraha-padma-dhanurudyatavamakaracatustavarh Aksobh- 
yamaulinarh dhyayat/' Sadhanamala, p. 508. 

[The worshipper should conceive himself as Arya-Hayagriva of 
red colour, with eight arms and three faces, each face with three eyes. 
His right and left faces are blue and white respectively and he has snakes 
for ornaments. His legs are arranged in the Lahta attitude and he 
looks wrathful. His first face has a smiling appearance, the right has 
a protruding tongue and he bites his lips in his left. He is clad in 
tiger-skin and shows in his four right hands the Vajra, the staff, the 
Karana pose and the raised arrow. Of the four left hands, one has the 
raised index finger, the second touches the breast and the two remain- 
ing ones hold the lotus and the bow. He bears the effigy of Aksobhya 
on his crown". I 

Fig. 128 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity. It vanes a 
little from the description given in the Sadhana, /The hand that ought 
to be touching his own breast displays a different mudra and the hand 
that ought to display the raised index finger only has a noose round it. 
Nevertheless, the sketch is important as it shows a miniature head of 
a horse on the head, to show that he is really Hayagrlva "Horse-neck". 
The rare Karana pose shown in the picture is noteworthy. 

Hayagrlva is popular both in Tibet :i and in China 4 . Fig. 129 illus- 
trates a Chinese statuette of Hayagrlva. 

1. A. K. Gordon : 1TL, p. 83 ; Getty : GNB, p. 144. 

2. Clark : TLP,II, pp. 82, 237. 

3. A. K. Gordon : ITL, pp. 90, 93. Sec also Getty : GNB, p 163 

4. Clark : TJLP, II. pp. 59. 164, 172, 198. 



J66 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

9. RAKTAYAMARI 
Colour Red Face One 

Arms Two Variety YatvYum 

Several Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the manner 
in which the deity should be worshipped. In one of the Sadhanas, it 
\s said that the colour of the deity varies in accordance with the 
different functions he has to discharge. For instance, in the Santikavi" 
dhi (rite of pacification) the deity is white and faces the east ; in 
Paustika rite he is yellow and faces the north ; in Vasyavidhi (rite of 
subdviing) he is red and faces the west, and in Akarsana (attraction) he 
is blue and faces the south, and so on. Of these varieties the red and 
blue are the most popular ; in other words, his worship is mostly 
performed with a view to enchanting men and women and to forcibly 
subduing them and bringing them to the worshipper. When Yamantaka^ 
is red he is called Raktayaman and when he is blue he is called 
Krsnayaman. Yamari or Yamantaka may either be worshipped alone 
or in conjunction with his Prajna. He should have the head of a 
buffalo on his shoulders and should ride a buffalo. Getty l 
records a tradition current in Tibet which gives the origin of this 
fearful god. 

There was once a holy man who lived in a cave in deep meditation 
for fifty years after which he was to enter Nirvana. On the night of 
the forty-ninth year, eleventh month and twenty-ninth day two robbers 
entered the cave with a stolen bull and slaughtered it there. But when 
they discovered the presence of an ascetic, a witness to their crime, 
beheaded him and lo ! his body assumed the ferocious form of Yama, 
and taking up the bull's head he set it up on his headless shoulder. 
He then killed the two robbers and drank their blood fiom the cup 
made out of their skulls. In his fiery and insatiable thirst for victims 
he threatened to depopulate the whole of Tibet. The Tibetans appealed 
to their Tutelary deity, Manjusri, who thereupon, assumed the fierce 
form of Yamantaka and defeated Yama in a fearful struggle 

Whatever might be the truth of the tradition, it sufficiently explains 
the presence of eulogies of Manjusri, in the Sadhanas for Yamantaka. 
It may be noted, however, that the Sadhanamala is absolutely silent 
about Yama, both as a principal deity or as an opponent of Yamantaka. 
Yama is the god of Death amongst the Hindus. The Buddhists created 
a killer of Yama in Yamantaka and it must have been an achievement 

I. Getty : GNiB, pp. 152-153. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 167 

then. Under the title of Yamantaka he is known in Tibet l . Under 
the title of Yamantakavajra he is found in China -. 

Six Sadhanas are devoted to the worship of this variety of Yaman- 
taka. He is one*faced and two-armed and is embraced by the Prajna 
who is his own creation. The Dhyana describing ins form is as 
follows : 

**Atmanarh Yamantakarh ekamukharh dvibhujarh pratyalidhapadarh 
raktaparipurnakapalavamakararh sardrapitamundankitasitadandadaksi- 
nakararh nagabharanavibhusanarh pihgalordhvakesarh vyaghracarmam- 
baradhararh Aksobhyamukutinam svabha-Prajnahhgitam mahisopari 
visvadalakamalasuryastharh dhya> at. Bhagavatmca dvibhujaikamu- 
khirh, vicitrabharanarh alidhapadasthitarh maduvihvalarh skhalad- 
vyaghracarmamsukam Bhagavata sSaha samputayogena pratyalidhena- 
vasthitarh evaih vicintya..." 

Sadhanamala p. 530. 

**The worshipper should tlnnk himself aj> Yamantaka, one-faced and 
two-armed, who stands in the Pratyiidha attitude, carries the Kapala 
full of blood in the left hand and the white staff surmounted by a 
yellow head still wet with blood, in the right- He is decked in orna- 
ments of snakes and his brown iiair rises upwards. He weais gar- 
ments of tiger-skin, bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown, 
and is embraced by his Svabha Prajna. He stands on the orb of the sun 
over the double lotus on the back of a buffalo. He (the worshipper) 
should also meditate upon the Bhagavati (Prajna) who is one-faced, 
two-armed, and has variegated ornaments. She stands in the Pratya- 
lidha attitude, is intoxicated with wine, wears garments of tiger-skin 
which slips down her waist and remains in yab-yum with the god, both 
standing in the Pratyalldha attitude. Thus meditating... ". 

10. KRSNAYAMAR1 
Colovn Blue Varieties Four 

Eight Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe his different forms. 
He may have one face and two arms, or three faces and four arms, 
or three or six faces and six arms. One six-armed variety is des- 
cribed also in the Nispannayogavali. Krsnayamari is represented 
singly as well as in yab^yum. His different forms are dealt with one by 
one in the following sections. 

1, Getty : GNB, p. 164. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 52, 73. 



168 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(i) T wo*- Armed 
Colour Blue Face One 

Arms Two Variety Single 

Symbol Staff 

This twoarmcd form of Krsnayamari is without any companion. 
The Dhyana in the Sadhanamala describes his form thus : 

"Yamarim vicintayet atmanam pratyalldhapadasthitam ekamukham 
dvibhujaifo nilavarnarh daksinakare vajrankitodyata-niladandam vama- 
kare tarjampasam hrdi, evambhutam Yamarim. visvadalakamalopari 
suryasthamahisarudham bhavayet/ Sadhanamala, p. 547 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as (Krsna) Yaman who 
stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, is one-faced, two-armed and of blue 
colour. He brandishes the staff marked with a Vajra with the right 
hand, and shows the raised index finger with the noose against the 
chest in the left. In this form Yamari should be meditated upon 
as standing on the orb of the sun on a double lotus and as riding a 
buffalo/' 

(ii) Four- Armed 

Appeatance Terrible Variety Yab-yum 

Faces- -Three Arms Four 

Companion Prajna. 

The form of Yamari with three faces and four arms looks terrible 
and awe-inspiring. He is represented in yab-yum, and the Dhyana 
describes his form in verse as follows : 

'* ..Yamariratibhisanah 1 

Kathoravarhikanthabhah savyasuklarunetarah II 
Krodhaparyahkayogena visvabjaravisamsthitah I 
Svabhavidyadharasvadarasayanamahasukhah II 
Kadarordhvajjvalatkesah pingabhrusmasrulocanah I 
Phamndravrndanepathyo mrnaladhavaladvijaih II 
Mudgarasidharah savye vame rajivaratnadhrk" II 

Sadhanamala, p. 544 

4 'Yamari is terribly fierce, is of deep (blue) colour like that of the 
throat of a peacock, and his right and left faces are of white and red 
colour (respectively). He stands on the orb of the sun on a double 
lotus in an angry mood. He enjoys the bliss of partaking the nectar 
from the lips of the Prajna of his own creation. His hair stands on his 
head in the shape of a flame of fire, and his beard and the eyes are of 
brown colour. His ornaments are formed by the host of the lords of 



169 






22 



170 





fl 




cc 
(-1 
rt 



i 



oo 



171 




Fig. 89 Arapacana 
(Dacca Museum) 



172 




173 




o ^ 

6 1 

!- W 

oj 3 

"S, 
'S- 



a 

o 

V-( 

O 



03 






as 

u PL, 

it 



> 



174 




led 



co 
73. 

CS 



3? 










2 

cd 



o 

-I s 

"B S 



CQ 



D 
O 

O 
"C 

CCS 



CO- -fc 

OQ 

vo - 

ON 



175 



ygfrfv .-# . . **.** -,<* 

' : & f <^^-*&.^ > ^^yf 




Fig. 99 Simhanada 



176 




10* 


ca 

,-C 



5JD 

ffi 




ctf 



O 

ei) 




103 

G 

CO 



CO 



o 
o 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 177 

twice-born serpents who are white like stalks of lotuses. He carries 
in his right hands the Mudgara and the sword, and in his left the lotus 
and the jewel". 

(iii) Six-Armed 

Asana Alidha Faces Three or Six 

Arms Six Variety Single 

The form of Yamari with three faces and six arms, is fierce in 
appearance as the previous ones, and is single. He is three-faced, and all 
his faces show a protruding tongue, canine teeth, three eyes, and 
contorted brows. He has a big belly, is short and dwarfish m appear- 
ance and wears a garment of tiger-skin. He carries the Vajra, the 
sword and the Musala in his three right hands and the goblin (Vetali) 
the axe and the lasso m his three left According to another state- 
ment in the Sadhana, he carries the sword, the Mudgara and the 
Vajra in the three right hands and the Ghanta, the Vajrapasa and the 
Musala in the three left. The same Sadhana further says that though 
he is represented generally as three-faced and six-armed, he may also 
have six faces and six legs, with the same weapons. The Dhyana for 
the worship of this six-faced and six-legged variety of Yamantaka 
runs as follows : 

"Yamantakam kruddham urdhvakesarh krsnarh sanmukharh sad- 
bhujam satcaranam mahisarudham pratyahdhasthitaih naramundarun- 
dairvibhusicam atihhayanakakararh vyaj*hracarmamvasanam daksine 
khadga-mudgara-vajrani, vame ghanta-vajrapasa-musalan dharayantam 
mukute Aksobhyam vibhavayct". Sadhanamala, p. 546 

*The worshipper should conceive himself as Yamantaka, with an 
angry mood whose hair rises upwards and who is six-faced, six-armed 
and six-legged. He rides a buffalo, stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, 
is embellished with severed human heads, and has a very ferocious 
appearance. He is clad in garments of tiger-skin, carries in the three 
right hands the Khadga, the Mudgara and the Vajrd, and in the three left 
the Ghanta, the Vajrapaba and the Musala. He bears the effigy of 
Aksobhya on the crown/* 

Yaman of blue colour is the principal deity in the Yamari Mandala 
of the Nispannayogavali. Here his form is three-faced and six*armed 
like the one previously described. The description may be briefly given 
thus : 

"Krsna-sita-rakta'mula-savya-vamavadanah sadbhujah kartrikapa- 
lancita-Sdvyetarakarabhyam svabhaprajnasarnalihgitah savyabhyam 
vajrasi vamabhyam cakrabje vibhranah". NSP, p. 36 

23 



178 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Yamari's three faces show the blue, white and red colour in the 
principal, the right and the left. He is six-armed. In the principal 
pair of hands carrying the Kartri and the Kapala he embraces the 
Prajna of his own creation. In the two remaining right hands he 
carries the Vajra and the sword, and in the two left he carries the 
discus and the lotus." 

As Yamantakavajra he is known in China l and two statuettes of 
his are illustrated in Two Lamaistic Pantheons of Clark. 

11. JAMBHALA 

Faces Three Arms Six 

Variety Yab-Yum 

Jambhala has undoubtedly a greater antiquity behind him than that 
of the five Dhyani Buddhas. Jambhala again is a Yaksa and that 
indicates his non-Buddhist origin. This may be one of reasons why 
he could not be assigned to any one as parental Dhyani Buddha. In 
other words Jambhala is similar to ManjusrI whose sire also could not 
be definitely determined. In the Sadhanamala the parental Dhyani 
Buddha of Jambhala is either Ratnasambhava or Aksobhya. Images 
of Jambhala are to be met with in the Gandhara, Mathura, Sarnath, 
Magadha, Bengal and Nepal sculptures. For the purpose of this 
section, however, the form emanating from Aksobhya is important. 
Here he is three-faced and six-armed and is represented in yab-yum. 
Though the Dhyana does not mention the colour, it can be presumed 
that his colour is blue which is the colour of the Dhyani Buddha 
Aksobhya from whom he takes his origin. Jambhala as the god of 
wealth commanded great respect amongst the Buddhists, and received 
worship in various forms in all Buddhist countries. The Dhyana in 
the Sadhanamala describes his six-armed form as follows : 

"Jambhalarh trimukharh sadbhujarh Aksobhyajatamukutinarh daksi- 
natribhujaih matulunga-nkusa-banadharam prathamavamabhujaikena 
vama-parsvasthita-Prajnalingitam aparavamabhujabhyarh sapasanakuli- 
karmukudhararh atmanarh nispadya../' Sadhanamala p. 564 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as Jambhala, three-faced 
and six-armed, on whose matted hair there is an image of 
Aksobhya. He carries in his three right hands the citron, the goad 
and the arrow. He embraces the Prajna with the first left hand, carries 
the mongoose tied round with a lasso and the arrow respectively in 
the second and the third. Thus meditating...". 

1* TLP, Vol. II, pp. 52, 73. For a Tibetan specimen see Gordon : ITL, p. 90 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 179 

Jambhala is known in Tibet ] . Two statuettes of the six*armed 
Jambhala are to be found in the Chinese collection at Peiping -. 

12. UCCHUSMA-JAMBHALA 

Appearance Terrible VahanaKuvera vomitting jewels 

Asana Pratyalidha 

Ucchusma also called Dimbha, being a variety of Jambhala, bears 
also the imag^ of Aksobhya on his crown. He may however, have the 
image of Ratnasambhava instead, and as an emanation of Ratnasanv 
bhav a Jambhala will be described later. Several Sadhanas are devoted 
to his worship, and the Dhyana describing him with the image of 
Aksobhya on his crown runs as follows : 

"Atmanam Bhagavantam Ucchusmam pancavarsakumarakrtim 
kharvarh visvapadmastham candropari sarpabharanabhusitarh ratna-* 
mukutim muncad^ratnamukhapitahgasupta-Dhanadasya lalatam daksi- 
nena caranena caranadvyarh vamenakrantamurtim pratvalidhapadam ; 
nagnarh urdhvalihgarh lambodaram ; hrdi daksinapanistharaktapur- 
nakapalabhimukhadrstim ; vamajahghasaktavamakarena ratnacchatod' 
garyyadhomukhanakullm aviddhadhollakarnadvayarh ardhendu [sekha- 
ram] damstrakaralavadanam raktavarttulatrinetrarh krtabhrkuti lalatam 
pihgordhvakesarh Bhusparsamudra'nil'Aksobhyamunimastakarh... M 

Sadhanamala, p. 577. 

u The worshipper should meditate himself as the god Ucchusma, 
who appears a child of five years and is dwarfish. He stands on a 
double lotus on the moon, is decked in ornaments of snakes and has 
a jewelled headdress. He stands in the Pratyalidha attitude and 
presses with his right leg the forehead of the sleeping Dhanada of yellow 
colour with his mouth vomitting out jewels. His left leg rests on the 
two legs (of Dhanada). He is nude, and his membrum virile is pointed 
upwards. He has a protruding belly, and has his eyes fixed on the 
Kapala full of blood which he carries in his right hand against the 
chest. He holds in his left hand the mongoose vomitting out jewels, 
on his left thigh. His ears are large and unpierced and he has a crescent 
on his crown. His face is distorted with bare fangs, and his three eyes 
are red and round. His brows are distorted, and his brown hair rises 
upwards. He bears on his crown the image of Aksobhya of blue 
colour displaying the earth-touching attitude*'. 

1. Getty : GNB, p 159. 

2, Clark : TLP, II, p. 310 under the title of Sadbhuja Jambhala, and on p. 203 as 
Sadbhuja Jambhala vajra. 



180 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

The Sarnath image (Fig. 130) illustrates this form of Jambhala 
standing on Dhanada or the Hindu god of wealth. Streaks of jewels 
may be noticed as coming out of Kuvera's mouth. The peculiar 
feature of this sculpture is that here Dimbha is accompanied by his 
Sakti Vasudhara. 

13. VIGHNANTAKA 
Asana Pratyalidha Colour Blue 

Symbols Tarjanlpasa and Vajra 

Vighnantaka is closely associated with three other gods, Padmantaka, 
Yamantaka, and Prajnantaka, who are generally represented as 
guardians of the gates in the Mandala. Vigtmantaka is represented 
in various forms. The name is significant as the word "Vighna" or 
"obstacle" refers to the Hindu god Ganesa. Only one short Sadhana 
in the Sadhanarnala describes his form in the following terms : 

"Atmanarh pratyalldhapadasthitarh ekamukharh dvibhujarh nilava- 
rnarh varnakarena tarjanikapasam, daksinakarenodyatavajrarh bhayana- 
karh pihgalordhvakesam. 

Vighnantakasadhanam.'' Sadhanarnala, pp. 558-559. 

"The worshipger should conceive himself as (Vighnantaka) who 
stands in the Pratyalidha attitude, is one-faced, two-armed, and blue 
in colour. He carries in his left hand the Tajampasa, and wields the 
Vajra in the right. He is terrible in appearance and his brown hair 
rises upwards. His seat is on the orb of the sun placed on a lotus". 

This Sadhana is silent about the prostrate figure of Ganesa whom 
he tramples under his feet, thereby giving significance to his name as 
already indicated. It may be pointed out here that the god Ganesa, 
whom the Hindus consider to be the remover of all obstacles, is 
regarded as the most dangerous obstacle by the Buddhists ! As to the 
origin of this god there runs a Nepalese legend that at a certain time an 
Odiyana Pandit was performing a Tantric rite on the bank of the 
Baghmati river near Kathmandu in order to obtain Siddhi (perfection). 
-Ganesa, it is said, being strongly opposed to the idea, began throwing 
dangerous obstacles in the way of the due performance of the rite. 
The Odiyana Pandit finding himself helpless, invoked the god Vighnan- 
taka, the destroyer of all obstacles, and lo ! Vighnantaka appeared in 
a fierce and terrible form, armed with destructive weapons and gave 
hot chase to Ganesa, who was by this time, flying in terror, and in 'no 
time overcame the latter. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 18 1 

In the statuette illustrated in Fig. 131 it may be seen how Vighnantaka 
is trampling heavily on Ganesa and the latter, in order keep up the 
dignity of his godhead, exhibits the Abhaya pose even in his agony! 
The form in which Vighnantaka is said to have appeared before the 
Odiyana Vajracaryya has six arms. He carries in his two principal 
hands the Kartn and the Kapala against the chest ; the rest carry the 
Damru and the goad in the right, and the Trisula and the noose with 
the TarjanI in the left, 

The original image is in the Baroda Museum collection. Vighnan- 
taka is known also to the Chinese collection at Peiping l . 

14* VAJRAHUNKARA 
(i) Two-Armed 

Appearance Terrible Symbols Vajra and Ghanta 

Mudra Vajrahuhkara Arms Two 

Asana Pratyalidha Vahana Siva 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of the 
god Vajrahuhkara, who is so-called because his two hands carrying the 
Vajra and the Ghanta exhibit the Vajrahuhkara mudra. The Sadhana 
says that the god originates from the sacred syllable 'Hum' which is 
irresistible like the Fire of Destruction, is blue in colour, and dazzlmgly 
bright. The Sadhana adds further : 

"Tadutpannam maharaudrarh Vajra hunk ara-samjnak am I 
Attahasarh maharaudrarh ksepayantarh tridhatukarh II 
Ghantavajraprayogena mudrabaddhakaradvayarh I 
Pratyalldhapadenaiva Bhairavakrantabhlkararh" II 

Sadhanamala, p. 506 

''The worshipper should conceive himself as the god Vajrahuhkara, 
who originates from that syllable (Hum) and is terribly fierce in 
appearance. He laughs horribly, is wrathful, und disturbs the three 
worlds. His two hands carrying the Ghanta and the Vajra are locked 
in the Vajrahunkara mudra. He tramples upon Bhairava, in the 
Pratyalidha attitude, and inspires awe." 

It may be pointed out that though Vajradhara also displays the 
Vajrahuhkara mudra and carries the Ghanta and the Vajra in exactly 
the same way as Vajrahuhkara does, there are many differences between 
their forms* Vajradhara sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus 
and has a peaceful and graceful appearance, while Vajrahuhkara stands 

T~ Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 217, 311* ~~ 



162 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

in the Pratyalidha attitude, tramples upon Bhairava, a form of the 
Hindu god Siva, and has a terrible appearance. No connection can, 
therefore, be established between the two. 

Vajrahunkara images are known to the Chinese collection at Peiping l 
although they are not generally found in India. 

(ii) Six-armed 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six 

Vajrahunkara is the principal deity in the Vajrahunkara Mandala of 
the Nispannayogavali, and is identified with Trailokyavijaya, He is 
three-faced and six-armed. With his two principal hands arranged in 
the Trailokyavijaya L> mudra and holding the Vajra and Ghanta he 
embraces the Prajna of his own creation. With the two remaining 
right hands he holds the goad and the noose, and with the two left he 
shows the skull-cup and the Khatvanga :>> 

As Vajrahunkara and Trailokyavijaya he is known m China 4 

15. BHUTADAMARA 

Colour Black as collyrium Appearance Terrible 

Arms Four Mudra Bhutadamara. 

Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the form of Bhutd- 
damara, who is terrible and awe-inspiring, with ornaments of snakes, 
canine teeth, and garlands of skulls. The Dhyana runs as follows : 
"Atmanarh pasyet raudram jvalamalakulaprabham 1 
Caturbhujam rrahakrodharh bhinnanjanasamaprabham II 
Daksine vajramullalya tarjayan vamapamna I 
Damstrakaralavadanam nagastakavibhusitam II 
Kapalairfalamukutam trailokyam api nasanam I 
Attahasam mahanadaih trailokyadhisthitam prabhum II 
Pratyalldhasusamsthanam adityakotitejasam I 
Aparajitapadakrantam mudrabandhena tisthati II 

Bhutadamara*sadhanarh." Sadhanamala, p. 521 

(% The worshipper should conceive himself as (Bhutadamara) who is 
wrathful in appearance and whose person radiates fiery flames. He 
is four*armed, terribly angry, and is bright like a broken lump of 

L Clark: TLP, II, pp, 238, 314 

1, Probably the fame as the Vajrahunkara mudra* For a description of this 
mudra see Gordon : ITL, p. 22 

3. NSP, p. 24 

4. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 238, 314 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 183 

collyrium. He weilds the Vajra in the right hand and shows the Tarjam 
in a threatening attitude in the left. His face appears terrible with bare 
fangs and he is decked in ornaments of eight serpents. He has the 
garland of skulls on the crown and is capable of destroying the three 
worlds. He stands firmly in the Pratyalidha attitude and is resplen- 
dent like myriads of suns. He tramples under his feet, the god 
Aparajita, and exhibits his special mudra/ 

From the Dhyana above quoted it will appear that the two principal 
hands of the god exhibit the Bhutadamara or the Damara mudra l 
while the other two carry the menacing Vajra in the right and the 
Tarjam in the left. The description of this mudra appears in the 
same Sadhana. 

Bhutadamara is the principal deity in the Bhutadamara Mandala of 
the Nispannayogavali. Hert he tramples upon the prostrate form of 
Aparajita, and is violent in appearance. He is four-armed. He wieids 
the Vajra in the right hand raised m a menacing attitude. In the left 
he shows the Tarjam and the noose. With the two principal hands, he 
shows the Damara mudra -. 

According to statement in the Nispannayogavali the spiritual father 
of Bhutadamara is Aksobhya (Atra cakresasya kuleso'ksobhyah, 
NSP.p. 74). 

He is known in China under the name of Bhutadamara Vajrapani J . 

16. VAJRAJVALANALARKA 
Colour Blue Faces Four 

Arms Eight Asana Alidha 

Vahana Visnu and his wife. 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes his form. He is 
four-faced, eight-armed, stands in the Alidha attitude, and tramples 
upon Visnu, who is accompanied by his wife. He is blue in colour 
and has a terrible appearance. The Dhyana describes him in the 
following terms : 

"Vajrajvalanalarkarh mlavarnam jvalamalakulaprabham caturmu- 
kham astabhujam srfxgara-vira-bibhatsa-karunanvitacaturmukham, ca- 
turbhir-daksinakarair-vajra-khadga-cakra-banadhararh caturvamakarair- 
ghanta-capa-pasa-khatvahgasaktavicitrapatakadharam jvaladanalakapila- 
sikhakalapamatibhlsanamahahivalaya-kankana-katisutra-nupura-"kanthi^ 



1. For a description of this mudra see Gordon: ITL, p. 20 and for a picture, 
ibid, p. 62. 

2. For further information on the subject, see Bhattacha^yya, B ; The Cult of 
Bhutadamara in the Proceedings of Patna Oriental Conference. 

3. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 242, 152 



184 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

ka-kundala-mukutabharanam mahamayacakraracanacaturam sapatmkair 
Visnum-alidhapadena akramya avasthitam bhavayet." 

Sadhanamala p. 512 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as Vajrajvalanalarka of 
blue colour, whose person radiates fiery flames* He is four-faced and 
eight-armed, and his four-faces display the sentiments of love, heroisnij 
disgust and compassion. He carries in his four right hands the Vajra, 
the sword, the Cakra and the arrow, and in the four left the Ghanta, 
the bow, the noose and the Khatvanga surmounted by a banner of varie- 
gated colour*-. His brown hair resembles a burning flame and he is 
decked in ornaments of bracelet, armlet, girdle, nupura, torque, ear-ring 
and crown consisting of the (eight) great lords of the frightful ser- 
pents. He stands in the Alidha attitude and tramples upon Visnu 
with his consort who are clever in enveloping everything with their 
great Maya (deception). 

17. TRAILOKYAVIJAYA 
Colour Blue Faces Four 

ArmsEight Asana Pratyalidha 

Vahana Gauri and Siva 

Trailokyavijaya is also of blue colour, terrible in appearance, and 
awe-inspiring. Two images of this divinity have been noted by Prof. 
Foucher, one from Java and the other preserved m the monastery of 
the Hindu Mohant at Bodh Gaya. The Dhyana describes his form 
in the following words : 

''Trailokyavijaya-Bhattarakam rnlam caturmukham astabhujam ; 
prathamamukham krodhasrhgaram, daksmam raudram, vamarii bibhat- 
sarh, prstharh virarasam ; dvabhyam ghantavajranvitahastabhyam hrdi 
vajrahunkaramudradhararh ; daksinatrikaraih khatvahgankusabana- 
dharam, vamatrikaraih capapasavajradharam ; pratyalidhena vama* 
padakranta-Mahesvaramastakam daksinapadavastabdha-Gaunstanayuga- 
lam ; Buddhasragdamamaladivicitrambaiabharanadhannam atmanam 
vicintya..." Sadhanamala, p. 511. 

"The worshipper should meditate himself as Trailokyavijaya 
Bhattaraka of blue colour, four- faced and eight-armed. His first face 
displays the sentiment of wrathful passion, the right rage, the left 
disgust, and the face behind the sentiment of heroism. He exhibits 
the Vajrahuhkara mudra with the two hands bearing the Ghanta and 
the Vajra against the chest. He carries in his three right hands the 
Khatvanga, the goad and the arrow, and in the three left the bow, the 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 185 

noose and the Vajra. He stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, tramples 
upon the head of Mahesvara with his left leg, while the right presses 
upon the bosom of Gauri. He wears garments of variegated colours, 
and many ornaments and garlands assigned to the Buddhas. Thus 
meditating..." 

This god is known in Tibet l and China -. 

is. PARAMAVA 

Faces Four Arms Eight 

Legs Four Vahana Four gods and four 

goddesses 

It has already been said that Paramasva "Great Horse" is another 
form of Hayagrlva "Horse-Neck" as the word "asva" in Paramasva 
indicates. In the Sadhana it is said that he should have four faces, 
but in reality he has seven faces, for one of his faces is said to be 
Brahmamukha, or the face of Brahma, who is credited with four faces. 
The other peculiar feature of this god is that he has four legs, each 
trampling upon two deities. The Dhyana contained in the Sadhanamala 
is quoted below : 

'Taramasvam raktam caturmukham astabhujam catuscarnam ; 
prathamamukham krodhasrhgararh trilocanam, daksinam raudram, 
vamam Brahmamukham murdhni lalitoddhulitosthamharitasvamukham ; 
ekena daksinatripatakadharakatena visvavajrasahitenottisthabhinayam 
kurvantarh ; ekena vamakhetakahastena visvapadmam dharayantam ; pu- 
nardaksinatripatakakarena uttisthabhinayam kurvantam punarvamaka- 
rena saktim dharayantam ; punardaksinakarabhyam khadgam bananca, 
avasistavamakarabhyarh dandam capanca dharayantam. Pratyalldhena 
daksinapadaikena Indramm Sriyanca akramya sthitam, dvitiyodaksi- 
nacaranena Ratim Pritinca vamaprathamapadena Indram Madhu- 
karanca, vamadvitlyapadena Jayakaram Vasantanca, ityatmanam 
dhyayat..." Sadhanamala, pp. 510-511. - 

"The worshipper should think himself as Paramasva, of red colour 
four^faced, eight*armed and four-legged. The first face with three eyes 
displays angry passion, the second depicts wrath, the third is the face 
of Brahma, and the fourth on the top is green, distorted like a horse 
with its lower lip beautifully protruding. He weilds the double Vajra, 
in one of his right hands with three fingers erect (TripatakaJ and in one 
of his left hands carries the staff with the double lotus. Another 



1. Gordon J ITL, p. 60 ; See also Getty GNB, p. 

2, Clark : TIP, II, pp. 116. 168. 

24 



186 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

right hand, with three fingers erect, is raised upwards, and the other left 
carries the Sakti (dart). The remaining two right hands carry the 
Khadga and the arrow, and the remaining left carry the staff and the 
bow. He stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, and tramples with one of 
his right legs upon Indram and Sri, and with the second Rati and 
Prlti ; with one of the left legs Indra and Madhukara, and with the 
other left Jayakara and Vasanta". 

Fig. 132 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity Paramasva. In 
the picture the horse-head is noteworthy, which also occurs in the case 
of another god, Hayagnva. 

19. YOGAMBARA. 
Colour Blue Faces Three 
Arms Six Variety Yab-Yum 

oakti Jnanadakini 

God Yogambara is the principal deity of the Yogambara Mandala or 
the Nispannayogavall. His form is there described in the following 
words : 

"Simhopari visvambhojacandre ardhaparyarikanisanno Bhagavan 
Yogambarah krsnah krsna-sita-rakta-mulasavyavamamukhatrayah. . . 
sadbhujo vajravajraghantabhrdbhujabhyam krsnam suklam va Jnana- 
dakinim pltabhujangabhusanamalihgitah savyabhyarh stanabanau 
vamabhyarh abjabhajanadhanusl dadhanah" NSP, p. 32. 

"Yogambara sits in Ardhaparyanka on the moon on a double lotus 
placed on a lion. He is blue in colour and is three* faced. His 
principal face is blue, the right white and the left red. He is six^armed. 
In his two principal hands carrying the Vajra and the Vajra-marked 
bell he embraces his Prajna Jnanadakini who is either blue or white 
in colour, and is decked in ornaments of snake. In the remaining 
two right hands he holds the breast and the arrow, and in the two left 
he shows the lotus bowl and the bow " 

The blue colour of the deity shows that Yogambara belongs to the 
family of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. Yogambara is known in 
China '. His Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig. 133. 

20. KALACAKRA. 
Colour Blue Faces Four 

Arms Twenty-four 

Kalacakra is the principal deity in the Kalacakra Mandala of the 
NispannayogavalL The famous Tantra of the Buddhists called the 
1. Clark :TLP, II, pp. 239, 81, 103 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 187 

Kalacakra Tantra introduces the cult of Kalacakra into Buddhism. 
Vimalaprabha is the commentary on the Kalacakra Tantra which is 
referred to in the Nispannayogavall. It is thus probable that the cult 
of Kalacakra came into vogue in the 10th century. According to the 
Kalacakra Tantra, the cult was given the name of Adibuddhayana or 
Adiyana. From the Vimalaprabha it is evident that by introducing the 
worship of Kalacakra, the circle of time, an attempt was made to 
bring the warring communities of the Hindus and the Buddhists under 
the same banner, and unite them against the cultural penetration 
of the Mlechhas from the Western borders of India where the 
followers of Islam were daily growing strong and were destroying old 
and ancient civilizations. 

The form of Kalacakra as described in the Nispannayogavall is 
elaborate and somewhat grotesque. But it is necessary to give an idea 
of his form as briefly as possible. He is here described thus : 

"Uttananahgarudrahrdayayoralidhena nrtyan Bhagavan Kalacakrah 
krsno.,..vyaghracarmambaradharo dvadasanetrascaturmukhah....trigrlvo 
bhagavan . satskandho'sau. . .dvadasabahurupabahutah prabhrti catur- 
vimsatisahasrah. Tatra daksinau dvau bahu miau dvau raktau dvau 
suklau tatha vamau evam karascatvarah.-.savya vamasca... 

Daksinesu karesu krsnesu vajra^khadga-trisula-kartrikah ; raktes- 
vagni*bana*vajr'5nkusah ; suklesu cakra^kunta-danda-parasavah. 

Vamesu krsnesu ca vajra-ghantaphalake vikasitamukhakhatvahgaih 
raktapurna-kapalam ca ; raktesu kodandapasau maniratnaih pundarl- 
kam ca ; suklesu darpana'vajra'Srhkhala'Brahmasirasca.'' 

NSP, pp. 83^84. 

"God Kalacakra dances in Alidha attitude on the bodies of Anahga 
and Rudra lying on the back. He is blue in colour. He wears tiger-skin 
and has twelve eyes and four faces. He is endowed with three necks 
and six shoulders. With the principal twelve hands on each side 
and the subsidiary hands, the total number of his hands is twenty-four 
thousand. Two of his right hands are blue, two red and two white. 
The hands are similar in the left. Thus along with subsidiary hands, 
four are blue, four red and four white. They occur both in the right 
and in the left. 

In the four right hands of blue colour are held the Vajra, the sword, 
the Trisula and th^ Kartri. In the four hands of red colour are fyeld 
the Fire, the arrow, the Vajra and the Ahkusa. And .in the three 
white hands are shown the discus, the knife, the rod, and the axe. 



188 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

In the four left hands of blue colour are shown the Vajra-marked 
bell, the plate, the Khatvanga with the gaping mouth, and the Kapala 
full of blood. In the four hands of red colour can be seen the bow, 
the noose, the jewel and the lotus. In the four hands of white colour, 
there are the mirror, the Vajra, the chain and the severed head of 
Brahma/' 

Kalacakra is known to the Chipese collection and a presentation of 
his form is given in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons. Images or paintings 
pf Kalacakra are rarely found in India. He is popular in Tibet i as 
,well as in China ~. Fig. 134 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Kalacakra. 
The blue colopr of the god suggests that his spritual sire is Aksobhya. 



1. Getty : GNB, p. 146. A full description and a fine picture are given in Gordon : 
ITL, pp . 84, 85. 

2, Clark : TLP, II, pp. 49, 233* 



CHAPTER VII 

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 
II. GODDESSES 

Compared to the other Dhyani Buddhas the number of goddesses 
emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya is large. Some of the 
goddesses are well known and popular in the Buddhist countries of the 
north but many Sadhanas are not assigned to them. It has already been 
pointed out that the emanations of this Dhyani Buddha are, as a 
rule, terrible in appearance and awe-inspiring in character. The 
goddesses emanating from Aksobhya are likewise blue in colour, and 
partake of the fierce nature of the male divinities. The genuinely 
peaceful and benign deities such as Prajnaparamita and Vasudhara 
are exceptions to the rule. The goddesses emanating from the Dhyani 
Buddha Aksobhya are described below one by one. / 

1. MAHACINATARA ^ 

Asana Pratyalidha Appearance Terrible 

Vahana Corpse Arms Four 

Two Sadhanas are devoted to the worship of Mahacinatara or Tara 
of Mahacina (Great China) and two Dhyanas, one in prose and the 
other in verse describe one and the same form of the goddess. She is also 
known in Buddhist Tantric literature as Ugratara, and the Vajrayogini 
temple at Sanku in Nepal, contains in the sanctum a figure of Ugratara. 
This Ugratara or Mahacinatara of the Buddhists has been incorpora^ 
ted in the Hindu pantheon under the name of Tara, and is now regard- 
ed as one of the ten Mahavidya goddesses. The Dhyana in the 
Sadhanamala describes her form in the following verses : 

"Pratyalldhapadarh ghoram mundamalapralambitam I 
Kharvalambodaram bhimam nilanirajarajitarh II 
Tryambakaikamukharh divyam ghorattahasabhasuram I 
Suprahrstam savarudham nagastakavibhusitam II 
Raktavarttutanetranca vyaghracarmavrtam katau I 
Navayauvanasampannam pancamudravibhusitam II 
Lalajjihvam mahabhimam sadamstrotkatabhisanam I 
Khadgakartrikaram savye vamotpalakapaladharh II 
Pihgograikajatam dhyayat maulav-Aksobhyabhusitam II 
Mahacinatara- Sadhanam", Sadhanamala, p, 210 



190 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as (Mahacma-Tara) who 
stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, and is awe-inspiring with a garland 
of heads hanging from the neck. She is short and has a protruding 
belly, and her looks are terrible. Her complexion is like that of the 
blue lotus, and she is three-eyed, one-faced, celestial and laughs horribly. 
She is in an intensely pleasant mood, stands on a corpse, is decked in 
ornaments of snakes, has red and round eyes, wears the garments of 
tiger-skin round her loins, is in youthful bloom, is endowed with the 
five suspicious symbols, and has a protrudiug tongue. She is most 
terrible, appears fierce, with bare canine fangs, carries the sword and 
the Kartri in the two right hands and the Uptala and the Kapala in the 
two left. Her Jatamukuta of one coil is brown and fiery and bears the 
image of Aksobhya within it." 

This is the Dhyana in the Sadhanamala, the earliest manuscript of 
which belongs to A. D. 1165. According to the colophon, the Sadhana 
for Mahaclnatara has been restored from the Mahacina-Tantra, which 
should therefore be earlier than the earliest extant manuscript of the 
Sadhanamala. As the Sadhana in verse is attributed to Sasvata- 
vajra it is certain that the Dhyana, just quoted, was not in existence 
before Sasvatavajra. Now, in the Tararahasya of Brahmananda, who 
flourished in the middle of the 16th century and in the Tantrasara of 
Krsnananda Agamavaglsa an almost identical Dhyana is stated descri- 
bing a goddess of the name of Tara : 

"Pratyalidhapadam ghoram mundamalavibhusitam I 
Kharvam lambodanm bhimam vyaghracarmavrtam katau II 
Navayauvanasampannam pancamudravibhusitam I 
Chaturbhujam lolajihvam mahabhimam varapradam II 
Khadgakartrisamayukta-savyetarabhujadvayam I 
Kapalotpalasamyuktasavyapaniyuganvitarh II 
Pingograikajatam dhyayenmaulav-Aksobhyabhusitam I 
Balarkamandalakaralocanatrayabhusitam II 
Jalaccitamadhyagatam ghoradamstram karalinim I 
Savesasmeravadanam stryalahkaravibhusitam II 
Visvavyapakatoyantah svetapadmoparisthitam I 
Aksobhyadevlmurdhanyastrimurtirnagarupadhrk" II 

Tantrasara, p 415 et sqq. 

A comparison of the two Dhyanas will at once reveal how the 
original composition of Sasvatavajra has been modified in the Tantra- 
sara by a Hindu Tantric author. Some lines have' been added to the 
original Dhyana and all grammatical errors are rectified. f This is 
evidently the recognized method of Hinduizing a Buddhist Tantric deity. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 191 

It is remarkable that the Hindus retained in their Dhyana the effigy 
of Aksobhya bespeaking as it does, the Buddhist origin of the goddess, 
for it is well known that the Hindu gods or goddesses are not in the 
habit of wearing a miniature figure of their sires on the crown. More- 
over, Aksobhya is unknown in the Hindu pantheon except when he 
is borrowed from the Buddhists, and the Hindus fail to explain the 
desirability of putting his figure on the crown of Tara. 

Figs. 135, 136 illustrate the Buddhist form of Tara or Mahacmatara, 
and shows in what different forms she is represented in Nepal in 
modern times. It may be pointed out that the corpse under the feet 
of the Hindu Tara is not a corpse properly speaking, but it is the 
prostrate form of Mahadeva to whom she is attached as a Sakti. 

2. jANGULf , 

Jahguli is widely worshipped amongst the Buddhists as a goddess 
who cures snake-bite and even prevents it. According to a Sahglti 
in the Sadhanamala she is as old as Buddha himself, and the secret of 
Jahguli and the mantra for her worship are said to have been imparted 
to Ananda by Lord Buddha. Besides, the Sahglti, four Sadhanas des- 
cribe the procedure of her worship and give elaborate mantras for the 
extraction of poison from the body of the snake^bitten. These four 
Sadhanas describe three entirely different forms of Jahguli, two with 
one face and four arms and one with three faces and six arms. Images 
of Jahguli are found in Tibet l and China -. 

(i) 

Colour White Symbol Snake, or Vina 

Mudra Abhaya 

In two Sadhanas Jahguli is described as having one face and four 
arms. In both cases she is alike in all respects except for the weapons 
she carries in her hands. In one of the Dhyanas she is described as 
follows : 

"Atmanarh Arya*JahguIiruparh sarvasuklarh caturbhujarh ekamuk^ 
ham jatamukutinim suklam suklavasanottariyam sitaratnalahkara- 
bhusitarh suklasarpairvibhusitarh sattvaparyahke upavistarh mulabhuja- 
bhyarh vmarh vadayantlrh dvitiyavamabhujena sirasarpadharimrh apara* 
daksinenabhayapradam candrarhsumalimrh dhyayat..." 

Sadhanamala, p. 253* 

1, Getty: GNB, p. 123 

Z. Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 204, 217, 28 1 



192 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

'The worshipper should meditate himself as Arya Janguli who is 
all white in complexion, four-armed, one-faced, wears the Jatamukuta 
and a white scarf. She is decked in white ornaments of gems and white 
serpents and rests on an animal. She plays on the Vina with the two 
principal hands, carries the white snake in the second left and exhibits 
the Abhaya mudra with the second right, and is radiant like the moon." 

In a second Sadhana she is said to exhibit the Varada mudra in the 
second right hand. Fig. 137 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the two- 
armed form of Janguli. 

(ii) 

Colour Green Mudra Abhaya 

Symbols Trisula, Peacock's feathers and Snake. 

The second variety resembles the first in many respects, but the 
Sadhana ] does not mention the animal-seat or the particular Asana in 
which Janguli should stand or sit. The symbols also are different 
namely, the Trisula, peacock's feathers and the snake. The mudra, 
however, is the same Abhaya mudra. 

(iii) 

Faces Three Arms Six 

Vahana Snake Colour Yellow 

The third variety of Jahguii has three faces and six arms. Two 
Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala, one in prose, and the other in verse, 
describe this form. The Dhyana contained in one of these runs as 
follows : 

"Arya-Jahgulirh atmanam jhatiti nispadayet pltam, trimukham 
sadbhujarh nllasitadaksinetaravadanam kbadgavajrabanadaksinahasta- 
trayam satarjanipasavisapuspakarmukavamakaratrayam sphltapha- 
namandalasirahstham sarvadivyavastrabharanabhusitam kurrari- 
laksanojjvalam Aksobhyakrantamastakam dhyatva..." 

Sadhanamala, p. 248 

"The worshipper should quickly conceive himself as Arya-JahgulI, 
who is yellow in colour, three-faced, and six-armed; Her faces to the 
right and left are blue and white. She carries the swordj the Vajra and 
the arrow in the three right hands, and the Tarjani with the noose, 
the blue lotus and the bow in the three left hands; She rStfe : on the 
expanded hood of the serpant, is decked in celestial ornaments and 
dress, is resplendent with the auspicious marks of a virgin, and bears 
the image of Aksobhya on head. Thus meditating,.." 

1. Sadhana No. 121, Sadhanamala p. 251. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 193 

The Hindu goddess Manasa or Visahari has a marked resemblance 
to the appearance of Janguli and some of the Dhyanas in the Hindu 
Tantric works for the goddess distinctly give her the epithet of 
"Jahgull". 



3. EKAJATA. 
Colour Blue Appearance Terrible 

Attitude Pratyalldha 

Ekajata is one of the most powerful goddesses in the Vajrayana 
pantheon. It is said in the Sadhanamala that if a person listens 
to her mantra but once, he is at once freed from all obstacles 
and is attended always with good fortune, his enemies are destroyed 
and he becomes religiously inclined, even attaining the level of a 
Buddha. Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala dovoted to the worship 
of Ekajata, describe three different forms of the goddess. She may 
have one face with two, four or eight arms. 

The main features of the goddess aie given in one of the 
Sadhanas, the Colophon of which asserts that the Sadhana has 
been restored from Tibet ( Bhota ) by Arya Na^arjuna, who was 
famous in the mediaeval ages as one of the eighty-four Siddhapu* 
rusas of India. The general description of the goddess given in 
the Sadhana is as follows : 

"Krsnavarna matah sarvah vyaghra-carmavrtah katau I 
Ekavaktrah trinetrasca pihgordhvakesamurdhajSh II 
Kharva lambodara raudrah pratyalidhapadasthitah I 
Sarosakaralavaktra mundamalapralambitah II 
Kunapastha mahabhima Maulav-Aksobhyabhusitah I 
Navayauvanasampannah ghoiattahasabhasvarah II 
Visvapadmopari suryye cintamyah prayatnatah" II 

Sadhanamala p. 266. 

"All these (three) forms (of Ekajata) are of blue colour, have 
the tiger'skin round their loins, are one-faced and three*eyed, and have 
brown hair rising upwards on their head. They are short, pot- 
bellied, wrathful and stand in the Pratyalldha attitude, they have 
faces distorted with anger ; with garlands of heads hanging from 
their necks, they rest on corpses, are terrible in appearance and 
bear the image of Aksobhya on the crown. They have youthful 
bloom and laugh horribly and they should be conceived on the 
orb of the sun over the double lotus." 

25 



194 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



This general description oaly applies to the following three 
forms of Ekajata with one face and two, four or eight arms : 
4 (i) When two-armed, she carries the Kartri and the Karota 
(skull-cup) in her two hands (Fig. 138). 

(ii) When four-armed, Ekajata carries the arrow and the sword 
in the two right hands and the bow and the skull in the two 
left. In two other Sadhanas describing the four-armed variety, her 
appearance undergoes a slight modification. Here she holds in the 
first pair of hands the Kapala and the Kartri, while the other 
pair shows the Utpala and the sword. She may hold also the 
rosary instead of the sword (Fig. 139). 

(iii) When eight-armed, she carries the sword, the arrow, the 
Vajra and the Kartri in the four right hands and the bow, the Utpala, 
the Parasu and the skull in the four left hands. 

Images of Ekajata are found in almost all Buddhist countries of 
the North. She is known in Tibet l as well as in China L> . 

"^ 4* VIDYUJJVALAKARALL 
Faces Twelve Arms Twenty-four 

Colour Blue Asana -Pratyalldha 

Vahana Indra, Brahma, Visnu and Siva 

SYMBOLS : 

Left 

1. Bow 7. Wine-glass 

2. Noose 8. Utpala 

3. Tar jam 9. Bell 

4. Banner 10. Parasu 



Right 

1. Khadga 7. Dart 

2. Vajra 

3. Cakra 

4. Jewel 

5. Ankusa 

6. Arrow 



8. Mudgara 

9. Musala 

10. Kartri 

11. Damaru 



12. Rosary 
Another variety of Ekajata is 



10. 

5. Mace 11. Brahmasiras 

6. Trisula 12. Kapala 

known as Vidyujjvalakarali, 



who is said to have originated from the sweat of Buddha. This 
form of Ekajata, with twelve faces and twenty-four arms, is rarely 
met with in sculptures either in stone or in bronze. The Dhyana 
is rather long and it describes the goddess vividly thus : 

"Dvadasamukham mahakrsnavarnam caturvimsatibhujam caturmar- 
asamakrantm svetakapalopari pratyalldhapadam mahapralayagnisa- 
maprabham vivrtasyam hahakaram lalajjihvam sarosam vikrtakoti* 
bhimabhrkutltatodbhrunetracaladvartulam bhayasyapi bhayahkarlm 



1. Gordon: ITL, p. 76, Getty: GNB, pp. 125-126 

2. Clark: TLP, II. p. 284 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 195 

kapalamSla sirasi bhusitam vyadairalafikrtam sanmudropetam pratha- 
mamukharh mahakrsnam tatha daksinamukhapancakam sitapitaharita- 
raktadhumravarnanca, vamamukhapancakam raktasitapitaharitasitarak- 
tanca, urdhvamukham dhumram vikrtam kruddham, sarvamukhani 
damstrakaralavadanani, trinetrani, jvalitordhvapihgalakesani , sarosam 
kharvalambodarirh pmonnatapayodharam vyaghracarmanivasanam dak- 
sinadvadasabhujesu khadga-vajra-cakra-ratnacchat-ahkusa-sara-sakti'inu- 
dgara-musala-kartri'damaru'aksamalikafica, vamadvadasabhujesu dha- 



asirah-kapalanca. 

Suprahrstam savarudham nagastakavi bhusitam I 
Navayauvanasampannarh hahattahasa-bhasuram II 
Pihgograikajatam dhyayat maulav-Aksobhya' bhusitam II 

Iti Vidyujjvalakaralinamaikajatasadhanam " 

Sadhanamala, p. 257 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as (Vidyujjvalakarali) 
who has twelve faces, deep blue colour and twenty-four arms, 
she tramples upon the, four Maras (Brahma, Visnu, oiva and Indra), 
stands on white skulls in the Pratyalldha attitude, is terrible like 
the Fire of Destruction, has a wide open mouth from which 
comes the sounds of 'ha' *ha'. She has protruding tongue, is wrath- 
ful, has eyes round and moving, and her forehead is distorted 
owing to the frequent contortions of the brows. She is more awe- 
inspiring than Awe itself, and her head is decorated with a garland 
of skulls ; she is decked in ornaments of snake, and is endowed 
with the six auspicious symbols ; her first face is of deep blue 
colour and the five faces to the right are white, yellow, green, 
red and smoky in colour ; the five faces to the left are of red, 
white, yellow, green and whitish red colour. The face on the top 
is of the colour of smoke, distorted and displays anger. AH her 
faces look terrible with bare fangs and three eyes ; her brown hair 
rise upwards in the shape of a flame ; she is short and has a 
protruding belly. Her breasts are full and heaving ; she is clad 
in tiger-skin, and carries in her twelve right hands, 1. the sword, 
2. the thunderbolt, 3. the discus, 4- 'the jewel, 5. the elephant*goad, 
6. the arrow, 7. the dart, 8. the hammer, 9. the pestle, 10. the saw, 11. the 
drum and 12. the rosary ; and in her twelve left hands she has 1. the 
bow, 2. the noose, 3. the raised index finger, 4. the flag, 5. the mace, 6. the 
trident, 7. the wine-glass, 8. the blue lotus, 9. the bell, 10..the axe, 11. 
the severed hea*d of BrahrtiS, 12. and the skull. In an extremely happy 



196 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

irtood she rides a corpse, is youthful, appears resplendent with 
terrible laugh, wears a Jatamukuta, which is brown and fiery and 
which bears the image of Aksobhya on it." 

Here ends the Sadhaha for Vidyujjvalakarali, anocher form of 
Ekajata." 






( 5. PARNASABARI. 

Colour Yellow Fa ces T hree 

Arms Six Vahana Vighnas 

Asana Pratyalldha 

The worship of Parnasabari, it is believed, is effective in pre- 
venting out-breaks of epidemics and in assuring safety to the terror- 
striken, The epithet Tisac? given in the mantra shows that she 
was regarded as one of the demi-gods, half human, half divine. Two 
Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe two forms of the goddess, 
one with the image of Aksobhya on the crown and the other 
^ith that of Amoghasiddhi. In one, her faces are lit with pleasant 
Smiles, and in another she smiles but has an irritated expression 
ill the same. Curiously enough, the two images that have been 
discovered in Eastern Bengal, both have the effigies of Amoghasiddhi 
on the crown. The Dhyana describing Parnasabari of yellow colour 
with the image of Aksobhya on her crown, runs as follows : 

"Bhagavatim pltavarnam trimukharh trinetram sadbhujarfa prathama- 
mukham pitam, daksinam sitam vamam raktam, lalitahasinim sarva 
lankaradharam parnapicchikavasanam, navayauvanoddhataih plnarh... 
daksinabhujaih vajraparasusaradharimrh vamabhujaih satarjanikapasa- 
parnapicchikadhanurdharimm puspavabaddhajatamukutastha-Akso- 
bhyadharimm suryyaprabhamandalinlm adho vighnan nipatya sita* 
padmacandrasane pratyalldhastham, hrdvamamustitarjanyadho vigh- 
naganan santarjya daksinavajramustipraharabhinayam ..bhavayet. 

Parnasabarl-Sadhanam" Sadhanamala, pp. 306-307. 

**The worshipper should conceive himself as (Parnasabari) of 
yellow complexion, with three faces, three eyes and six arms. Her 
first face is blue, the right white and the left red, and she smiles in a 
pleasing manner. She is decked in all sorts of ornaments, bears a gar- 
ment of leaves, is arrogant in her youthful blopm, is stout in appear- 
ance and carries in her right hands the Vajr?, the Parasu and the arrow, 
and in her left the Tarjam with the noose, the cluster - of leaves and 
the bow. Her Jatamukuta is decorated with flowers and the image of 
Aksobhya ; she has the effulgence of the sun as her aureole, stands in 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 197 

the Pratyalldha attitude on the moon over the white lotus, trampling 
under her feet the Vighnas. She threatens the host of (otherj Vighnas 
with the clenched fist of the left hand exhibiting the TarjanI against the 
chest, and shakes her right fist at (the host of the Vighnas) .." 

The mutilated image (Fig. 140) in the Indian Museum, with three 
faces and six arms trampling upon Ganesa, probably represents this 
form of Parnasabarl, as the word 'Vighna' in the Sadhanamala often 
refers to Ganesa. The above-mentioned Sadhana, further states that 
Parnasabarl may have an alternative form with four arms and the image 
of Aksobhya on the crown, in which case she will carry the Vajra and 
the Parasu in the two right hands, and the TarjanI with the noose, and 
the cluster of leaves in the two left, omitting the bow and the arrow. 

Images of Parnasabari are also found in Tibet ! and in China ~. 

6. PRAJNAPARAMITA 

Prajnaparamita is the embodiment of the Mahayana Scripture of 
the same name which was, according to the Buddhist tradition, restored 
from the nether regions by Nagarjuna in the second century A. D. 
Buddha is said to have entrusted this Book of Transcedental Knowledge 
to the care of the Nagas in the nether regions, as in his time people 
were not sufficiently intelligent to grasp the true meaning of the doc- 
trines it contained. The worship of Prajnaparamita was very popular 
among the Buddhists, and Arya Asahga is credited to have composed 
one of the Sadhanas for her worship which is said to confer wisdom 
and erudition on her devotees Nine Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala 
describe the procedure of her worship, and of these only two are assign- 
ed to the kula of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. She too, like Manjusri, 
could not be assigned to any one of the Dhyani Buddhas because the 
Prajnaparamita scripture was chronologically earlier than the Dhyani 
Buddhas. The two Sadhanas describe the white and the yellow forms 
of" the goddess. Images 8 of Prajnaparamita are found in Tibet 4 and 
China s . 

(i) SITAPRAJNAPARAMITA 

Colour White Asana Vajraparyahka 

Symbols Lotus and Book 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of white 
Prajnaparamita with the image of Aksobhya on the crown. She is two* 

f 1. Gordon : ITL, p. 71 ; Getty : GNB, pp. 134-135. 

* 2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 278 

" 3. See Bhattasali : IBBS, p. 42. 

4. Getty: GNB, pp. 131-132. 

5, Clark : TLP, It, pp. 140, 160. 



198 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

armed, one-faced, sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude on a white lotus, 
and carries the red lotus in the right hand and the Prajnaparamita 
Book in the left. She is decked in all sorts of ornaments, has a 
beautiful face and pleasant expression, unlike other emanations of 
Aksobhya. The Dhyana runs as follows : 

"Dvibhujam ekavadanam sitavarnam manoramam I 
Ardhacarcarakesanca svetambhoruhasarhsthitam II 
Padmam daksinahaste tu raktavarnam vibhavayet I 
Prajnaparamitam vame vajraparyahkasamsthitam II 
Sarvalahkarasampurnam bhavayennabhimandale I 
Ankarajnanasambhutam paramanandakarinim II 
. Aksobhyamudrita ceyarh 

Sukla*Prajnaparamita-Sadhanam'\ 

Sadhanamala, pp. 310-311. 

The worshipper should meditate on the navel the form of Sitapra- 
jnaparamita, as two-armed, one-faced, white in colour, and beautiful 
in appearance, with half curly hair, as sitting on the white lotus, carry- 
ing in her right hand the red lotus, and the Prajnaparamita Book in her 
left. She sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, and is decked in all sorts of 
ornaments. She originates from the knowledge of the letter *Am' and 
releases immense delight... This goddess is stamped with the image of 
Aksobhya (on the crown)." 

(ii) PlTAPRAJNAPARAMITA 
Colour Yellow Mudra Vyakhyana 

Distinctive Mark Book on lotus to the left. 

The yellow variety of Prajnaparamita with the effigy of Aksobhya 
is identical in form with the one described above, except with regard 
to the colour and the rnudra. She is yellow in complexion, bears the 
image of Aksobhya on her Jatamukuta, wears celestial ornaments, and 
her two hands display the Vyakhyana attitude* On a lotus to her left 
rests the scripture Prajnaparamita 1 . 

The celebrated image of Prajnaparamita (Fig. 141) of Java belongs 
to this variety, and tallies in all details with the description given in the 
Dhyana. 



1. SidhanaNo. 158, Sadhanamala, p. 321 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 199 

(iii) KANAKAPRAJNAPARAMiTA 

Colour Golden Mudra Dharmacakra 

Asana Vajraparyanka 
Symbol Book on lotus on two sides. 

This form of Prajnaparamita is identical in all respects with one 
of the forms described previously. The difference lies in the fact that 
although she exhibits the Dharmacakra mudra with her two hands, 
there are two books on two lotuses rising from under her two arm-pits. 
She is golden in colour l . The Java figure of Prajnaparamita illustra- 
ted previously has only one lotus bearing the book in her left, but the 
Indian Museum image (Fig. 142) with two lotuses on either side, each 
bearing a manuscript, may definitely be identified with this variety of 
Prajnaparamita. 

7. VAJRACARCIKA 

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka Arms Six 

Colour Red Distinctive feature Emaciated body 

Vahana Corpse Appearance Terrible 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of 
Vajracarcika and the Dhyana contained therein runs as follows : 

"Vajracarcikam trinetrarh ekamukhim ardhaparyahkatandavam 
mrtakasanastharh, krsangim damstrotkatabhairavarh narasiroma- 
lavibhusitakanthadesam asthyabharanavibhusitam pancamudradharimm 
Aksobhyamukutinirh vyaghracarmanivasanam muktakesim sadbhujam 
daksine vajrakhadgacakradharinlm vame kapalamanikamaladharam 
raktavarham karmanurupatah sukladivarnayuktanca dhyatva" 

Sadhaiiamala, p. 395. 

4 The worshipper should conceive himself as Vajracarcika, who is 
three^eyed and one^faced, dances in the Ardhaparyahka attitude on a 
corpse, is emaciated in appearance and looks terrible with bare fangs. 
Her neck is embellished by a garland of human heads, and she is 
decked in ornaments of bones, is endowed with the five auspicious 
symbols, bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown, is clad in 
garments of tiger<skin and has dishevelled hair. She is six-armed and 
carries in her three right hands the Vajra, the sword, and the Cakra 
and in her three left the Kapala, the jewel and the lotus. She is red in 
colour but changes to white and other colours in accordance with 
the different purposes for which she is invoked. Thus meditating..." 

r Sadhana No, 154, Sadhaaamala, pp. 313-314 



200 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

The accompanying sketch, (Fig. 143) gives a vivid idea of her terrible 

form, with the skeleton of her fleshless body showing through the 
skin in all its nakedness, and her vulture-like claws enhancing the 
fierceness of her appearance. 

A statuette of this goddess is found in China } . 

8. M AHAM ANTRANUSARINL 

Colour Blue Arms Four 

Mudra Varada 

The remarks made in the case of Mahasltavati, an emanation of 
Amitabha and one of the Pancaraksa goddesses, apply to the case of 
Mahamantranusarim also. This goddess is another of the Pancaraksa 
goddesses, and as her colour is blue, she affiliates herself to the 
family of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya Only one short Sadhana des- 
cribes her form, and theDhyana contained therein is as follows : 

"Mahamantranusarim caturbhujaikamukhi krsna daksinabhujadvaye 
vajravaradavati vamabhujadvaye parasupasavau Humkarabija Aksobhya- 
kintim suryyasanaprabha ceti" 

Sadhanamala, p. 401. 

1 'Mahamantranusarim is four-armed and one- faced, is blue in 
complexion, shows in her two right hands, the Vajra and the Varada 
mudra and in her two left the Parasu and the noose. She originates 
from the syllable "Hurh'\ bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown, 
sits on and glows like the sun." 

Images of this deity are known in Tibet * J and China *'. 

9. MAHAPRATYANGIRA 
Colour Blue Arms Six 

One short Sadhana only is assigned in the Sadhanamala to Maha- 
pratyafigira. The Dhyana describing her form is as follows : 

*'Mahapratyahgira krsna sadbhujaikamukha khadgankusavarada- 
daksinahasta raktapadmatrisula-hrdayasthasapasatarjamyuktavamahasta 
Humblja Aksobhyamukuta sarvalahkaravati rupayauvanasampanna". 

SSdhanamala, p. 402. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 269. 

2. Gordon : ITl, p. 76 

3. As Mantramidharanl she occurs in Clark : TLP, II, pp. 205*275. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 201 

"Mahapratyahgira is blue in colour, six-armed, and one-faced. She 
shows in her three right hands the sword, the goad, and the Varada 
mudra, and in her three left hands she holds the Tarjam with the noose 
against the chest, the red lotus and the trident ; she originates from 
the syllable "Hum", bears the image of Aksobhya on her crown, is 
decked in all sorts of ornaments, and is young and beautiful. 

Figs. 144 and 145 illustrate two Nepalese drawings of the goddess 
Mahapratyangira. They conform to the description given in the 
Sadhana. The ivory image from Nepal (Fig 146) with innumerable heads 
is also worshipped as Mahapratyangira. This goddess is found also in 
China ! . 

10. DHVAJAGRAKEYURA 

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe two widely different 
forms of Dhvajagrakeyura. In one the effigy of Aksobhya on the crown 
is expressly mentioned, but in the other, the Dhyani Buddha is absent. 
The weapons are also different, and in one case she is three-faced and 
in the other four-faced. In all other respects, however, the forms are 
identical. 

Images of Dhvajagrakeyura are found in China -. 

(i) Three-Faced. 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Four Appearance Terrible 

Asana Pratyalidha 

The Dhyana describing Dhvajagrakeyura, with three faces and four 
arms and with the effigy of Aksobhya, runs as follows : 

"Dhvajagrakeyura krsna trimukhl caturbhuja raktasyamadaksina^ 
vamamukhi khadgapasadharidaksinakaradva^ a vajrankitakhatvahgaca* 
kravamahastadvaya urdhvapifigalakesi suskapancamundalahkrtasiraska 
vyaghrajinavasana damstrakaralamukhl pralambodari pratyalidhapada 
suryasanaprabha pltavastrakancukim Humbija Aksobhyamukuta." 

Sadhanamala, p. 403 

"Dhvajagrakeyura is blue in colour, three-faced, and four-armed, 
with the right and left faces of red and green colour (respec- 
tively). She carries the sword and the noose in the two right hands, 
and the Khatvahga stamped with a Vajra and the Cakra in the two left, 

l7 Clark : TLP II, pp. 200, 289. 
2. Clark : TLP II, pp. 200, 289. 

26 



202 , , . BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

has brown hair rising upwards on her head which is embellished by a 
row of five shrivelled heads. She wears garments of tiger-skin, and has 
faces distorted with bare fangs. She has a protruding belly, stands in 
the Pratyalidha attitude, has her seat on and glows like the sun, wears 
yellow garments and jacket, originates from the syllable 'HunY and 
bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown". 

(ii) Four Faced 

Faces Four Arms Four 

Colour Yellow 

As already pointed out, Dhvajagrakeyura has another form, with 
four faces and four arms carrying the sword and the Cakra in the two 
right hands, and the Tarjanipasa and the Musala, marked with a Vajra, 
in the two left. A Trisula hangs from her left shoulder. Her first face 
is yellow, left red, right white, and the face above is distorted and is 
of the colour of smoke. In all other respects her form is identical with 
the one described above. 

Fig. 147 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the goddess. 

11. VASUDHARA 

Mudra Varada Symbol Ears of Corn 

Colour Yellow 

Vasudhara figures in the pantheon of the Mahayana Buddhists as 
the consort of Jambhala, the Buddhist god of wealth. Only three Sadha- 
nas are devoted to her worship and in one of these only is she said to 
bear the image of Aksobhya. The two others assign her to the Dhyani 
Buddha Ratnasambhava. It may be noticed, by the way, that Vasu- 
dhara is of a greater antiquity than the Dhyani Buddhas themselves. 
The Dhyana describing the goddess with the figure of Aksobhya on the 
crown runs as follows : 

"Vasudharam Bhagavatim dhyayat, kanakavarnam sakalalankarava* 
tim dvirastavarsakrtim daksinakarena varadam, vamakarena dhanyama- 
njaridharam Aksobhyadharinim. Purato Bhagavatim Srivasundharam 
daksinato Vasusriyam pascimatah Srivasumukhim, vamato Vasumati- 
sriyam ; etascadyaksarabijah svanayikasamanarupascintaniyah.'' 

Sadhanamala, p. 421 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as the goddess Vasudhara 
of golden complexion and decked in all sorts of ornaments. She ap- 
pears a young girl of twice eight years, exhibits the Varada mudra in 

1. Sadhana No. 210 in the Sadhanamala, pp. 415, 416. 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 203 

the right hand, carries the ears of corn in the left, and bears the_ imag< 
jof Aks^tmjon the crown) ." In front ofThe goH3ess should be con 
ceived SrlvasunBhara, in the right Vasusri, in the west Srivasumukhi, anc 
in the left Vasumatisn. These four goddesses originate from the firs 
syllables of their names, and are identical in form with the principa 
goddess' '. 

Images of Vasudhara are found in the Buddhist countries of th< 
North including Tibet l . 

12. NAIRATMA. 
Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka 
Colour Blue Appearance Terrible 

Vahana Corpse lying on its back. Symbols Kartri and Kapala. 

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe her form, which is in 
many respects, similar to the form of Vajravarahl with the Kartri and 
the Kapala, the principal point of difference being the position of the 
corpse which forms their Vahana, When it lies on its chest it is Vajra- 
varahl, but if it lies on its back the goddess is Nairatma. There are 
other distinguishing features also For instance, Vajravarahl being an 
emanation of Vairocana, should bear the image of Vairocana on the 
crown ; while Nairatma, being an emanation of Aksobhya, should bear 
the image ot Aksobhya instead. Moreover, the excrescence near the 
the right eai of Vajravarahl must be absent in the case of Nairatma. 
In all other respects there is a remarkable resemblance between the two. 
The Dhyana in one of the two Sadhanas describe the form of Nairatma 
in the following terms : p 

"Savahrccandrasthardhaparyahkanatyasthitam Nairatmam krsnam 
ekamukham urdhvapiiigalakesam Aksobhyamukutmim damstrakaralay 
lalajjihvam, daksinena kartridharimm, vame kapalakhatvahgadharimm, 
raktavartulatrinetram pancamudravibhusanarii (dhyayat)."' 

Sadhanamala, p. 451 

4 The worshipper should conceive himself as Nairatma who stands 
in the Ardhaparyahka in a dancing attitude on the moon over the chest 
of a corpse. She is blue in colour, has brown hair rising upwards, and 
bears the image of Aksobhya on her crown. Her face looks terrible 
with bare fangs and protruding tongue, and she carries the Kartri in the 
right hand and bears the Kapala and the Khatvahga in the left. Her 
tbi&e eyes are red and round, and she is endowed with the five auspi* 
cious symbols." 

1. Gordon : ITt, p. 72 ; Getty : GNB, p. 174. 



204 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

The word 'Nairatma' means 'no-soul* and is another name for Sunya, 
in which the Bodhisattva merges on the attainment of Nirvana. Gra- 
dually, the conception of Sunya took the form of a goddess in whose 
embrace the Bodhisattva is said to remain in eternal bliss and happi- 
ness, Nairatma gets the blue colour, because the colour of Sunya 
according to the Buddhist tradition, is like the colour of the sky, which 
is blue. 

The Indian Museum image No. 3941 (Fig. 148) is the only image of 
this goddess which conforms to the description given in the Sadhana 
just quoted. Here the goddess, in accordance with the Dhyana, has 
a terrible appearance with canine teeth, garland of heads and three eyes 
rolling in anger. She stands on the corpse lying on its back, and 
dances in the Ardhaparyahka attitude* Burning flames radiate from 
her person, and her hair rise upwards in the shape of a flame. She is 
decked in the five auspicious symbols, the Kanthika (torque), Rucaka 
(bracelets), Ratna (jewels), Mekhala (girdle), and Bhasma (ashes) or the 
Sutra (sacred thread) in the form of a garland of heads. She bears the 
image of her sire Aksobhya on her crown and carries the menacing 
Kartri in the right hand. The left hand holding the Kapala is broken. 
The Khatvafiga, as usual, hangs from her left shoulder. 

The Vangiya Sahitya Parishat bronze (Fig. 149) shows the above 
characteristics, but the Khatvafiga is lost. It is lost in the same way as 
small weapons in Nepalese and Tibetan bronzes are often found 
missing. Nairatma is popular in China 1 . 

13. JNANADAKINL 
Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six Kulesa Aksobhya 

Jnanadakini is the principal deity of the Jnanadakim Mandala of the 
Nispannayogavali. She is described thus : 

"Jnanadakim nilasya...savyam suklarh...vamam raktasrhgaraih... 
daksinabhujatraye urdhvikrtakhatvangam parasurh vajranca vamatraye 
ghantaraktapurnakapalakhadgah." NSP, p. 12 

"Jnanadakini has a blue face.. .the right is white... the left is red and 
amorous... In the three right hands she carries the raised Khatvanga, 
the axe and the Vajra. In the three left there are the bell, the cup full of 
blood and the sword/' 

Jnanadakini is represented in the Chinese collection 2 , 

1. Clark: TLP f II. pp. 61, 238 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 237 



EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 205 

14. VAJRAVIDARANi 

VajravidaranI is described in the Dharmakosasangraha of Amiv 
tananda as follows : 

"Vajravidarani pancamukhi dasabhuja ; dakse ankusa-khadga-sara- 
vajra-varada ; vame pasa-carma-dhanU'dhvaja'abhaya pratyalidhasana". 

Dharmakosasahgraha Fol. 44A. 

"Vajravidarani is five^faced, ten-armed, carries in the right hands 
the goad, the sword, the arrow, the Vajra, and the Varada mudra, and 
in the left the noose, the shield, the bow, the flag and the Abhaya pose. 
She stands in the Pratyalldha attitude". 

Fig. 150 illustrates a miniature painting of the goddess in the collec- 
tion of Dr. Evans-Wentz. 



CHAPTER VIII 

EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 

According to the Sadhanamala all the deities that emanate from the 
the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana have generally the white colour or the 
colour assigned to Vairocana. Several goddesses have the images *of 
Vairocana on their crowns, thus showing that they are all emanations 
of this particular Dhyani Buddha. Some of the deities are expressly 
stated in the Sadhanas to be "Vairocanakulodbhava" or "born of the 
family of Vairocana" The deities emanating from this Dhyani Buddha 
are said to reside in the interior of the Caitya, since Vairocana, it may 
be remembered, is the lord of the sanctum of the temple or the Stupa. 
Among the deities emanating fiom Vairocana Marici seems to the first 
in importance and popularity. She is even regarded as the consort 
of Vairocana. Vairocana is distinguished from the other Dhyani 
Buddhas by his white complexion and the Dharmacakra mudra he dis 
plays in his two hands. 

1. NAMASANGITI 
Colour White Face One 

Arms Twelve Asana Vajraparyanka 

Pandit Amrtananda's Dharmakosasahgraha gives the description of 
a most interesting god, named as Namasahgiti. This description 
enables the students of iconography to identify a large number of his 
images that he scattered throughout the Nepal valley and other Buddhist 
countries. This deity should be distinguished from the Namasangiti 
Manjusri who has already been described as one of the varieties of the 
Bodhisattva Manjusri. Like the goddess Prajnaparamita who is the 
embodiment of the Prajnaparamita literature, Namasangiti also seems 
to be the deification of the Namasangiti literature of the Buddhists. 
Pandit Amrtananda characterises Namasangiti as a Buddha but from 
the description and the illustration it would appear that he is a 
Bodhisattva, The elaborate ornaments, the fierce symbol of Khatvanga 
as also other Bodhisattva symbols do not befit a Buddha. Although 
the parental Dhyani Buddha of Namasangiti is not expressly mentioned 
in the description of Amrtananda, he is brought here under Vairocana 
because of his white colour* 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 207 

Images of Namasahglti are to be found in large numbers in Nepal 
either in stone or in bronze and he is popular also in Tibet and China. 
Getty 1 erroneously labels this deity as a "Dogmatic Form of Avaloki* 
tesvara" and the names given to the various mudras exhibited by 
the deity are also inaccurate. The Dhyana as given in the Dharma* 
kosasangraha is quoted as follows : 

"Namasangmnama (Bodhisattvah). 

Ekavaktrah svetavarnah dhyananayanah smerananah Jatamukutadha- 
rah nanalahkaralankrtah sanmudralahkrtah dvadasabhujah prathama- 
bhyam savyadaksabhyarh hrdayapradese abhayamudradvayam, 
dvayabhyam mukutopari krtanjalimudram, daksatmyena visvavajropari 
khadgam savyavamacaturthabhyam tarpanamudradvayam, savyavam- 
apancamabhyam patrasthamrtaksepanamudrarh sasthasavyavamabhyam 
sapatradhyanamudrarh vamatrtiyena savajrakhatvangam dadhanah, 
kamalopari vajrasanah." 

Dharmakosasahgraha (A. S, B. MS.) FoL 91 
u The (Bodhisattva) Namsangiti. 

"He is one-faced, white in colour, has eyes (half-closed) in meditation, 
a smiling countenance, the Jatamukuta and various ornaments, 
is decked in the six auspicious ornaments, and twelve^armed. He 
exhibits in the first pair of right and left hands the two Abhaya 
mudras against the chest ; and in the second pair the Arijali (clasped 
hand) mudra over the crown. The third right hand carries the sword 
on the double Vajra. The fourth pair exhibits the Tarpana mudras, 
the fifth pair shows the mudra of sprinkling nectar from the vessel 
(Ksepana), and the sixth pair exhibits the SamaJhi mudra on which 
is the vessel (of nectar); the third left hand carries the Khatvahga with 
the Vajra ; and he sits in the meditative pose on the lotus". 

The image reproduced by Getty has lost the sword on the double 
Vajra and the Khatvahga with the Vajra carried in the third pair of 
hands by the deity. 

Fig. 151 illustrates a Nepalese statuette of the deity. 

2. MARICf 

MaricI is invoked by the Lamas of Tibet about the time of sun-rise, 
which shows her connection with the sun. She too, like the Hindu 
Sun^god, has a chariot. Her chariot is drawn by seven pigs, while 
that of the sun is drawn by seven horses. Again, the charioteer of 
the sun is Aruna, who has no legs, but that of MaricI is either a 
goddess with no legs, or Rahu only the head without a body. 

1; Getty : GNB, pp. 66, 67. 



208 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



There is a theory that Marici and Vajravarahi are the same, but it 
cannot be supported ; for, whereas Vajravarahi is actively associated in 
yab-yum with her consort Heruka, or Samvara an emanation of Akso- 
bhya, Marici invariably appears singly, and her consort is Vairocana 
himself, and not any"emanation of a Dhyani Buddha. Again, Heruka 
rides a corpse lying on its chest, and accordingly, such a Vahana has 
been given to Vajravarahi, but Marici is never known to tread upon a 
corpse, or even the prostrate body of a man. The images of Vajra- 
varahi always represent her as one-faced with an excrescence near the 
right ear, but Marici, even when represented as one* faced is not known 
to have any excrescence on her face. Vajravarahi according to 
the Dhyana, may have four arms, but Marici must have either 
two, eight, ten or twelve arms according to the Sadhana. Marici 
is always said to reside in the womb of a Caitya, whereas Vajravarahi, 
being an abbess, may reside anywhere. The mantra for Vajravarahi is 
"Om Sarva-Buddhadakimye Vajravarnanlye hum hum phat phat svaha" 
or "Om Vajravetall hum phat". Santideva gives the Dharani for 
Marici but the Dharani never refers to her as Vajravarahi. The con- 
ception of Marici has a greater antiquity than the conception of either 
Vajravarahi or Heruka. The union of Heruka and Vajravarahi is the 
subject-matter of the Vajravarahi Tantra, but no Tantra is assigned to 
Marici. Vajravarahi stands in the Ardhaparyahka in a dancing attitude 
on a corpse, but Marici stands almost always in the Alldha attitude 
and moves in a chariot, but she is never in the dancing attitude. Last 
but not the least, Vajravarahi has been called a Dakini, that is, an abbess 
who had attained perfection, ( siddhi ) and had become a deified 
woman, but Marici is a goddess, first and last. 

In view of these wide differences in form, character and accoutre- 
ments, the identity of the two goddesses Marici and Vajravarahi, can 
not be established. The only points of agreement between them are 
that both of them are emanations of Vairocana, and both sometimes 
have two arms and two legs. 

Sixteen Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe six distinct forms of 
Marici. She may have one, three, five or six faces and two, eight, ten 
or twelve arms. She is generally accompanied by her four attendants, 
Varttall, Vadall, Varall and Varahamukhl. She is recognized generally 
by the sow face and the seven pigs that run her chariot. The needle 
and the string are her characteristic symbols, to sew up the mouths and 
eyes of the wicked. Images of Marici are rather common in India. 
In her two-armed form of Asokakanta she accompanies Khadiravani 
Tara; amongst other varieties of Marici, the form with three faces and 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 209 

eight arms, is extensively met with in sculptures J . Images of Marici 
are found in Tibet L> and China *. 

Goddess Marici is the principal deity in the Marici Mandala of the 
Nispannayogavali. The form described here is three-faced and six- 
armed. Sasvata or Vairocana is said to be the spiritual sire of 
Marici 4 . 

(I) ASOKAKANTA 

Vahana Pig Colour Yellow 

Asana Standing Mudra Varada 

Distinctive feature Left hand touching the Asoka bough 

Ordinarily, Marici has two arms and one face. She is called A&oka* 
kanta when she holds the bough of an Asoka tree in the left hand and 
exhibits the Varada mudra in the right hand ; but she is called 
Arya-Marlci if she carries the needle and the string in her two hands. 
The Dhyana describing the form of Asokakanta is stated below : 

"Hemabhasukaraiudham taptakancanabhasvaram I 
Lilayordhvasthitarh candrabimbambhoruhasamsthitam II 
Asokavrksasakhagravilagnam vamapanina I 
Bibhratim varadakaradaksinakarapallavam II 
Diptaratnopasobhena maulina Buddhasekharaih I 
Svetavastram namasyami Maricim abhayapradam" II 

Sadhanamala, p. 306 

"I bow to Marici who rides the sow of golden colour, whose com* 
plexion is like the colour of molten gold. She stands in a sportive 
attitude on the mocn over the lotus, and holds with her left hand the 
bough of an Asoka tree, and displays the Varada pose in the right. 
She bears the image of the Dhyani Buddha (Vairocana) on the crown, 
is decorated with bright jewels, wears white garments and grants assu- 
rance of safety (to the world)". 

An image of Asokakanta is referred to by Alice Getty 5 . 



1. Bhattasali : IBBS. p. 43f and PI. XIII-XIV 

Z. Getty : GNB, p. 133 

3. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 207, 286, 189, 20 1 

4 NSP:pp. 40, 41 

5. Getty : GNB, p. 133. 

27 



210^ BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(II) ARYA*MARlCf. 
Symbols Needle and String. 

Arya-Markl is identical with Asokakanta except for the symbols she 
bears in her hands. As already stated, Asokakanta has the Asoka 
bough and the Varada pose, but Arya-MaricI carries the needle and 
the string l . 

(III) MARlcfPICUVA. 
Faces Three Arms Eight 

Marlcipicuva is also called AstabhujapIta^Marici or Samksipta-MaricI. 
These two names denote two distinct varieties of Marici, although both 
are endowed with three faces and eight arms and carry similar weapons 
in their hands. One Sadhana only is devoted to Marlcipicuva, and it 
does not mention whether she should be accompanied by the four 
goddesses as usual. She holds the needle and the string in the first pair' 
of hands, the Ahkusa and the noose in another pair, the bow and the 
arrow in the third pair, and the Vajra and the Asoka flower in the 
fourth pair. She has three faces, each displaying a mixture of three 
different sentiments (Rasa), The Dhyana in verse runs as follows : 

u Srhgaravirasaddharsair-jambunadasamaprabham I 
Madhyendranllavarnasyam bhayablbhatsaraudrakaih II 
Karunadbhutasantaisca sphatikendvitarananarh I 
Trivimoksamukhaistryaksam dharmasambhoganirmitam II 
Pltabharanasadvastram mayukhasukhavasinim I 
Sucyaksasyani sivantlm badhnantim mukhacaksusi II 
Hrdgalenkusapasabhyam bindhantim banakarmukaih I 
Vajrena dusthrdbhitvasokenasecanapararh II ... 
Prajnopayapadakrantam Mandril bhavayedvratl II 

Maricipicuva'Sadhanarh". Sadhanamala pp. 297-298. 

*'The worshipper should conceive himself as Marlcipicuva who dis- 
plays the sentiments of Srngara, Vira, and Harsa in one of her faces, 
which is of the colour of Jambunada (gold). In the middle face which 
is of the colour of the Indranlla gem, the sentiments of Bhaya, Bibhatsa, 
and Raudra are displayed ; and in the third face of crystal colour, the 
sentiments of Karuna, Adbhuta and oanta appear. She has three eyes 
in each one of her three faces, which give freedom from the three great 
evils. Her essence is made of Dharmakaya and Sambhogakaya. She 

1. Sadhana No. 147 in the Sadhanamala, p. 305. 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA III 

is clad in garments of yellow colour and resides happily in the mass of 
rays. She sews up the eyes and the irouths of the wicked with the 
needle and secures them with the string. She strikes their hearts with 
the Ankusa, draws them by the neck with the noose, pierces them with 
the bow and the arrow, and shatters their hearts to pieces with the 
Vajra, and then sprinkles water with the leaves of Asoka... She tramples 
under her feet Prajna and Upaya." 

Astabhuja-Marici or Sarhksipta-Marici is yellow in colour, wears 
red garments, is decked in various ornaments, bears the image of 
Vairocana on the crown and resides within the cavity of a Caitya. Her 
three faces display three different sentiments. The first, or the principal 
face displays passionate love, and is of the colour of gold. The 
second, or the left face is distorted, sow-like, has the colour of the Indra- 
nlla gem, displays wrath and looks terrible with bare fangs and protru- 
ding lips. The third or the right face is of deep red colour, glows 
in heavenly splendour and displays the sentiment cf Santa. She rides 
a chariot drawn by seven pigs, stands in the Alidha attitude, and 
appears a virgin in the fulness of youth. Below the seven sows 
is the fierce Rahu, who devours the sun and the moon. She is sur- 
rounded by the four attendant goddesses, Varttali, Vadali, Varali and 
Varahamukhi. 

(i) Varttali has red complexion, the sow-face and four arms. 
She wears red garments, is decked in all sorts of ornaments, 
and carries the noose and the Asoka in the two left hands and 
the Vajrahkusa and the needle in the right. 

(ii) Vadali has many features in common with Varttali, but her 
colour is yellow and she carries the noose and the Vajra in 
the two left hands and Asoka and the needle in the right, 

(iii) Varali is identical with Vadali, except that she holds the 
Vajra and the needle in the two right hands and the noose 
and the Asoka in the left. 

(iv) Varahamukhi wears the same garments and the same orna- 
ments as Vadali and Varali, but her complexion is ruddy, and 
- she carries the Vajra and the arrow in the two right hands and 
the Asoka and the bow in the left, - 

It is very curious that almost all the images of Marlcl known so .far, 
belong "to this Variety. Iti actual images, a legless lady charioteer 
may sometimes :> be fnet with instead of Rahu, while spine * images 
retain the charioted * as' well ' as Rahu. Two images of the 
eight-armed variety of Ttffcndu are in the Dacca Museum,- two 



212 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

are in the Indian Museum ( Figs. 152, 153 ) Calcutta, and the one 
(Fig. 154) which is reproduced in many works of art, was discovered at 
Sarnath and is now deposited in the Lucknow Museum, while a sixth 
has been discovered in Orissa. Besides these, several other images of 
MaricI are available in the museums at Rajshahi and Sarnath. All 
these images are three- faced and eight-armed, and some of them are 
very fine specimens of art. In the more artistic and accurate images the 
three sentiments have actually been depicted by the sculptors. A study 
of these images will show that though the sculptors generally follow 
the Sadhana in all details, yet they are not always so scrupulous in 
the case of the four attendant goddesses who are sometimes two- 
armed, and sometimes, though four-armed, do not carry the symbols 
prescribed by the Sadhanamala. 

(IV) UBHAYAVARAHANANA 

Faces Three Arms Twelve 

Asana Alidha Distinctive mark Two Sow*faces 

She has been given this name because, unlike all other three-faced 
forms of MaricI, both her right and left faces are like that of a 
sow. She is clad in tiger-skin, has red complexion, a jewelled 
headdress, a red scarf and is decked in all sorts of ornaments. She 
resides within the womb of a Caitya, stands in the Alidha attitude, and 
is endowed with three faces, each with three eyes, and twelve arms. 
The principal face smiles with delight, is peaceful in expression and 
display the emotion ot love, while the two side ones are distorted sow- 
like. The face to the left is red, and is paid homage to by a deity carry- 
ing the Vajra and the Mudgara ; the face to the right has a reddish efful- 
gence like that of Saindhava salt, and is paid homage to by Purandara 
(Indra) who carries the Vajra and the noose. In her six left hands she 
shows the Tarjam against the chest, the Asoka bough, the Vajrah- 
kusa, the Kapala, the head of Brahma and the vessel, and in the six 
right hands the needle, the Afikusa, the Bhindipala ( spear ), the sword, 
the Kartri and the Staff stamped with a Vajra. She bears the 
image of Vairocana on her crown, and tramples under her feet the 
Hindu gods, such as Hari (Visnu), Hara (Siva), Hiranyagarbha (Brahma) 
and others* The guardians of the quarters all pay homage to this 
goddess. 

It may be pointed out here that the Sadhana is reticent about the 
chariot, the seven sows that run it, and about the four attendant 
goddesses, Varttali, Vadali, Varali and Varahamukhl l . 

1. Sftdhana No. 145 in the Sadhanamala, pp. 299-30Z. 



EMANATIONS OF VAlROCANA 213 

(V) DASABHUJASITA-MARICf. 

Faces Five Colour White 

Arms Ten Legs - Four 

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe her form which is ten- 
armed, and white in colour. The most important feature of this variety 
is that she is endowed with four legs. She has five faces. The pnn* 
cipal face is white, the right is blue, the left is red and distorted 
sow-like, the face behind is green, and the face above is yellow 
and bears the Trisikha (three tufts of hair) and the Jatamukuta. The 
five right hands hold the sun, the blue Vajra, the arrow, the goad and 
the needle while the five left hands carry the moon, the bow, the Asoka 
bough, the noose with the Tarjam and the string. She rides a chariot 
drawn by seven pigs, and tramples under her feet the four Hindu gods 
Indra, Siva, Visnu and Brahma. She bears the effigy of Vairocana on 
her crown, 

The Sadhanas further add that she should be accompanied by three 
other goddesses of whom the first is blue in colour, and rides upon a 
Makara. Her face is mis-shapen like that of a sow, and she carries the 
Vajra in one hand and the Tarjam in the other. 

The second goddess appears to the right of Marici , wears celestial 
ornaments, is ruddy in colour with one face mis-shapen like that of 
a sow. 

The third goddess appears to the left of Marici. She is of red 
colour, with one face mis-shapen like that of a sow, and four arms. 
The two principal hands are engaged in drawing to the full the bow 
charged with an arrow, while the remaining two hold the Vajra in the 
right and the Asoka bough in the left. 

Below che seven pigs drawing the chariot are the Navagrahas or the 
Nine Planets, and various diseases and disasters in human shape lie flat 
on the ground l . 

The Sadhanas do not give the names of the attendant deities, which 
are only three in number. It is possible that these three are the mem- 
bers of the Varttali group. Fig. 155 illustrates aNepalese drawing of 
this variety of Marici. 

1. Sidhana No. 139 in the Sidhanamala, pp. 285-286. 



2 1 4 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(VI) VAJRADHATSTi^VARlMARICL 
Faces Six Asana Alldha 

Arms Twelve Appearance Terrible 

When six*faced and twelve-armed, MaricI is invoked in three 
different forms and under three different names:VajradhatvIsvari Marici. 
Uddiyana MaricI, and Vajravetali. These three forms are classed to^ 
gether here because of their marked resefnblance. They differ however 
in minor details and in respect of the weapons they carry in their 
hands. 

The features that are common to all the three may be summarised 
from the Sadhanas as follows. They are all endowed with six faces and 
twelve arms. The first five faces are respectively of red, blue, green, 
yellow and white colour. The face on the top is mis-shapen like that 
of a sow, and is blue in colour. All the three are said to reside in the 
womb of a Caitya; they stand in the Alidha attitude and bear the image 
of Vairocana on the crown. They present a terrifying spectacle with 
three eyes, protruding tongue, bare fangs, serpents for ornaments and 
garments of tiger-skin. 

Vajradhatvlsvarl carries in her six right hands, 1. the sword, . 2. the 
Musala, 3. the arrow, 4. the goad, 5. the Vajra and 6. the Parasu, 
and in the six left 1. the noose, 2. the Kapala, 3. the Asoka bough, 
4. the severed head of Brahma, 5. the bow and 6. the Trisula, 

Uddiyana MaricI holds the Cakra in one of her right hands, instead 
of the goad, and the Khatvanga-Kapala in one of the left hands instead 
of only the Kapala. Vajravetali in one of her right hands holds the 
crossed double thunderbolt instead of the goad or the Cakra, and in 
one of the left the noose instead of the Kapala or the Khatvafiga- 
Kapala. All the other hands carry the same weapons in all the three 
cases \ 

3. USNfsAVIJAYA 

Colour White Faces Three Arms Eight 

Identification mark Buddha on lotus 

Like Marici, Usmsavljaya is also said to bear the image of Vairo- 
cana <^ feet crown and to reside within the womb of a Caitya. She is 
one of the most-pqpular deities of the pantheon, and almost every 
temple in Nepal contains her image. The most artistic specimen, 
however, belongs to the Indian Museum, Calcutta. A miniature Caitya' 
1. Sadhana No- 136 in the Sldianamate, p. 280 * ^ - ' - -I 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 215 

on the top of the image of Usmsavijaya signifies that she is an offspring 
of Vairocana who resides in the centre of the Caitya. It is not impro- 
bable that Usnlsavijaya is the deified form of the Dharim of the same 
name included in the group of twelve Dharim goddesses. She may 
thus represent the deified form of the Usmsavijaya Dharim. Several 
Sadhanas describe her form and the Dhyana contained in one of 
these is given below : 

"suklam trimukham trinetrarh navayauvanam nanalankaradharam 
astabhujam Bhagavatlm cintayet ; pitakrsnadaksinetaravadanam ; daksi- 
nacaturbhujaih visvavajra-*padmastha-'Buddha'bana'*varadamudradharam, 
vamacaturbhujaih capa-tarjanlpasa-abhayahasta'purnakumbhah ; cait- 
yaguhagarbhasthitam, Vairocanamukutinirh nispadya..." 

Usmsavijaya'Sadhanam." Sadhanamala, p. 394 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as (Usmsavijaya} who is 
white in complexion, three^faced, three-eyed, youthful and is decked 
in many ornaments. Her right and left faces are respectively of yellow 
and blue colour. Her four right hands display the Visvavajra. Buddha 
on lotus, the arrow and the Varada pose, and her four left hands show 
the bow, the noose with the Tarjani, the Abhaya pose and the well- 
filled water* vessel. She resides in the womb of the Caitya, and bears 
the image of Vairocana on the crown. Thus meditating..." 

The statuette (Fig. 156) of Usmsavijaya in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, agrees almost in all details with the description given in the 
Sadhana. The attitude in which she sits here is the Vajraparyafika 
attitude. 

The other illustration (Fig. 157) is the reproduction of a painting 
contained in an illuminated manuscript of Pancaraksa in the possession 
of Dr. W. Y. Evans- Wentz. In it, the right hand which ought to have 
carried the Visvavajra or the crossed thunderbolt, carries the jewel 
instead. In all other respects the painting follows the description of 
the Sadhana most accurately. 

Images of this deity are also found in Tibet l and China 2 . 

4. SITATAPATRA APARAjITA 
Faces Three Arms Six 

Colour White 

One Sadhana only is devoted to the worship of this deity. The 

word "Vairocananayakam" In the Sadhiaiia shows that she also belongs 

i .._..-. . ^*** 

1. Getty: GNB, p. 135, 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 286 



216 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

to the 'family of the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana. She is mild in nature 
except for the eyes, which display anger* The Dhyana describes her 
form in the following manner : 

"Sitatapatraparajitam Bhagavatim trimukham sadbhujarh, prati- 
mukhtm trinayanam, suklam nllarunadaksinavamamukhim, cakran* 
kusadhanurdharadaksinakaram sitavajrasarapasatarjamdharavamakaram 
sakrodhadrstikam sarvagrahavidhvamsinim divyalankaravastravatim 
Vairocananayakam dhyatva..." Sadhanamala, p. 395 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as goddess Sitatapatra 
Aparajita, who is three*faced, six armed, and has three eyes in each of 
her faces. She is of white colour. Her faces to the right and left are 
respectively of blue and red colour. She carries in her three right 
hands the Cakra, the goad and the bow, and in the three left the white 
Vajra, the arrow and the noose with the Tarjam. She has angry looks, 
destroys all sorts of e\il spirits (Grahas lit. Planets), wears celestial 
ornaments and garments, and is led by Vairocana. Thus meditating... 

This goddess is called Sitatapatra Aparajita "The Invincible Goddess 
with the White Parasol" and should be distinguished from the other 
Aparajita who has an entirely different form and is yellow in colour. 
Fig. 158 illustrates a Nepalease drawing of the deity Sitatapatra 
Apatajita *, 

As Sitatapatra this deity is known in Tibet 2 and China 3 . 

5. MAHASAHASRAPRAMARDANI 
Colour White Arms Six 

Mahasahasrapramardam is another goddess of the Pancaraksa 
group, and is assigned to Vairocana exactly in the same way as Mahasi- 
tavati and Mahamantranusarim are affiliated respectively to Amitabha 
and Aksobhya. Her form is different from that in which she is 
worshipped in the Pancaraksa Mandala. Here the Dhyana describes 
her form in the following terms : 

**MahasahasrapramardanIm atmanam dhyayat ; suklam ekamukhim 
sadbhujam ; daksinatribhujesu khadgabanavaradamudrah vamatri* 
bhujesu dhanuhpasaparasavah ; vicitralahkaradharam rupayauvana* 
srfigaravatim Vairocanakirltayuktam padmacandrasanaprabham''. 

Sadhanamala, p. 400 

1. Bhattasali : 1BBS, p. 53, PI. XVIII. 

2. Gordon : 1TL, p. 27 ; For Sitatapatra Apatajita see Getty : GNB, p. 136. 
3* Clark : TIP, II, pp. 190, 202 under the title of SitatapatrS, 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 217 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as Mahasahasrapramar- 
dani who is of white complexion, one-faced and six-armed. She 
carries in her three right hands the sword, the arrow and the Varada 
pose, and in the three left the bow, the noose and the Parasu. She 
is decked in variegated ornaments, is young and beautiful, displays 
the sentiment of amour, bears the figure of Vairocana on her crown, 
sits on the moon over a lotus, and is radiant like the moon". 

Images of this deity are found in Tibet ] and China ". 

6. VAJRAVARAHI 
Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka 
Characteristic feature Excrescence near the right ear. 

The union of Vajravarahl with Heruka is the cult of the celebrated 
Cakrasamvara Tantra. One of the Sadhanas gives her the epithet of "Sri' 
Herukadevasyagramahisi" or <l the first queen of the god Sn-Heruka". 
She is also called a Dakini and in the Buddhist Tantra this signifies any 
Sakti with whom the Yuganaddha (yab->um) worship may be per- 
formed. It will not be out of place to mention here that Heruka is 
also associated with Vajrayogini and then union is the subject ot the 
great Heruka Tanti a, but Vajravarahl differs considerably from Vajra- 
yogini in form. If Vajravarahl is the first queen ot Heruka, there is no 
reason to suppose that Vajrayogini may not be anothei. In fact, it 
has already been shown that Heruka in yab-yum lotni used to be 
associated with other goddesses, such ys Nanatma and Vajiasrnkhala, 
as well. Vajravarahl is represented as nude and as displaying intense 
and passionate love. 

The name Vajravarahi or Adamantine sow' is given to her 
for the simple reason that she has an excrescence near her right 
ear which resembles the face of a sow. It is far more likely that 
Getty's story about Yun-gar's attack on the abbess and the monastery 
refers to Vajravarahl than to Marici; for while Mai ici has one face which 
may be distorted sow-like, Vajravarahl has a natural excrescence just 
near the right ear, which has gained for her the epithet 'Vajraghona' in 
the Sadhanas, Another argument in favour of this is that, while Vajra- 
varahl is called a Dakini, and is associated with four other Dakmls, she 
may quite easily be an abbess, and therefore, a Siddha woman deified, 
and not a goddess. But Marici is decidedly a goddess ; she is Vajra- 
dhatvlsvari and the consort of a Dhyani Buddha. 

1* Gordon : 1TL, p. 76 
2. Clark : TLP, II, p 275 
28 



218 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Several Sadhanas, both long and short, describe two distinct forms 
of Vajravarahl. who is also known as Buddhadakim and Vajravairo* 
cam. She is either two-armed or four-armed. Even when two-armed 
she may have several forms according to weapons she carries in her two 
hands. In one Sadhana only is she said to emanate from the family 
of Vairocana, and bear the double Vajra on her head, but the others 
are silent as to her sire. 

Images of this very popular goddess are found in Tibet 1 and 
China 2 . 

(I) VAJRAVARAHI 

Colour Red Appearance Nude 

Arms Two Asana Pratyalldha 

Symbols Vajra-Tarjam and Kapala. 

Several Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe two-armed forms of 
Vajravarahl. Below is quoted a Dhyana which gives a general idea of 
her form : 

Atmanam Bhagavatlm Vajravarahim dadimakusumaprakhyam dvi- 
bhujarii daksinakarena vajratarjanikakararh vamena karotakhatvanga- 
dharam ekananarh trinetrarh muktakesam sanmudramudritam digam- 
bararfa pancajnanatmikam sahajanandasvabhavam, pratyalldhapadakran- 
ta- Bhairava-Kalaratrikam sar dramundam alalahkrtagatr am sra vadrudhi- 
ram pibantim bhavayet. Sadhanamala, p. 425. 

"The worshipper should think himself as goddess Vajravarahl whose 
colour is red like the pomegranate flower and is two-armed. She 
exhibits in her right hand the Vajra along with the raised index finger, 
and shows in the left the Kapala and the Khatvahga. She is one- faced 
and three*eyed, has dishevelled hair, is marked with the six auspicious 
symbols and is nude. She is the essence of the five kinds of know- 
ledge, and is the embodiment of the Sahaja pleasure. She stands in 
the Pratyalidha attitude, tramples upon the gods Bhairava and Kalaratri, 
wears a garland of heads still wet with blood which she drinks/' 

The Sadhana further adds that the four petals of the lotus on which 
she stands are occupied by the four goddesses Dakini, Larna, Khanda- 
roha and Rupini in the four cardinal directions beginning from the 
right. The four companions are of blue, green, red and white colour 
respectively, and they are all one-faced and four-armed. They all 
carry the Khatvanga, the Kapala in the left hands and the Damaru and 
the Kartri in the two right hands. 



1. Gordon: ITL, p. 80; Getty: GNB, pp. 131, 132. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 238. 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 219 

(II) VASYA-VAJRAVARAHl 

Symbols Kami and Kapala Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka 

Vahana Corpse lying on back 

This form of Vajravarahl is invoked in those rituals which are per* 
formed with the specific purpose of bewitching men and women, and is 
very popular in Nepal and other Buddhist countries. This form is 
almost identical with the one described above with the difference 
that here the goddess wields the Kartri in the right hand instead of the 
Vajra, along with the raised index finger. The left has the Kapala like 
the previous one. The Khatvanga as usual hangs from her left shoul- 
der just as it is seen in the Heruka and Nairatma images. She stands 
in the attitude of dancing in Ardhaparyanka on a corpse instead of 
showing the Pratyalidha as in the previous case l . 

Fig. 159 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the goddess. A beautiful 
statutre of Vajravarahl is preseived in the Baroda Museum (Fig. 160). 

(III) ARYA-VAJRAVARAHI 
Appearance Terrible Asana Alidha 

Arms Four 

The four-armed form of Vajravarahl is also similar to the forms 
mentioned before, and is called Arya-vajravarahl. The difference lies 
only in the attitude, number of arms, and the symbols carried in her 
hands. She carries in the two right hands the Vajra and the goad, and 
in the two left the Kapala and the Tarjani with the noose. She is 
one-faced and three-eyed, and appears terrible with contortions of 
eye-brows, the adamantine excrescence, and the protruding tongue, 
teeth and belly. She stands in the Alldha attitude on the corpse, unlike 
the other forms of Vajravarahl. The Khatvahga hangs from her left 
shoulder as usual 2 . 

7. CUNDA 

Colour White Symbol Book on Lotus. 

Face One 
Arms Two, Four, Sixteen, Eighteen and Twenty'six. 

According to a definite statement s contained in the Nispannayop a- 
vail under the Manjuvajra Mandala, Cunda is affiliated to the Dhyani 

1. Sadhana No. 220 in the Sadhanamala p. 433. 

2. Sadhana No. 224 in the Sadhanamala, pp. 437, 438. 

3. Nispannayogavall, p. 52. Here Manjbvajia is the seme as Vairocara. 



220 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Buddha Vairocana, and thus Cunda is the spiritual daughter of Vairo- 
cana, and is required to be classed under the emanations of this very 
Dhyani Buddha. 

The name of the deity is spelt variously as Cunda, Cundra, Candra, 
Canda, and Cundra. She is also called Cundavajri. The spelling of 
Cunda as adopted by Foucher appears to be correct since her mantra 
as given in the Sadhanamala : "Om Gale Cule Cunde Svaha contains 
the word Cunda in the vocative as Cunde Under the circumstances 
the correct spelling and the name of the deity as Cunda may be taken 
as certain. 

From the Sadhana it is not possible to ascertain the character of the 
deity or her origin. But from a reference in the Nispannayogavali J 
it appears probable that the deity Cunda is the embodiment of the 
Buddhist Dharini work called the Cundadharinl to which a reference 
is made by Santideva. The Nispannayogavali acknowledges altogether 
twelve Dharini deities and gives their descriptions. These Dharims 
look ahke when represented and they are usually two-armed, holding 
the Visvavajra in the right hand and their special symbols in the left. 

The names of the twelve Dharims as given in the Nispannayogavali 
are these : 1. Sumati, 2. Ratnolka, 3. Usnisavijaya, 4- Marl 
5. Parnasabari, 6, Jahgull 7. Anantamukhi 8. Cunda 9. Pra- 
jnavardhanl 10. Sarvakarmavaranavisodhani 11. Aksayajfianakar- 
anda and 12. Sarvabuddhadharma-Kosavati. These Dharims are 
collectively assigned to the Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi, and are des- 
cribed later in this book. 

The Dharims are a peculiar kind of Buddhist literature which is 
supposed to generate great mystic power if repeated continually for a long 
time. They are short works mostly composed of meaningless sylla- 
bles, sometimes revealing traces of a language now defunct. The deifi- 
cation of books is not unknown in Buddhism. The best example of 
this is the deity Prajnaparamita, who is the embodiment of the great 
Mahayana scripture, the Prajnaparamita, which is believed to have been 
rescued from the nether regions by Nagarjuna the Pontiff. 

Amongst the Dharini deities Usnisavijaya, Janguli, Parnasaban 
and Cunda are popular, and there are Sadhanas and images of these 
deities in art. But they represent nothing more than the respective 
Vidyas or mantras of which they are the embodiments, 

1. See the list of Dharini deities in the Dharmadhatu-Vagisvara Mandate, NSP, 
p. 57. 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 221 

Cunda thus is the embodiment of the Cunda Dharim or the Cunda 
mantra. The Buddhists believe that when the Dharim is repeated in 
deep meditation for a long time with concentration and faith, the mantra 
vibrations grossen themselves in the concrete form of a deity which the 
worshipper visualizes, and thus obtains Siddhi or success. Once realized, 
the deity never leaves the worshipper and gives him everything that 
he desires. 

With regard to the antiquity of Cunda in the Buddhist pantheon, 
it may be said that the very first mention of her name Candra which is 
considered to be the same as Cunda, appears in the Manjusrimulakalpa, 
the composition of which is usually placed cir. 200 A. D. As Cunda- 
vajri, she finds mention in one of the earliest Tantric works, the Guhy- 
asamaja which was written most probably in the time of Asahga, cir. 
300 A. D, Cunda is also mentioned in the Siksasamuccaya of Santideva 
in the 7th century. Cunda images are found in illuminated Prajnapara- 
mita MSS of the llth century and several Sadhanas are dedicated to 
her in the Sadhanamala, the earliest MS of which bears a date which is 
equivalent to A. D. 1165. Earlier, she is mentioned in the Nispannayo- 
gavall of Abhayakara Gupta (C 1130. A. D.j. 

So far only three Sadhanas of Cunda are known, and they are all to 
be found in the printed edition of the Sadhanamala as Nos. 1 29, 
130, and 131. There is a further description of the goddess in 
the same book where Cunda is included as a minor deity 
in the Mandala of Astabhuja-Kurukulla. Three more descriptions 
are available in the NispannayogavalL 

The three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the principal 
deity Cunda in one form only. She is four-armed, one-faced and of 
white complexion. The Dhyana is given below : 

^Saraccandrabham caturbhujarh daksinena varadam, vame pustaka- 
nkitapadmadharam karadvaye patradharam sarvalankarabhusitam" 

Sadhanamala, p. 271, 

"She is of the colour of the autumn moon, and is four-armed. She 
shows the Varada mudra in the right hand and holds the book on a 
lotus in the left. The two other hands hold the bowl. She is decked 
in all ornaments." 

Only one image of Cunda (Fig. 161) of this description was in the 
collection of the late Mr. W. B. Whitney 1 of America. The illustra* 
tion is from a photograph kindly supplied by the owner. 

1. Also illustrated in Gordon : ITJL, p. 74. It is no* in the famous Freer Gallery 
of Art. 



222 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

The Sadhanamala also makes Cunda a c'ompanion deity of Astabhvr 
ja Kurukulla in Sadhana No. 174, p. 352. In the Isana corner of the 
Kurukulla Mandala on a lotus petal sits Cunda while the other petals 
are occupied by Prasannatara in the east, Nispannatara in the south, 
Jayatara in the west, Karnatara in the north, Aparajita in the Agni 
corner, Pradipatara in the Nairrta corner and Gauritara in the Vayu 
corner, All the deities including Cunda look alike and are described as 
follows : 

"Etasca sarva raktavarnah pancatathagatamukuta vajraparyankanisa- 
nna daksinabhujabhyam varadamudra-akarnapuritasaradhara vamabhu- 
jabhyam utpala-capadharah." Sadhanamala, p, 352. 

"All these deities are red in colour. They wear a crown with 
the figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas, and sit in the Vajraparyahka 
attitude, With the two right hands they show the Vaiada mudra and 
the arrow drawn to the ears. They carry in their two left hands the 
blue lotus and the bow." 

In the Nispannayogavali there are altogether three descriptions of 
Cunda. In the Kalacakra Mandala, Cunda is the consort of Takkiraja 
who is similar to Ratnasambhava in appearance The relevant passage 
is given below : 

* 'Cunda sukla savyabhyam mudgara-kuntau vamabhyarh padma^dan^ 
dau vibhrana". NSP, p. 89 

u Cunda is white in colour. In the two right hands she carries the 
Mudgara (club) and the Kunta (knife) and in the two left the Padma 
(lotus) and the Danda (staff) " 

Cunda is once again mentioned in the Dharamadhatuvaglsvara 
Mandala. In this Mandala her form is described in the following words : 

"Cunda sukla aksasutravalambita^kamandaludhara" 

NSP, p. 57 

"Cunda is white in colour. She carries in her two hands the rosary 
to which a Kamandalu is suspended. " 

A third form of Cunda is described in the Nispannayogavali in the 
Manjuvajra Mandala. It is an elaborate description of Cunda who 
is here endowed with as many as twenty-six arms. The relevant extract 
is quoted below : 

"Cunda candravarna sadvimsatibhuja pradhanabhyam hrdi mula- 
mudram daksinairabhayam khadgam ratnadama bljapuram sararh para- 
sum gadam mudgaram ahkusam vajram tripatakabhinayarh aksasutram 
ca ; vamaiscintSmanidhvajam padam kamandalum pasarh capam saktim 
cakram khadgam tarjanam ghantam bhindipalam prajnaparamitapusta* 
karh ca vibhrati. NSP, p 49 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 223 

"Cunda is moon*white in colour. She has twenty-six arms. With 
the two principal hands she exhibits the chief mudra l . In the remain- 
ing right hands she shows the 1. Abhaya mudra, 2. sword, 3. gar- 
land of jewels, 4. citron, 5. arrow, 6. axe, 7. club, 8. hammer, 9. goad, 
10. thunderbolt, 11. Tripataka and 12* rosary. In the remaining left 
hands she shows the 1. flag marked with Cintamani jewel, 2. lotus, 3. 
Kamandalu, 4. noose, 5. bow, 6. javelin, 7. discus, 8. sword, 9. Tarjam 
(raised index finger), 10. bowl, 11. Bhindipala and 12. the Prajna- 
paramita Scripture". 

Although images of Cunda with twenty^six arms are not available, 
there are several images of Cunda with sixteen arms. These can be 
identified with the help of a miniature painting of sixteen-armed Cunda 
(Fig. 162) available in the manuscript No. Add 1643 of PrajnSparamita 
in the Cambridge University Library. This miniature bears a label in 
old Newari characters which reads as : 

"Pattikere Cundavarabhavane Cunda" 

"Cunda in the excellent temple of Cunda at Pattikera/ 

This inscription leaves no room for doubting the identification of 
the sixteen-armed image as that of Cunda. In this figure also the 
principal pair of hands exhibits against the chest the mudra which is 
called in the Sadhanaas the Mula mudra which is akin if not equal to the 
Dharmacakra mudra. Foucher has given a description of the miniature 
of Cunda in his L'Iconographie Bouddhique, part I, p. 199. According 
to him the two principal hands exhibit the mudra of teaching. The 
remaining seven right hands show the 1. Varada mudra, 2. thunderbolt, 
3, discus, 4. club, 5. dagger, 6, (indistinct) and 1. rosary. In the seven 
left hands she carries the 1. vessel, 2. axe, 3. trident, 4. bow, 5. dagger, 
6. (indistinct) and 7. sceptre. Dr. N. K. Bhattasali 2 gives a slightly 
different description of the same miniature. 

Thus it is apparent that there was an image of Cunda in the Cunda 
temple at Pattikera which is identified by Dr. Bhattasali with the 
remains on the Lalmai hills in Tippera in East Bengal The miniature 
of the Prajnaparamita manuscript obviously depicts the sixteen-armed 
image of Cunda, and thus becomes instrumental in identifying several 
of her unidentified images. 

The Baroda Museum image (Fig. 163) is one such image and is a 
small and very artistic piece made of the usual octo-alloy of the Nepalese 
school. Thinly covered in the front part with a golden leaf or polish 

1. This mudra may be called the Cundamudra which is akin to the Dharmacakra 
mudra displayed by Vairocana. 

2. Bhattasali : 1BBS, p. 13. 



224 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

which has faded out at many places, on a pedestal there is the prostrate 
figure of a man lying on his back. In the Paryahka Asana the deity sits 
on the prostrate figure. She is richly dressed and is decked in orna- 
ments such as necklace, chain, tiara, ear-rings, bracelets, armlets, anklets 
and girdle. She is sixteen-armed. The two principal hands are arranged 
in the form of a mudra which is akin to Dharmacakra The remaining 
seven right hands show downwards from the top the L sword, 2. Damaru 
(kettle-drum), 3. knife, 4. (broken), 5. hammer, 6. garland of jewels, 
7. Abhaya mudra. The remaining seven left hands show likewise the 
1. discus, 2. bell, 3. noose, 4. dagger, 5. goad, 6. arrow ard 7, Vara- 
da mudra. The deity is one-faced. 

The Baroda Museum image has therefore to be identified with Cunda, 
although there is some minor variation. Similarly, the Bodh Gaya image 
found in the Hindu monastery (Fig. 164) has also to be identified with 
Cunda with sixteen arms. One more stone image of Cunda is illustrated 
in the History of Bengal, Vol. I, pi. xxvi, 64. Here Cunda has eighteen 
arms instead of sixteen as in the miniature. 

The special feature of the Baroda Museum image is its seat which 
is on the prostrate figure of a man. This kind of special seat is absent 
in all other images of Cunda so far discovered either in stone or in 
metal. But this seat appears to be a special feature of the Cunda 
images which it, not against the direction of the Sadhana. Cunda is said 
in the Sadhana to be seated on a Sattvaparyahka or a seat spread on a 
'Sattva' which usually means a man or an animaL This particular bronze 
gives the indication that Sattvaparyahka is a seat that is placed on a man 
lying on his back. 

Cunda is popular both in Tibet l and China -. 

8. GRAHAMATRKA 

Faces Three Arm s Six 

Mudra Dharmacakra Asana Vajraparyahka 

She has been described in the Dharmakosasangraha in the following 
words : 

"Grahamatrka trimukha svetapitarakta sadbhuja dakse dharmacakra- 
mudia-vajra*sara ; vame kamala'Capa ; sahasradalapadme vajrasana". 

Dharmakosasafigraha. fol, 44A. 



1. Gordon : ITL, p 74 ; Getty : GNB, pp. 129, 130. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 285, 222, 284. 



EMANATIONS OF VAIROCANA 225 

"Grahamatrka has three faces of white, yellow and red colour, and 
six-arms, displaying the Dharmacakra mudra (in the principal pair of 
hands) and carrying the Vajra and the arrow in the two right hands, 
and in the two left the lotus and the bow* She sits in the Vajrasona on 
a lotus of a thousand petals". 

Fig. 165 illustrates a miniature painting in the possession of Dr. 
EvanS'Wentz l . 



] . Getty : GNB, illustrates a similar miniature on plate LXI, p. 474. 

29 



CHAPTER IX 

EMANATIONS OF AMOGHASIDDHI 

There are several Buddhist deities emanating from the Dhyani 
Buddha Amoghasiddhi whose colour is green and whose distinctive 
signal is the Abhaya mudrau Out of the deities emanating from the 
Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi only one is a male, while all others 
belong to the female sex. The description of the only male deity, 
Vajramrta by name, comes from the Nispannayogavall of Abhaya* 
kara Gupta. The deities are described here one after another in the 
order of their importance, 

1. VAJRAMRTA 

Colour Green Faces Three 

Arms Six 

Vajramrta is the principal deity in the Vajramrta Mandala of the 
Nispannayogavall. He is described thus in the text : 

"SriAfajramrtah sattvaparyanki priyangusyamah sitaraktamulasavya- 
vamamukhatrayo. . . . sadbhujah savajraghantabhujayugmalingitasvabha' 
prajnah savyabhyam cakrasi vamabhyam pasankusau vibhranah." 

NSP, p. 18. 

" Vajramrta sits on a Sattvaparyanka and is green like the Priyangu 
flower. He is three- faced, the right and left faces show the white and 
red colour. He is six-armed. The two principal hands holding the 
Vajra, and the Ghanta, embrace the Prajna of his own creation. The 
two other right hands carry the discus and the sword, and the two left 
show the noose and the goad." 

Vajramrta is represented in China l . 

2. KHADIRAVAMTARA v/ 

Colour Green Mudra Varada 

Symbol Utpala * 
Companions Asokakanta and Ekajata. 

Tara is the common name applied to a large number of feminine 
deities in the Buddhist pantheon. In the Sadhanamala, Jahguli, Parna- 
saban. Mahaclnatara, Ekajata and many others are called Taras, 

1. Clark : TIP, II, p. 236, ~~ 



EMANATIONS OF AMOGHASIDDHI 227 

including Khadiravam, who is endowed with two hands, showing the 
Varada mudra in the right and the Utpala in the left. She can be 
recognized by the figures of the two attendant deities, Asokakanta 
Marlci and Ekajata. One Sadhana in the Sadhanamala contains a 
Dhyana which describes her form thus : 

"Haritam Amoghasiddhimakutim varadotpaladharidaksinavamaka- 
ram Asokakanta* Marlcy-Ekajatavyagradaksinavamadigbhagam divyaku* 
manm . . . dhy atva' * 

Khadiravam-Tara-Sadhanam" Sadhanamala, p. 176 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as KhadiravanT'Tara of 
green colour, who bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on her crown, 
and shows the Varada mudra and the Utpala in the right and left hands 
respectively. To the right and left of her appear Asokakanta Marlci 
and Ekajata, and she appears a celestial virgin... Thus meditating " 

She is commonly known as Syama-Tara ] because of her green 
colour, and as the Sadhana does not mention any particular A.sana she 
may be represented in any attitude, either sitting (Fig. 166) or standing 
(Fig. 167). A beautiful statuette in the Baroda Museum shows the 
goddess in the Lahta attitude (Fig. 168) 

Images of Khadiravam Tara are found in Tibet - and China i> 

3. MAHASRI TARA ^ 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Mudra Vyakhy ana Companion Four 

Another deity emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi 
of green colour is Mahasri Tara "Saviouress of Great Beauty". A single 
Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes her form along with her four 
companion deities, such as Ekajata, Asokakanta Marlci, Aryajangull 
and Mahamayurl. The Sadhana describes her form as follows : 

Mahasritaram candrasanastham syamavarnarh dvibhujam hastadva* 
yena vyakhyanamudradharam ekavaktram sarvalahkarabhusitam pars^ 
vadvayenotpalasobham suvarnasimhasanopari apasrayadisobham nana* 
puspSsokacampakanagesvaraparijatakadibhirajitarh-Amoghasiddhimuku* 
tinlm. * Sadhanamala, p. 244-245 

"Mahasn Tara sits on the seat of the moon, and is green in colour ; 
she is endowed with two hands which exhibits the Vyakhyana mudra. 
She is one-faced and is adorned with ornaments. Two lotuses beautify 



1. IBBS : p. 56, PL XXI-XXII. 

2. Getty:GNB,p. 125 

3. Clark : TIP, II, p. 267. 



228 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

her sides. She sits on a golden throne furnished with beautiful cushions. 
She is decked in a variety of flowers like the Asoka, Campaka, Nagesvara 
and Parijataka. She bears on her crown a small figure of Amogha- 
siddhi." 

Later, the Sadhana gives a description of the four companion 
deities. Here Ekajata who is stationed apparently to the left of the 
central deity, is of the following description : 

"Ekajatarh ardhaparyahkopavistam nllavarnam kartrikapaladharam 
sakrodharh lambodaram pihgalajatavibhusitam vyaghracarmambaradha- 
ram." Sadhanamala, p. 245 

'Ekajata sits in the Ardhaparyahka, is blue in colour, holds the Kartri 
( knife ) and the Kapala (skull), and is angry-looking with a protruding 
belly. Her hair is of fiery red colour and matted, and she wears a 
garment made of tiger-skin." 

In the corresponding right side appears Asokakanta who is described 
in the following words : 

Daksine parsve Asoka kantarh pitavarnam ramamukutinim vajiaso- 
kadharam." Sadhanamala, p. 245. 

"Towards the right is Asokakanta who is yellow in colour, wears a 
crown of jewels, and carries the Vajra and the Asoka flower." 

The goddess Arya-JahgulI also appears on the further left, behind the 
figure of Ekajata, and is described here as follows : 

"Purnarvame Arya-Jangullm syamavarnam sarpavaradahastam.'' 

Sadhanamala, p. 245. 

"Further to the left there is-Arya-Jahguli of green colour showing in 
her hands the snake and the Varda mudra." 

In the extreme right there is another goddess called Mahamayurl. 
She is given the following form in the Sadhana : 

"Daksine Mahamayurim mayurapicchavaradahastam". 

Sadhanamala, p. 245. 

"In the right there is Mahamayurl showing the peacock's feathers and 
the Varada mudra,* 

The mantra of the central deity Mahasri Tara is given in the Sa- 
dhana as : 

"Om Tare Tuttare Ture dhanam dade Svaha". 

The mantra evidently makes her a goddess of wealth, and as such 
the deity must have been worshipped by the Tantric Buddhists, Accord- 
ing to a further statement she sits in the Rajalila Asana or the pose of 
princely ease. 



EMANATIONS OF AMOGHASIDDHI 229 

Only one statuette of the deity has been discovered so far. It is 
now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta ( Fig. 169 ), In conformity with 
the Sadhana the principal deity Mahasn Tara is shown as one-faced 
and two*armed exhibiting the Vyakhyana or the Dharmacakra mudrcu 
There are two night lotuses on either side. The principal deity sits 
in the Rajalila pose on a lion-throne and bears on her crown the 
miniature figure of Amoghasiddhi with the Abhaya mudra. 

To her left is the fierce figure of Ekajata, sitting in the Ardhaparyan* 
ka attitude and holding the Kartri and the Kapala in the two hands. She 
has a protruding belly, garment of tiger-skin, and she bears a wrathful 
demeanour which is clear on the stone. 

To her right similarly, sits Asokakanta Marie! who wears a bejewelled 
crown, and carries the Vajra and the A soka flower according to the 
direction of the Sadhana* 

The statuette also depicts Arya-Jahguli towards the extreme left of 
the deity and shows the snake and the Varada mudra in accordance with 
the direction of the Sadhana. 

The statuette also includes the small figure of Mahamayuri to the 
extreme right of the principal goddess. She shows the peacock's 
feathers and the Varada mudra. 

The Indian Museum image seems to be the only image representing 
Mahasn Tara where the sculpture does not deviate even a little from 
the description given in the Sa Jhanamala l . 

**J 
4. VASYATARA 

Asana Bhadr asana Sy m bol Lotus 

Mudra Varada Colour Green 

Vasyatara, is also known by the name of Aryatara, and only 
one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is assigned to her. There is 
practically no difference between her form and that of Khadira- 
vam-Tara in as much as both display the Varada mudra in the 
right hand and carry the Utpala in the left. Both have green colour, 
and both bear the image of Amoghasiddhi on their crowns. In the 
case of Khadiravam-Tara, however, no mention is made regarding 
the attitude in which she should stand or sit, but here it is expressly 
mentioned that Vasyatara should be seated in the Bhadrasana, which 
resembles the European fashion of sitting with both legs dangling below 

1. For an article on the subject see Proceedings of the Third Oriental Conference, 
Madras, p. 257 et. seq, Identification of an Indian Museum Statuette. Besides this 
there are some miniature paintings depicting Mahalrltara. 



230 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

This Asana, or the attitude of sitting alone distinguishes Vasystara from 
othetf 6fdinary Taras carrying the Utpala in the left and exhibiting the 
Varada mudra in the right. The other point of difference between 
Khadiravam-Tara" and Vasyatara is, that the former is accompanied by 
the two goddesses, Asokakanta Marici and Ekajata, whereas the latter is 
without companions. Khadiravam may sit or stand in any attitude, 
but the Sadhana prescribes the Bhadrasana only for Vasyatara. 

The accompanying sketch (Fig. 170) represents Vasyatara as she is 
pictured in Nepal, and its special importance lies in its depiction of the 
Bhadrasana attitude in which the goddess sits 1 . 

. 5. SADBHUjA SIT AT AR A 
Colour White Asana Ardhaparyahka 

Faces Three Arms Six 

There are many Sadhanas for Sitataras, or the Taras of white colour 
but in none of them are they mentioned as bearing the image of 
Amoghasiddhi on their crowns. It is only in this case that the image 
of the Dhyani Buddha is expressly mentioned. This White Tara is 
three-faced and six*armed, and the Dhyana describes her form in the 
following terms : 

"Sitatararh trimukharh sadbhujam pitamladaksinetaramukhim pra- 
timukham trinetram varada-ksasutra-saradharadaksinatrikaram utpala- 
padma'Capadharavamapanittayam ardhaparyankanisannarh candrasanaca~ 
ndraprabham jatamukutasthit-Amoghasiddhiih pancamundavibhusitam- 
astakarii ardhacandrakrtasekhararh nanalankaradharam dvirastavarsakr* 
tirh astasmasanamadhyasthitam.. vicintya/ 5 

Sadbhuja'Sukla-Tarasadhanam Sadhanamala, p. 216 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as Sitatara, who is three- 
faced, and six-armed. Her right face is yellow and the left blue in colour, 
and the faces are endowed with three eyes each. Her three right hands 
show the Varada mudra, the rosary and the arrow, and the three left 
carry the Utpala, the lotus and the bow. She sits in the Ardhaparyanka 
attitude, sits on and shines like the moon, and bears the effigy of Amo- 
ghasiddhi on her crown of matted hair. Her head is embellished by five 
severed heads and the crescent moon. She is decked in many ornaments, 
is twice eight years old, and resides in the midst of the eight cremation 
grounds. Thus meditating..." 

The accompanying sketch (Fig. 171) shows how she is represented in 
Nepal. It tallies in all respects with the description given in the 
I. For the Sadhana, see Sadhtnamala, p. 173. 



EMANATIONS OF AMOGHASIDDHI 231 

Sadhana, except that here she is represented in Vajraparyahka instead of 
Ardhaparyanka as required by the Sadhana. 

She is known to the Chinese collection at Peiping 2 , 

6. DHANADA^TARA / 
Arms Four Colour Green 

Dhanada-Tara is one of the four-armed varieties of Tara. The 
special features of this goddess are that she rides an animal, and like 
Vajratara, is surrounded by eight goddesses, originating from the eight 
syllables of the famous mantra "Om Tare Tuttare Ture Svaha". The 
symbols that are held in her four hands are also different from all other 
varieties of four-armed Tara. The Dhyana describing her form runs as 
follow : 

"Tara-Bhagavatim atmanath bhavayet ; candrasanaprabham saumyarh 
sattvaparyankasthaih, haritasyamam ekavadanam dvilocanam catur* 
bhujam aksasutravaradotpalapustakadharam vicitravastralankarava- 
tirh-Xocanadibhir-devibhlr-abhisiktam atmanam Amoghasiddhimuku- 
tarn dhyayat." 

Dhanada-Tara Sadhanam." Sadhanamala, p. 219, 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as goddess Dhanada Tara, 
who is seated on and has the radiance of the moon, is benign in appear- 
ance, sits on an animal, has green complexion, one face, two eyes, 
and four arms showing the rosary, the Varada pose, the Utpala and the 
book. She wears variegated ornaments and garments... The worshipper 
should further conceive himself as receiving homage from the goddesses, 
Locana and others, and as bearing the image of Amoghasiddhi on the 
crown/' 

Images of Dhanada Tara are found in Tibet * and China 3 . Fig. 172 
illustrates a Nepalese drawing. 

7. SITATARA 

Colour White Arms Four 

Mudra Utpala Mudra 

Sitatara, as the name implies, is a Tara of white variety with one 
face and four arms. She is accompanied by two goddesses Marici and 
Mahamayun. It may be remembered that Khadiravam also is accom- 
panied by Marici and Ekajata ; but the difierence is that Khadiravam 

1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 282 

2. Getty : GNB, p. 123. 

3. Clark ; TLP, II, p. 283 



232 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

is two-armed whereas Sitatara is four-armed. The Dhyana contained 
in the only Sadhana for her worship in the Sadhanamala describes her 
form in the following terms : 

"Tarabhagavatlm suklam trinetram caturbhujam Panca'Tathagatamu- 
kutim nanalahkaram, bhujadvayena utpalamudram dadhanarh, daksma- 
bhujena cintamaniratnasamyuktavaradam, sarvasattvanam asam pari* 
purayantirh, vamenotpalamanjarim vibhranam dhyayat. 

Tasya daksinaparsve Mariclrh pitarh candrasanam nilambaram 
dvibhujam ; vamena raktasokapallavadharam, daksinena sitacamara' 
dharam ; raktakancukabharanam. 

Vamaparsve Mahamayurim priyangusyamam dvibhujam ; vamena 
mayurapicchadharam, daksinena camaradharam, evam vicintya..." 

Sadhanamala, p. 215. 

'The worshipper should visualise himself as the goddess (Sita)- 
Tara of white complexion, with three eyes and four arms. She bears 
the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas on her crown, is decked in 
many ornaments, exhibits the Utpala mudra with the first pair of hands, 
displays the Varada mudra along with the Cintamani jewel in the second 
right, and carries the Utpala bud in the second left, and fulfils the 
prayers of all beings. 

To her right is MancI who is yellow in complexion, sits on the 
moon, is clad in blue garments, is two^armed, and carries the bough 
with red Asoka flowers in the left hand and the Camara in the right. 
She wears a red jacket and ornaments. 

To her left is Mahamayuri of green colour, like the Priyahgu fruit, 
who is two- armed and carries the peacock's feathers in the left hand 
and the Camara in the right. Thus meditating...". 

Images of Sitatara ar^ found in Tibet 1 and China -. 

>/ 8. PARNASABARI 
Colour Green Faces Three 

Vahana - Diseases (in human form) Asana Pratyalidha. 

One form of Parnasabari of yellow colour has already been discuss- 
ed along with the female emanations of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. 
But here her complexion is green probably because the Dhyani Buddha 
Amoghasiddhi, from whom she is said to emanate, is of that colour. 
The Mantra calls her 'PisacP and also 'Sarvamariprasamani' or **the 
destroyer of all diseases and epidemics". She is almost identical 

1 Getty: GNBp. 122. ' 

2, Clark : TLP, II, pp 189,216. 



EMANATIONS OF AMOGHASiDDHI 233 

with the form that has been described previously, except that here 
her colour is green and she bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on her 
crown, instead of that of Aksobhya. She carries the same weapons 
as the previous one, but the expressions of their faces are very 
different, there a pleasant beaming smile, here an angry laugh. As the 
two specimens of Parnasabari discovered in East Bengal both bearing 
the image of Amoghasiddhi on the crown, it is necessary to quote the 
Dhyana in this case also, for a comparison of the details with the 
images reproduced here : 

'Tarnasabarim haritam trimukham trinetram sadbhujam krsnasukla- 
daksinavamananam vajra-parasu-saradaksinakaratrayam karmuka-patrac* 
chata-sapasatarjanivamakaratrayam sakrodhahasitananamnavayauvanava- 
tim sapatramalavyaghracarmanivasanam isallambodarlm urdhvasamya- 
takeslm adho asesarogamaripadakrantam Amoghasiddhimukutim 
atmanarh jhatiti mspadya .." Sadhanamala, p. 308. 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as Parnasabari, who has a 
green complexion, three-faces, three eyes, and six arms. Her right and 
left faces are of blue and white colour respectively. She carries 
in her three ri^ht hands the Vajra, the Parasu and the arrow, and in her 
three left, the bow, the cluster of leaves and the Tarjanipasa. Her faces 
show an angry laugh. She is in the prime of youth, is decked in tiger* 
skin and a garment of leaves, has a slightly protruding belly, and hair 
tied up above. She tramples under her feet various diseases and pestile- 
nces, and bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on the crown Thus 
meditating.. ". 

The two images of Parnasabari (Figs. 173 and 174) have been dis- 
covered by Mr. N. K. Bhattasali ] . These two images follow the 
Sadhana most accurately in all details ; the angry laugh has been 
correctly depicted in the three faces, and the belly slightly protrudes. 
To the right and left are two divinities, Hayagnva, the Hindu god 
of Fever, and Sitala, the Hindu goddess of small-pox, and they 
are represented in the images as flying in opposite directions 
to escape the wrath of Parnasabari. The prostrate figures under 
the feet are the Diseases and Pestilences, in human shape. The 
figure under the right leg, apparently, is a man attacked with small-pox, 
as we can judge from the circular marks all over his body ; the other 
figure under the left foot, is probably attacked with some fatal disease. 
Both the images of Parnasabari are decidedly very fine specimens of the 
Bengal school of art, 

l7~Bhattasali : IBBS, p. 58f. Plate XXIII. 

30 



234 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Parnasabarl is represented in Tibet ] and China 2 . 

9. MAHAMAYURI 

Colour Green Faces Three 

Arms Six Asana Ardhaparyahka 

Mahamayun is another goddess of the Pancaraksa group, and is 
affiliated to Amoghasiddhi in the same way as the other members of the 
group are affiliated to one or another of the Dhyani Buddhas. She is 
different in form when worshipped in the Pancaraksa Mandala, which 
will be described later. When she bears the image of Amoghasiddhi 
on the crown she is three-faced and six-armed, but she may have another 
form with one face, two arms and yellow complexion, in which case 
she will hold peacock's feathers in the rioht hand and display the Varada 
mudra in the left. The three-faced and six-armed form of Mahamayun 
has been described in the Sadhanamala as follows : 

"Mahamayurim haritavarnam trimukham sndbhujarh pratimukham 
trinetram krsnasukladaksinetravadanam ; daksinatnhastesu yathakra* 
mam rnayurapiccha-bana-varadamudrah ; tatha vamatrihastesu ratnacch- 
tacapotsangasthakalasah ; vicitrabharanam, srhgararasam, navayau* 
vanum, candrasane candraprabhavatim ardhaparyankimm Amoghasiddi- 
mukutirh bhavayet atmanam". Sadhanamala, p. 400. 

"The worshipper should visualise himself as Mahamayun, who has 
a green complexion, six arms, and three faces, each endowed with three 
eyes. Her right and left faces are of blue and white colour respec- 
tively. She shows in her three light hands the peacock's feathers, the 
arrow and the Varada mudra, and similarly, in the three left hands the 
jewel, the bow, and the water-vessel on the lap. She is decked in 
wonderful ornaments, displays the sentiment of passionate love, is 
youthful, has her seat on, and the radiance of the moon, sits in the 
Ardhaparyahka attitude, and bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on the 
crown". 

Mahamayun is popular in Tibet ' and China 4 and her images are 
found in these countries. She is said to nullify the effect of snake- 
poison. 

1. Gordon: ITL, p, 71 ; Getty : GNB, p. 134, 135. 

2. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 207, 287 two-armed, 287. 

3. Gordon : ITL, p, 74 ; Getty : GNB, p, 136. 

4. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 206, 275. 



EMANATIONS OF AMOGHASIDDHI 235 

10, VAJRARNKHALA 

Colour Green Faces Three 

Arms Eight Asana Lalita 

Symbol Chain 

Three Sadhana^ in the SaJhanamala are devoted to the worship of 
Vajrasrnkhala. Her colour is green, and as she emanates from Amo- 
ghasiddi she bears the image of that Dhyani Buddha on the crown. 
"Srnkhala' 1 means a chain, and as the goddess carries a chain, marked 
with a Vajra, she is called Vajrasrnkhala. The chain, therefore, is her 
characteristic sign and should be paid particular attention to, in identi- 
fying her images, if ever, thev come ro light. She may be compared 
with Vajrasphota another chain- bearing deity. One of the Dh>anas 
describes her form in the following manner : 

"Haritarh trimukharh astabhujam; prathamamukham Isaddhasarasarh; 
daksmarh kapilarh kapilalocanarh ca ; vumarh raktarh bhrkutidarhstra- 
karalarh ; daksinesu catuhkaresu abhaya-vajra-srhkhala-saradhaiarii ; 
vamacatuhkaraih rudhirapurnakapala-tarjani-pasa-capadharam ; lalitak- 
sepasanastharh, marjjaracarmottariyam, Amoghasiddhibhusitoidhva- 
pingalakesam vicmtya... 

Vairasrhkhaia-Sadhanam/' Sadhanamala, p. 414. 

"The worshipper should visualise himself as (Vajrasmkhala) of 
green compiexion, with three faces and eight arms. Her first face is 
gently smiling, right face is of brown colour with brown eyes, and the 
left is of red colour and appears temble with contortions ot the brows 
and bare fangs. She shows in the four right hands the Abhaya pose, 
the Vajra, the Vajrasrhkhala and the arrow, and in the four left, the 
Kapala full of blood, the Tarjani, the noose and the bow. She sits 
in the Lalita attitude, ha^ a scarf of cat's skin, and her brown hair rises 
upwards and is decorated with the image of Amoghasiddhi. Thus 
meditating .". 

Vajrasrnkhala may, according to the Sadhanas, have another form l 
with three faces and six arms, in which case she carries the Vajra, the 
Vajra srhkhala and the arrow in the three right hands ; and the Tarjani, 
the noose and the bow in the three left hands. The illustration (Fig. 
175) shows this form of the goddess as drawn by the native Citrakaras 
of Nepal. She is represented in China -. 

1. Sadhana No. 207 in the Sadhanamala, p. 413. 

2. Clark: TLP, II. pp. 19f, 311. ' ' ' .'"":' 



236 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

11. VAJRAGANDHARI 

Colour Blue Faces Six 

Arms Twelve Asana Pratyalidha 

The name of Vajragandharl is already mentioned in connection with 
the Mandala of the eight-armed Kurukulla, an emanation of Amitabha. 
In this Mandala it is definitely said that Vajragandhan should bear the 
image of his sire Amoghasiddhi on her crown. She is thus included 
in the family of Amoghasiddhi. Vajragandhan is one of the terrible 
goddesses endowed with six faces and twelve arms. A short Sadhana 
in the Sadhanamala describes her form as follows : 

**Vajragandhari krsna sanmukhi dvadasabhuja urdhvapingalakesl 
pratyalldhapada darhstrakaralavadana pratimukham trinetra. Daksina* 
bhujesu yathakramam va]ra vajraghanta-khadga-trisula-bana*cakrani ; 
vamasadbhujesu khatvahg ahkusa'dhanuh-parasu-pasa-hrttarjanyah ; 
prathamamukham krsnam, aparani mukhani pancavarnani visvapadma*- 
suryasana ceti". Sadhanamala, pp. 403*404. 

''Vajragandhari is blue in colour, six^faced and twelve-armed with 
brown hair rising upwards. She stands in the Pratyalidha attitude, and 
her faces look terrible with bare fangs and three eyes. She carries in her 
six right hands 1. the Vajra, 2. the bell marked with a Vajra, 3. the 
sword, 4. the trident, 5. the arrow, and 6. the discus, and in the 
six left hands 1. the Khatvafiga, 2. the goad, 3. the bow, 4. the 
Parasu, 5. the noose and 6. the Tarjani against the chest. Her first 
face is blue, and the other five faces show five different colour. She 
rests on the sun supported by a double lotus". 

The Dharani quoted in the Sadhanamala gives her the epithets of 
YoginI and Bhismabhagini, and she is believed to be the consort of the 
Yaksa general, Candavajrapani by name. 

Statuettes of this goddess are found in China l 



I. Clark i TIP, II, pp. 196* 290. 



CHAPTER X 

EMANATIONS OF RATNASAMBHAVA 

I. GODS 

Ratnasambhava is comparatively unimportant in the pantheon of 
the Northern Buddhists, as is evident from the small number of deities 
that emanate from him. It has already been pointed out that Jambhala 
and Vasudhara were known long before the Dhyani Buddhas were 
ushered into existence and it appears, therefore, that Jambhala has been 
assigned to Ratnasambhava at a late period. Jambhala is connected 
with wealth and is said to distribute gems, jewels and riches to his 
devotees. Again Ratnasambhava means 'Jewel-born' and whom might 
Jambhala, the god of wealth, call his sire if not the Dhyani Buddha 
born of jewels ? If one or two forms of Jambhala emanate from 
Ratnasambhava, it may be reasonably expected that at least one or two 
forms of his consort, Vasudhara, should also issue from the same source. 
Inspite of all this, the Buddhists were divided in their opinion as to the 
sire of Jambhala, the followers of the Aksobhya cult holding him 
as originating from Aksobhya. 

Mahapratisara, another of his emanations, belongs to the Pancaraksa 
group, and affiliates herself to Ratnasambhava in the same way as the 
other members of the group affiliate themselves to one or another of the 
five Dhyani Buddhas. Ratnasambhava is distinguished from the other 
Dhyani Buddhas by his yellow colour and the Varada mudrahe displays 
with his right hand. The male deities that emanate from Ratnasambhava 
are Jambhala and Ucchusma-Jambhala, the latter being regarded as a 
terrible form of Jambhala. 



1. JAMBHALA 

Several of Jambhala's forms are noticed in the Sadhanamala, which 
states that the god may emanate either from Aksobhya, or from Ratna- 
sambhava. The form that emanates from Akaobhya 



de?cr 4 H^ The characteristic feature of Jambhala emanating from 
Ratnasambhava is that he carries the mongoose in his right hand and the 
citron in the left. The mongoose is supposed to be the receptacle of 
all gems and jewels, and when Jambhala presses the two sides of the 
mongoose it vomits the treasures within* It is this mongoose which 



238 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

makes it easy to identify Jambhala images. As an emanation of Ratna- 
sambhava he may either be represented alone, or in the embrace of his 
Sakti in yab^yum. In the Sadhanamalu only three Dhyanas describe 
him as single. 

When represented in yab*yum, he sits on the moon under which 
there is a double lotus of eight petals. He wears all sorts of ornaments, 
his complexion is golden yellow and he hj,^ j protruding belly, He 
carries the citron and the mongoose in the n^ht and left hands res- 
pectively, wears a garland of yellow lotus, a Lid remains in yab-yum with 
Vasudhara. The eight petals of the lotus seat Jte occupied by the eight 
Yaksas, to wit, Manibhadra, Purnabhadia^ Ohanada. Vaisrayana T Keli- 
mall, Ciyikundali, Sukhendra an3~lSarendtj 'who are identical in all 
respects with the principal ""figure. Each Yaksa is accompanied by a 
Sakti with whom he remains in yab-yum in the vdme way as Jambhala 
remains with Vasudhara, and the names oi tiK'se eight Yaksinis are : 
Citrakali, Datta, Sudgtta^^Ary^ SubhadriL. AJ.upta.r- Devi and Sarasvatl. 
The Yaksinis are identical in form with V jsuJhtha, who is yellow 7 in 
complexion, carries the ears of corn and show^ rhe Varada mudra in 
her two hands. 

When single, Jambhala is of golden complexion and carries the 
mongoose in the left hand and the citron in the nght. The illustration 
(Fig. 176) shows a stone image from Nepal w huh was in the possession 
of the late Pandit Siddhiharsa. Here the god is represented as sitting in 
the Lalita attitude. Two other specimen* (Hys. 177 and 178) from 
Vikrampur 1 , in Eastern Bengal, depict the god in the same attitude* and 
they are some of the finest products of the IVn^al art of medieval times. 

There is another form of Jambhala whion is two-armed, carries the 
citron and the mongoose in his two hands jnJ tramples upon two semi- 
divine beings Sankhamunda and Padmamunda by name, apparently in 
the Alidha attitude -. 

(a) JAMBHALA (Yab-Yum) 

Colour White Faces Three 

Arms Six 

Jambhala in yab-yum has another form with three faces, six arms and 
white colour. According to the Sadhana hus t\\o faces to the light and 
left are red and blue respectively, Jambhaia sits in the Vajraparyahka 
attitude, and embraces his Prajfia Vasudhara ot his own creation with 

1. Bhattasali : IBBS, p. 34, PI. XI. 

2. Sadhana No. 287 in the Sadhanamala, p. 5b4 



EMANATIONS OF RATN^SAMBHAVA 239 

the two principal hands. In the two remaining right hands he carries 
the red Vajra and the sword, and in the two remaining left hands he 
holds the emerald and ihc lotus. In all other respects he is identical 
with the forms described previously *. 

Images of Jambhala arc found in Tibet- and China ; . Fig, 179 
illustrates a Nepalese drawing ol the deity in yab^yum. w ^x"' 

2. UCCHUSMA JAMBHALA 

Asana Pratyahdhu Appearance Terrible 

Yahana Kuvera 

This Ucchusma Jambhala is identical in form with the one already 
discussed under the emanation of Aksobhya. | Here also Ucchusma 
stands in the Pratyahdha attitude with his left leg stretched forward 
on the forehead of Kuvera \\ hile the right tramples upon his two legs. 
He is terrible to behold, with protruding belly, bare fangs and the 
snakes for ornaments. He holJ.s the Kapala full of blood against his 
chest in the right hand and looks eagerly at it with three eyes The left 
hand as usual holds the mon^oos^e. 

Ucchusma Jambhala is rareh represented and his images are not 
known except the one at barnaihjalready described under the emana- 
tions of Aksobhya. J This unique image shows all the characteristic 
features of the god as obtained trom the Sadhanas. The tigure shows 
his consort Vasudhara in the left, but the effigy of neither Aksobhya nor 
Ratnasambhav 7 a can be seen on his head. I It is Amitabha who is there. 
Nevertheless, this is the onh h^ure known to students of iconography, 
as representing Ucchusma Jambhala. 

^Jambhala in his fierce form ol Ucchusma or Dimbha is not known 
either in Tibet or in China, | 

11, GODDESSES 

Several Buddhist goddesses* emanate (rom the Dhyani Buddha Ratna- 
sambhava with the yellow coloui and the Varada mudra as his recog* 
nition symbol. He preside*- over the Ratnakula or the collection of 
deities with the jewel at> their family symbol, and the yellow colour as 
their family colour. ALL deities which are not specifically mentioned 
as emanations of a particular Dh^ ani Buddha can be_ assigned to, the 
Dhyani Buddha Ratnasanibhava, provi3e3 TKat they have yellow colour. 
On this principle the undernotcd deities are brought under Ratnasam- 
bhava, and described one after another. 

1. Sadhalia No. 297 in the Sadhan^mala/p. 581 

2. Getty : GNB, p. 159 

3. Clark : TLP, II, pp^203 , (six-armed), p. 310 



240 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

C 3. VAJRATARA^ 

^^cx , , . . 

Colour Golden Yellow Faces Four 

Arms Eight 

According to a definite statement l contained in the Vajratara 
Mandala of the Nispannayogavali, the Dhyani Buddha Ratnasambhava 
is the spiritual sire of Vajratara. She is four-faced and eight^armed 
and her description is as under : 

"Bhagavati Vajratara suvarnavarna . hemabha'Subhra-nila^lohitamu* 
la^savya-pascimottra-caturvaktra astabhuja savyair-vajram pasam saram 
sankham ca vibhrati vamaih pitotpalam capam ankusam tarjanlrh ca." 

NSP, p. 38 

"Goddess Vajratara is of golden yellow colour.. She is four- faced. 
The principal face is golden in colour, the right is white, the one behind 
is blue and the left red. She has eight arms. In her four right hands she 
shows the Vajra, the noose, the arrow and the conch. In the four left 
she has the yellow night lotus, the bow, the goad, and the raised 
Tarjani." 

Vajratara is a popular deity in Buddhism and her images are found 
almost everywhere in India. She is popular also in Nepal. In the 
Chinese collection of statuettes at Peiping an image of Vajratara is 
found under the title of Astabhuja Vajratara 2 . 

Here, at least one very peculiar image of Vajratara may be noted. It 
is in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. The Indian Museum bronze of 
Vajratara is in the form of a lotus, and represents the complete Man* 
dala with all the attendant deities '*. It is so constructed that it can be 
opened and closed at will. The petals are eight in number, and each 
bears the image of an attendant deity. The Dhyana describing her form 
in the Sadhanamala and explaining this particular image is as under : 
Matrmandalamadhyastham Taradevim vibhavayet I 
Astabhujam caturvaktrarii sarvalankarabhusitarh II 
Kanakavarnanibham bhavyam kumarilaksanojjvalam I 
Pancabuddhamukutim vajrasuryabhisekajam II 
Navayauvanalavanyarh calatkanakakundalam I 
Visvapadmasamasinarh raktaprabhavibhusitam II 
Va jra<-pasa~tatha-sahkha'Saccharody atadak sinam I 
Vajrahkusotpaladhanustarjanl'vamadharimih I 
Vajraparyhkayogena sadhayet bhuvanatrayam II 

Sadhanamala, p. 179 

1. NSP : p. 3S Vajratarayah kulelo*Ratne^ah 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 210 

3. See also Bhattasali : IBBS, pp. 45f. pi. XV, XVI, XVII. 



EMANATIONS OF RATNASAMBHAVA 241 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as Vajratara, who is in the 
midst of the circle of the Eight Mothers, is eight-armed, four-faced, 
and decked in all ornaments. Her complexion is like the colour 
of gold, and she is graceful and resplendent with the auspicious 
marks of a virgin ; she bears the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas on 
her crown, and is born of the water of consecration of the Vajra and 
the sun ; she is effulgent in her blooming youth, has swaying ear- 
rings, sits on the double lotus, and radiates red-hued light ; she carries 
in her right hands the Vajra, the noose, the conch and the swift arrow, 
and in the left the Vajrankusa, the Utpala, the bow and the Tarjanl. 
Thus conceiving her as sitting in the Vajra paryahka attitude ( the wor- 
shipper) may conquer the three worlds-/' 

The Sadhana further describes the deities constituting the Mandala. 
In the four cardinal points there should be four goddesses on the four 
petals of the lotus on which Vajratara sits, 

1. Puspatara (East) 

"Purvena Puspataram tu sitavarnam manoramam I 
Omkaraksaranispannarh puspadatnakarakularh I 
Dvibhujam ekavaktranca sarvai?fikarabhusitarii II 

"On the east is Puspatara, who is white and winsome, is born of the 
syllable *Om', carries the garland of flowers, is two-armed, one-faced 
and decked in all ornaments. 

2, Dhupatara (South) 

"Daksme Dhupatararh tu krsnavarnam surupinim 1 
Dhupasakhakaravyagram sarvalankarabhusitam'' II 

On the south is Dhupatara, who is ot blue colour, attractive, 
carries the Dhupa (incenbe) &tick and i& decked in all ornaments." 

3. Dipatara (West) 

"Pascime Dipataranca dlpa\astik&rakuli I 
Pltavarnam mahabhusarh calatkanakakundalariT II 

On the west is Dipatara, who carries the torch in her hands, is of 
yellow complexion, profusely ornamented and has ear-rings swaying. 

4. Gandhatara (North) 

''Uttare Gandhataram tu gandhasahkhakarakulam I 
Raktavarnanibham devlm bhavayet garbhamandale" II 

On the north is Gandhatara, who carries in her hands the conch of 
scents, and has red complexion 
31 



242 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



i 



All these (goddesses) should be situated in the inner circle/' 

The Sadhana further says that the following Guardians of the Gates 
should also be meditated upon as around the principal goddess, but 
apparently not in the same circle with the four described above. 

5. VajrankusI (East) 

"Purvadvare Vajrankusim ekavaktram dvibhujam vajrahkusotpalaha- 
stam vikrtavadanarh krsnavarnam". 

"On the eastern gate there is Vajrankusi who is one-faced and 
two-armed. She carries in her two hands the goad marked with a 
Vajra and the night lotus. She has a distorted face and is blue in 
colour/' 

6. Vajrapasi (South) 

"Daksinadvare Vajrapasim pitavarnam vikrtananam ekavaktram dvi- 
bhujam vajrapasahastam''. 

u On the southern gate there is Vajrapasi of yellow colour. She 
has one distorted face. She carries in her two hands the noose marked 
with a Vajra". 

7. Vajrasphotl(West) 

"Pascimadvare Vajrasphotim raktavarnam ekavaktram dvibhujam 
vikrtavadanam vajrasphotahastarh". 

"On the western gate there is Vajrasphotl of red colour. She has 
one distorted face. In her two hands she carries the chain marked with 
a Vajra". 

8. Vajraghanta (North) 

"Uttaradvare Vajraghantarh svetavarnam ekavaktram dvibhujam vik- 
rtavadanam vajraghantahastam''. 

"On the northern gate there is Vajraghanta of white colour. She has 
one distorted face. In her two hands she carries the bell marked with 
a Vajra". 

9. Usmsavijaya (Above) 
Goddess Usmsavijaya occupies the upper regions* 

10. Sumbha (Below) 
Goddess Sumbha occupies the lower reigons. 

All these goddesses stand on the orb of the sun in the Alldha attitu- 
de with the right leg stretched forward. They are radiant like the Sun- 
god and are surrounded with a fiery halo. They are decked in orna- 
ments of snakes. 



EMANATIONS OF RATNASAMBHAVA 243 

These goddesses originate from the ten different letters of the 
mantra of Vajratara, which is "Om Tare Tuttare Ture Svaha", consisting 
of ten syllables. Each syllable brings forth a goddess, and these 
goddesses are said to be the embodiments of the ten Paramitas of the 
Mahayana School. 

The following are some of the instances in which the mantra of 
Vajratara might be applied with success. Let a knot be tied at the end 
of a cloth over which the mantra has been recited seven times, and its 
wearer can go even to the most inaccessible regions of the Vindhya 
mountains without being molested. Tigers, thieves, crocodiles, lions, 
snakes, elephants, buffaloes, bears, bulls and the like will flee or even 
be destroyed, at the mere recital of the name of the goddess. If one 
hundred and eight lotuses are offered into the fire with this mantra, it 
will be enough to subdue any woman born of man. The feather of a 
crow over which this mantra has been recited thirty-two times, if kept 
concealed within the house of an enemy, will destroy it mysteriously in 
the course of a week. There is no need to multiply instances. It is 
enough to say that Vajratara is sure to bring success to her worshipper 
in anything he may undertake, and that is the reason why she is so 
popular among the Vajrayanists, 

Fig. 180 illustrates the Indian Museum image of Vajratara enclosed 
within a lotus, surrounded by all the ten deities of the Vajratara Man- 
dala. Fig, 181 is the Orissa image of Vajratara illustrated in N.N. Vasu's 
Mayurbhanj Archaeological Survey. Fig. 182 is the image of Vajratara 
discovered at the Sarasvatisthan close to the Svayambhu Temple in 
Nepal. 

Fig. 183 illustrates the Peiping statuette of Puspataia, one of the 
attendants of Vajratara. 

4. MAHAPRATISARA 

Varieties 1. Three-Faced, Ten-Armed 
2. Four-Faced, Eight-Armed 

Mahapratisara ! is the principal goddess in the Pancaraksa group, 
and her worship is widely prevalent amongst the Tantric Buddhists. 
She is represented either singly or in a Mandala in the company of four 
other Pancaraksa deities. She is generally yellow when worshipped 
independently, and white when worshipped in the Mandala of the five 
goddesses. She may be represented with four faces and eight arms, 
or with three faces and ten arms, in accordance with the Sadhanas, but 
in actual representations she may have three faces and eight arms. The 

1. See also Bhtttasali : IBBS, p. 61 and PL XXIV 



244 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

form with three faces and eight arms, is said to bear the image of 
Ratnasambhava on the crown, and the other yellow form may also be 
assigned to this Dhyani Buddha. The Sadhana describes the former in 
the following terms : 

"Mahapratisara pita tnmukhi pratimukham trinayana dasabhuja 
krsnasitauaksinetaravadana daksmapancabhujesu yathakramam khadga- 
vajra'bana'varada'hrdayasayihasta&thacchatiani rath a vamapancabhujesu 
capa-dhvaja-ratnacchata-parasu-sankhah Ratnasambhavamukuti krsna- 
kancukaraktottariya ca ardhaparyanka-lalitaksepa divyabharanavastra- 
bhusita ceti." Sadhanamala, p. 401-402. 

"Mahapratisara has yellow complexion, three faces, each with 
three eyes, and ten arms ; her right and left faces are of blue and 
white colour respectively. She carries in her five light hands the sword 
the Vajra, the arrow, the Varada mudra and the parasol held against 
her chest, and her five left hands similarly hold the bow, the banner, 
the jewel, the Parasu and the conch. She bears the image of Ratna- 
sambhava on the crown, has a blue jacket and a red scarf, sits on the 
Ardhaparyahka in the Lalita attitude, and wears celestial ornaments and 
garments' '. 

The form with four faces and eight arms is described under the five 
Raksa deities. But there is another form which is worshipped indepen- 
dently, and which is almost identical with the preceeding one, except 
that here she is endowed with four faces and eight arms. The princi- 
pal face is yellow, the right white, the left red, and the face behind blue. 
She carries in her four right hands the sword, the Cakra, the Trisula 
and the arrow, and in the four left the Parasu, the bow, the noose and 
the Vajra. 

Two photographs (Figs. 184, 185) represent this form of the goddess, 
and these tally with the Sadhana in all other respects except that they 
have only three faces instead of four. 

The goddess is popular in Tibet l and China -. 

5. VASUDHARA 

Colour Yellow Face One 

Arms Two Symbol Ears of Corn 

\ Vasudhara is the consort of Jambhala and bears the image of either 
Aksobhya or Ratnasambhava on her crown. Several Sadhanas in 
the Sadhanamala describe her form which is invariably two-armed. As 

1, Gordon : ITL, p. 76 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 289 (two-armed) 



EMANATIONS OF RATNASAMBHAVA 245 

none of the Sadhanas mentions the Asana, she may be represented in 
any attitude, standing or sitting, V"he is richl y decked in ornaments and 
is invariably accompanied by her attendants. Her complexion is always 
yellow, and she carries in her left hand the ears of corn with the vessel 
that showers gems, while the right hand exhibits the Varada mudra. 
The short Sadhana describing her is as follows : 

'Tita^Vam-karaparinatarh dvibhujaikamukhirh pitam navayauvana^ 
bharanavastravibhusitarh dhanyamanjarmanaratnavarsamanaghata\'ama* 
hastarh daksinena varadam anekasakhijana'panvrtarh visvapadmacandia- 
sanastharh Ratnasambhavamukutimm...nispadya''. 

Sadhanamala, p. 422*3. 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as (Vasudbara) who ori' 
ginates from the yellow germ syllable 4 VanY. She is two^armed, one- 
faced, of yellow complexion, is in the prime ot >outh and is decked in 
all sorts of ornaments and garments. She carries in her left hand the 
ears of corn on a vessel showering gems, while the right exhibits the 
Varada mudra. J She is surrounded by many lady friends, rests on the 
moon over the double lotus, and bears the image ot Ratnasambhava on 
the crown../'. 

Images of Vasudhara are not generally met with in sculpture* 
She accompanies Ucchusma in the unique Sarnath image already referr- 
ed to. The other image from Sarnath is mutilated beyond recognition. 
In both cases, however, she is represented standing.) Fig. 186 illustrates 
a Nepalese drawing of the goddess. 

| Vasudhara is sometimes represented as one^ faced and six-armed, and 
as sitting in the Lalita attitude. In the three right hands she exhibits 
the Namaskara mudra, the Varada mudra and the ears of corn. 
The first left hand has the book, the second the ears of corn, and the 
third on the lap carries the vessel containing jewels. Her hair rises 
upwards in the shape of a flame, she is beautifully decked in ornaments 
and her expression is truly peaceful. | Fig. 187 represents this variety 
of the goddess and is a fine specimen of Newan art. Fig. 188 illustrates 
a beautiful bronze image of Vasudhara in the Baroda museum. 
I Images of Vasudhara are found in Tibet * but not in China. \ 

6. APARAjITA 

Colour Yellow 

Identification Mark Trampling upon Ganesa 
Mudra Capetadana (Slapping) 

The name of Aparajita occurs in the Dhyana for Astabhuja Kuru- 
kulla already quoted and translated. There she is said to bear the 

Gordon : ITL, p. 72 ; Getty : GNB, p. 131. 



246 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

image of Ratnasambhava on her crown, and to carry in her four hands 
the staff, the goad, the bell and the noose, 

\ Aparajita is an interesting Buddhist goddess. She tramples upon 
Ganesa, and one of her hands is raised in the attitude of dealing a slap, 
while her parasol, according to the Sadhana, is held by important 
Hindu gods. A very short Sadhana is devoted to her worship, and 
the Dhyana contained in the Sadhana describes the form of Aparajita 
thus : 

"Aparajita pita dvibhujaikamukhl nanaratnopasobhita Ganapatisa- 
makranta capetadanabhinayadaksinakara, grhltapasatarjanikahfdayasthi- 
tavamabhuja atibhayahkarakaralaraudramukhl asesamaranirdalani 

Brahmadidustaraudradevataparikarocchritacchatra ceti. " 

Sadhanamala, p. 403. 

"Aparajita is yellow in complexion, two^armed, one-faced, is decked 
in various gems, and tramples upon Ganesa. Her right hand is raised, 
displaying the act of dealing a slap, while the left carries the noose 
round the raised index finger against her chest. Her face is awful, 
terrible and ferocious. She is the destroyer of all wicked beings, and her 
parasol is raised over her head by the host of wicked and ferocious gods, 
Brahma and others". 

In the Sadhana one epithet of the goddess deserves special notice. 
It is Qanapatisamakianid "Who tramples upon Ganapati". The 
word 'akranta' is derived from the original root 'kram' to 'trample'. On 
the strength of this epithet of the goddess the Nalanda fragment (Fig. 
189) showing only the lower half of the full image is identified with 
that of Aparajita. In it, the figure to the right of the principal goddess 
appeals to be Indra and the rod held bj him seems to be the handle of 
the parasol required to be held over her head by the gods beginning 
with Brahma. The upper part of the Nalanda image is unfortunately 
lpst> Had it been complete, it would have been possible to find the 
Capetadana mudra in the right hand of the goddess and the noose with 
the raised index finger in {he left, and a parasol over her head in conti- 
nuation of the broken handle. 

This identification was confirmed when subsequently the Indian 
Museum image (Fig. 193) was discovered. This image is only slightly 
mutilated but is complete, and resembles the Nalanda fragment in the 
lower portion, while the whole image follows with precision, the direc- 
tions given in the Sadhana quoted above. This new discovery leaves 
no room for doubt regarding the identification. 

Aparajita is known in China *. \ 
1, Clark : TLP, II, pp. 208, 290. 



EMANATIONS OF RATNASAMBHAVA 247 

7. VAJRAYOGINf 
(I) HEADLESS FORM 

Colour Yellow Asana Alldha 

Companions Two Arms Two 
Symbols Kartri and severed head 

Vajrayogini is another of the important and popular goddesses who 
does not seem to bear the image of any of the Dhyani Buddhas on the 
crown. Four Sadhanas describe her forms, which are three in number 
and conform to two distinct types, very different form each other. In 
one case, she has no head on her shoulder, but carries it in her hand, 
and in another, she has her head intact. The former form is identical 
in appearance with the Hindu goddess Cchinnamasta belonging to the 
group of ten Mahavidyas. It is therefore possible to conclude that 
this Buddhist goddess was borrowed and incorporated wholly into 
their pantheon by the Hindus. She is always accompanied by the two 
Yogims on either side of her, who are called Vajravairocani and Vajra- 
varnanl. The Sadhana describing her headless form is as follows : 

"Bhartarikarh Vajrayogmlrh...puavarnam svayameva svakartri4carti- 
ta-svamastaka-vamahastasthitam daksinahastakartrisahitam, urdhvavis^ 
trtavamabahum, adhonamitadaksinabahum, vasahsunyam, prasantadak' 
sinapadam sahkucitavamapadam, bhavayet, Kavandhannihsrtyasrkdha"' 
ra svamukhe pravisati, apare ubhayoh parsvayogmyor-mukhe pravisati 
iti bhavayet. 

Vamadaksinaparsvayoh syamavarna-Vajravarnanl-pitavarna^Vajra- 
vairocanyau vamadaksinahastakartrisahite, daksinavamahastakarppara- 
sahite, prasaritavamapadaprasaritadaksinapade sankucitetarapade muk* 
takesyau bhavayet Ubhayoh parsvayoh, ubhayor-yoginyor-madhye 
antarikse atibhayakulam smasanam bhavayet." 

Sadhanamala, p. 452-*453. 

'The worshipper should conceive himself as Bhattarika Vajrayogini 
...of yellow colour, who carries in her left hand her own head severed 
by herself with her own Kartri held in her right hand. Her left hand is 
raised upwards while the right is placed below. She is nude, and her 
right leg is stretched while the left is bent down. He (the worshipper) 
should also meditate on the streams of blood issuing from the severed 
body as falling into the mouth of the severed head and into the mouths 
of the two Yogims on either side of her. 

He (the worshipper) should also, conceive the two Yoginis to the 
left and right (of the principal goddess), the green Vajravarnam and the 
yellow Vajravairocani, both of whom carry the Kartri in their left and 



248 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

right hands respectively, and the cup made of a skull in the right and 
left hands respectively. Their left and right legs respectively are stret- 
ched forward, while the other legs are bent, and they have dishevelled 
hair. On all sides, between the two Yoginls and in the firmament there 
is the awful cremation ground'*. 

(II) RED FORM 

Colour Red Vahana Corpse 

Symbols Vajra and Kapala Asana Alldha 

The Red form is no less terrible than the one described above. 
She is surrounded on all sides by the terrible burning grounds. 
She stands in the Alidha attitude, on the orb of the sun, is in the prime 
of youth, and has red complexion. She rides the corpse, is nude, has 
three eyes, red and round, contorted brows, protruding belly and 
tongue, and is endowed with the six auspicious symbols. She carries 
the Kapala in the left hand and the Vajra in the right, while the Khat- 
vanga hangs from her left shoulder. This form of Vajrayogini is 
similar in many respects to the forms of both Nairatma and Vajra* 
varahi, so much so, indeed, that a confusion is likely to arise in the 
identification of their images. If an image shows the dancing attitude 
in Ardhaparyanka, it may be identified as Nairatma or Vajravarahi, 
but if it shows the Alidha attitude, it may have to be identified as Vajra* 
yogtni. The excrescence near the right ear arid the corpse lying on its 
chest is peculiar only to Vajravarahl ; while the absence of the excres- 
cence and the corpse lying on its back point to Nairatma. The Alidha 
attitude is peculiar only to Vajrayogini. 

(Ill) YELLOW FORM 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbols Kartri and Kapala 

She may also have a Yellow form, when according to the 
Sadhana, she will carry the Kartri ard the Kapala, but in other respects 
will be identical with the one just described Another Sadhana adds 
the information that the Kapala should be filled with the blood of the 
Devas (gods) and the Asuras (demons) and that the hand carrying the 
Kartri may show the Tarjani also 

Vajrayogini is one of the consorts of Heruka, who remains with her 
in yab-yum, and their union is the subject of the celebrated Heruka* 
Tantra. The temple of Vajrayogini at Sanku (Fig. 191) in Nepal does 
not contain an image of any of these varieties of Vajrayogini. It con* 
tains the image of Ugrataia, more popularly known as Mahaclna-Tara, 
which is believed to have been carried over there by Bengali priests 



EMANATIONS OF RATNASAMBHAVA 249 

from a place of the same name in the District of Dacca, about A. D. 
1350, when the Muhammadans led their victorious armies over Eastern 
Bengal* 

Images of Vajrayogim are found in Tibet 1 . 

8. PRASANNATARA 

Colour Yellow Faces Eight 

Arms- Sixteen 

Prasannatara is mentioned twice in the Sadhanamala, once as a com* 
panion of Astabhuja Kurukulla and once again as a principal deity in 
the Sadhana. As a companion of Kurukulla she is red, but her indepen* 
dent form shows the vellow colour. Thus in the absence of more de- 
finite information, she has to be assigned to the family of the Dhyani 
Buddha Ratnasambhava of yellow colour. The Sadhana devoted to her 
independent foim gives her the epithets of Amrtamukhi and Amrta- 
locana and there is no doubt that except for the face on the top all her 
seven faces are represented as having charmingly sweet expression. 
But she is not benign and peaceful. She is fearful like Vidyujjvalaka* 
rail, a form of Ekajata. The Dhyana describes her form m the follow- 
ing terms : 

"Hemavarnarh mahaghoram Taradevirh maharddhikam I 
Trinetram astavadanam bhujasodasabhusitam II 

Ordhvapingalakesam sardrasatardhamundamalakrtaharam. 
Pratyalldhapadopetarii jagattranarh mahabalarii I 
Vicitravastranepathyarh hasantim navayauvanam II 

Pradhanamukharh pitam daksinam dvitiyam nilarii, trtiyam syamam 
caturtham gaganasyamam, vame kundasannibhaih, dvitiyam raktam, trti* 
yamgaganasyamam urdhvasyam dhumravarnabham mahaghoram vikato- 
tkatam ; daksma-karesu khadga'Utpala-sara-vajra"ankusa-danda-kartri' 
abhayadharam ; vamabhujesu sapasatarjanl-kapala'dhanuh-khatvahga' 
vajrapasa-Brahmasirah-ratnakalasadharam ; visvapadmacandrastham 
suryyaprabhavibhusitam : vamapadena Indtarh, daksinapadena Upen^ 
dram, padadvayamadhye Rudram Brahmanam cakramya sthitam, sarva- 
varanavinasamm bhavayet. 

Prasantiatara-Sadhanarh. 51 Sadhanamala, p. 241. 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as (Prasannatara) who 
is of golden complexion, of terrible appearance, bestows prosperity, 
is three*eyed, eight-faced and sixteen-aimed. Her broun hair rises 
upwards and her necklace is made of half-a-hundred heads wet with 

1. Gordon: TLP, p. 81. 

32 



250 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

blood. She emancipates the universe and is terrible to behold. She 
stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, has smiling faces, is in the fulness of 
youth and her garments are of variegated colour. Her first face is 
yellow, the second to the right is blue, the third green, and the fourth 
blue like the sky ; the face to the left is white like the Kunda flower, 
the second red, and the third blue like the sky ; the face on the top is 
of the colour of smoke, terrible in appearance, distorted and disfigured. 
In her eight right hands are : 1 . the Khatvanga, 2. the Uptala, 3. the 
arrow, 4. the Vajra, 5. the Ankusa, 6. the staff, 7. the Kartri 
and 8. the Abhaya pose ; and in the left 1. the noose with the 
Tarjam, 2. the Kapala, 3. the bow, 4. the Khatvanga, 5. the 
Vajra, 6. the noose, 7. the head of Brahma, and 8. the vessel of 
gems. She stands on the moon over the double lotus, is radiant with 
the glow of the sun, tramples under her left foot Indra, under the right 
Upendra, and presses Rudra and Brahma between the two, and destroys 
the veils of ignorance". 

Fig. 192 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the goddess which tallies 
with the Sadhana in major details. 



CHAPTER XI 

COLLECTIVE DEITIES 

It has been pointed out earlier that the Buddhists, in the medieval 
age started an unrelenting process of deification by turning all objects, 
cosmic principles, literature, letters of the alphabet, the directions and 
even the desires into gods and goddesses, with forms, colour, poses of 
sitting, and weapons. In this manner the ten directions, eight kinds 
of head-dress, the different kinds of protection, the dances, musical 
instruments, components of the door, four kinds of light, important 
animals, and various other things were all deified with form, colour and 
weapons. In this chapter these collective deities will be briefly 
described. 

I. TEN GODS OF DIRECTION 

The process of deification was applied in Vajrayana to the four 
cardinal directions, North, South, JEast and West, and the four interme- 
diate corners, such as Vayu, Agni, Isana and Nairrta. With the top-Aid 
the bottom the quarters numbered ten, and thus the Buddhist Tantras 
added ten gods of the quarters to the already numerous gods in their pan- 
theon. The deities of the ten quarters are not, however, the monopoly of 
the Buddhists, and it is believed that the Buddhists were indebted to the 
Hindus for the deification of the quarters. Amongst the Hindus the 
eight Dikpalas are commonly found in the Puranas and Tantric works. 
The Dikpalas are supposed to guard the ten quarters, and are said to be 
the presiding deities of these directions, or in other words, they are 
regarded as the embodiments of these quarters in the form of deities. 

The Buddhists improved upon the original ideas of the Hindus and 
showed in an artistic style their origin in an Assembly of the Faithful 
where the Highest Lord sits in different Samadhis (meditations), and 

^ (Hf #+ 

the rays issuing out of his body Condense themselves first into syllables 
which give rise to the different Guardians of the Gates This process of 
deification is described in the first chapter of the Guhyasamaja a resume 
of which is already given in this book in the very first chapter. 

These deities of the ten quarters are frequently mentioned in the 
Sadhanas. In the Mandates of the Nispannayogavall they are invariably 



252 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

present and their places are accurately stated. They are always collec- 
tively mentioned in the Mandalas or Circles of deities where the direc- 
tions play an important part. Their chief function is to remove all 
sorts of obstacles for the protection of Dharma. 

The ten deities of the quarters are described differently in the 
different Mandalas in the Nispannayogavali, and they are sometimes 
represented along with their Saktis often in close embrace. They are 
often violent in appearance, and although it is not possible here to deal 
with all their forms, it is not reasonable to omit a reference to them in 
the present state of our knowledge of the Buddhist pantheon. The ten 
deities are, therefore, described here one after another in their recog- 
nized order, with the relevant passages from the Nispannayogavali des- 
cribing their forms 

1. YAMANTAKA 

Colour Blue Arms Six 

Faces Three Direction East 

Yamantaka presides over the East and is one of the popular deities 
of the Buddhist pantheon He is also known as Yamari who is often 
endowed with two forms known as Krsna- Yamari and Rakta- Yamari. 
Some of his forms and Sadhanas have alredy been dealt with in an 
earlier chapter. Independant Tantras are also ascribed to his worship. 
As a guardian of the Eastern quarter Yamantaka is described in the 
Manjuvajra Mandala of the Nispannayogavali, along with his nine other 
colleagues. He is described there as : 

"Tatra purvasyam arayam Yamantakahkrsnah krsnasitaraktamukhah 
krsnavajramudgara-khadga-mani-kamaladhari". NSP, p. 1 

"On the Eastern spoke of the wheel there is Yamantaka of blue 
colour. His three faces have blue, white and red colour. He holds in 
his four hands the hammer marked with the blue Vajra, the sword, 
the jewel and the lotus." 

4 

Yamantaka is six-armed like all other Krodha deities of the quarters. 
All the Krodha deities including Yamantaka embrace their Saktis with 
their two principal hands. 

In the Vajrahufikara Mandala his second name is given as Vajra- 
danda. His images are found in China l as also in Tibet 2 . 

1. Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 52, 73 

2, Gordon : ITL, p. 90 ; Getty : GNB, p. 164 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 253 

2. PRAJNANTAKA 

Clour White Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction South 

The second deity in the series is Prajnantaka who presides over the 
Southern direction. He is described in the same Mandala as : 

"Daksinasyam Prajnantakah sitah [ska] krsnaraktamukho Vajrahki- 
tasitadandasimanipadmadhari/' NSP, p. 2 

"In the South, there is Prajnantaka, who is white in colour having 
three faces of white > blue and red colour* In his four handb he shows 
the white staff marked with a Vajra, the sword, the jewel and the 
lotus." 

The two other hands hold the Sakti. In the Vajrahunkara Mandala 
his second name is given as Vajrakundali. His images are found in 
China '. 

3. PADMANTAKA 
Colour Red Faces Three 
Arms Six Direction West 

The third Lord of the quarters is Padmantaka who is described in the 
Nispannayogavali with the following words : 

"Pascimayam Padmantako raktah raktamlasitasyo raktapadmasima- 
nicakradhari" NSP, p. 2 

"Padmantaka is in the West and is red in colour with three faces of 
red, blue and white colour. He holds the red lotus, the sword, the 
jewel and the discus." 

The two principal hands hold the Sakti in embrace. In the Vajra- 
huhkara Mandala he is known by the name of Vajrosmsa. His images 
are found in China y . 

4. VIGHNANTAKA 

Colour Green Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction North 

The fourth deity in the series is Vighnantaka who is already well- 
known and an account of whom appears in an earliar chapter of this 
book. Vighnantaka as the lord of the North appears in the Nispannayo* 
gavall as follows : 

"Uttarasyam Vighnantako haritah haritasitaraktamukhah karSlavaj* 
rasimanipadmadharl." NSP, p. 2 

L Clark : TLP, II, p, 59 

2. For his statuette in China as Vajro$ni?a, see Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 65* 49* 



254 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Vighnantaka is in the North and is green in colour. His three 
faces show green, white and red colour. He holds the fearful Vajra, 
the sword, the jewel and the lotus." 

The principal hands embrace the Sakti as usual. In the Vajrahuhka- 
ra Mandala his second name is Analarka. His images are found in 
China l . 

5. TAKKIRAJA 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction Agni 

Takkiraja as the guardian of the Agni corner is very frequently 
referred to in the NispannayogavaK. He is described as : 

"Agneyyam Takkirajo nilah mlasitaraktasyo mladandakhadgaman' 
yabjadhan." NSP, p. 2 

'Takkiraja is in the Agni corner and is blue in colour. His three 
faces are blue, white and red. He holds the blue staff, the sword, the 
jewel and the lotus/' 

The two principal hands hold the Sakti as usual. 

In the Vajrahuhkara Mandala his name is Vajrayaksa. In the Dhar~ 
madhatuvaglsvara Mandala he is Vajrajvalanalarka. His images are 
found in China 2 . 

6. NfLADANDA. 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction Nairrta 

The sixth deity in the series is Niladanda who is the presiding deity 
of the Nairrta corner. His form is described as : 

"Nairrtyam Niladandah krsnah krsnasitaraktasyo niladandakhadga* 
mariyabja'dhan." NSP, p. 2. 

"In the Nairrta corner appears Niladanda who is of blue colour 

having three faces of blue, white and red colour. He holds the blue 
staff, the sword, the jewel and the lotus." 

The two principal hands hold the Sakti. 

In the Vajrahuhkara Mandala his name is Vajrakala. But in the 
Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala his name is Herukavajra. His images 
are found in China *. 

L Clark : TLP, II, pp. 217,311 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 303 (as Takkiraja) pp. 66, 145, 269 (as Vajrayaksa). 

3. Clark : TLP, II, p. 49 (as Nifadaijda); and p. 75 (as Vajrakala), 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 255 

7. MAHABALA 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction Vayu 

The seventh deity in the series is Mahabala, who is the presiding 
deity of the intermediate corner of Vayu. His form is described in the 
Nispannayogavall in the following words : 



"Vayavyam Mahabalah krsnah krsnasitaraktamukhah trisulasimanik' 
amaladhari." NSP, p. 2* 

"In the Vayu corner appears Mahabala of blue colour with three 
faces of blue, white and red colour. He holds the Trisula, the sword, 
the jewel and the lotus. " 

As usual, with the principal hands he holds the Sakti. 

In the Vajrahuhkara Mandala he is given the name of Mahakala. But 
in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala he is known as Paramasva. His 
images are found in China 1 . 

8. ACALA 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction Isana 

Acala is the eighth deity in the series, and is regarded as the presid- 
ing deity of the Isana corner. His form is several times described in 
the Nispannayogavall. It is probable that this deity is the same as 
Acala who is known as Candarosana and is described already in an 
earlier chapter. 

The description of his form is given below : 

"Aisanyam Acalo mlakekarah nilasitaraktasyah khadgavajramanipa- 
dmadhari." " * NSP, p. 2 

"In the Isana corner there is Acala with blue complexion. His three 
faces are blue, white and red. He holds the sword, the Vajra, the jewel 
and the lotus. " 

In the two principal hands he holds the Sakti in embrace. 

In the Vajrahuhkara Mandala he is given the name of Vajrabhisana, 
but in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala his name is Trailokyavijaya. 
His images are found in China 2 . 

L Clark : TLP, II, pp. 49, 217 (as Mahabala) p. 75 (as Mahakalavajra) 
2. Clark : TLP, II, p, 116 (as Trailokyavijaya) 



256 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

9. USNFSA 

Colour Yellow Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction Up 

The ninth deity in this series is Usmsa who is also known as Usmsa- 
cakravarti, and presides over the sky above. His form is described thus 
in the Nispannayogavali : 

"Ordhve Usmsacakarvarti pitah pltanilaraktasyah pitacakrakhadga^ 
manipadmadhari." NSP, p. 2 

u ln the upper region there is Usmsacakravarti of yellow colour. His 
three faces are yellow, blue and red. He holds the yellow discus, the 
sword, the jewel and the lotus/' 

His two principal hands hold the Sakti as usual. His images are 
found in China ] . 

10. SUMBHARAjA 
Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Six Direction Down 

The tenth deity in this series, is Sumbharaja who is the embodiment 
of the Nether regions. His form is described in the Manjuvajramandala 
as follows : 

"Adhah Sumbharajo nibh nilasitaraktasyo vajrakhadgamanikamala" 
bhrt." NSP, p. 2 

"Below is Sumbharaja who is blue in colour. His three faces are 
blue, white and red. He holds in his four hands the Vajra, the sword, 
the jewel and the lotus." 

With the two principal hands he holds the Sakti in embrace. 

In the Vajrahuhkara Mandala he is known by the name of Vajrapata- 
la. He is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

II. SIX GODDESSES OF DIRECTION 

Just as there are ten gods of the quarters for all the Mandalas of 
principal gods, even so there are six goddesses presiding over the six 
quarters, with different names and different weapons in their hands. 
An account of these goddesses is not only interesting but also very 
important for the purpose of identifying deities of the Buddhist panthe- 
on. Their names and weapons are recorded in the Mandala of Vajra- 
tara in the Nispannayogavali (p. 38) as also in the Vajratarasadhanam 
(p*. 185) in the Sadhanamala. If Puspa, Dhupa, Dipa and Gandha are 
added, the number will be ten for the directions. 

~ 1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 76 



257 




33 



Fig. 103 Khasarpana 
(Vikrampur, Dacca) 



258 




Fig, 105 Lokanatha 
(Mahoba) 



259 





3 



VO 'tJ 

2 

14 















03 

a 



3 






260 




tf 

i-l 

> 

M 

c3 ^ 







CO 

J3 

S x-' 

J2 ^ : 

B A 

^r 

ON 2 
O ^ 



2P 
E 




261 




C* 
OS 

J3 
irt 

., 

et 




a 

M 
U 

cd 

cd 

s 







262 




tuD 




2 

03 





263 



as 

|CS 

1 

C/5 
ON 



PL, 



s, 






I 



OO 



Dp 

E 




C 
03 

.22 
*3 

I 

CO 



DJD 

E 



264 




C 



Op 






$= 
*S 




O 

r-4 




265 




05 
03 

2 

I 

u 



-> 




^M 



34 



266 




03 



8P 



ac 

00 




OJ 

73 



CD 

CM 




a. 

03 



CQ 




267 



jl 

o 

rn 




DD 



268 












OS 

t-4 

JS 



OD 




cd 

> 

-co 



269 




DJD 

d 

ICT5 



CJD 




tOJ 

H 



VO 



OJD 




led 

H 

cfl 
**U 

103 

I 



270 




O 







W 



S PLi 




a I 



00 






271 




irt 



CO 

u 

2 



OJO 





272 



IOJ 





10* 



OS 
J-J 

P-4 



OJ 

>* 

4_> 

03 



273 



, \ 




Fig. 148 Nairatmi 
(Indian Museum) 



35 



274 




"5- 

rt 










I 



~r & 

W) '~K/> 




'2 
ID 



2 

DC 



Q 

fs- 

^t- 

r~t 

50 



275 




Fig, 152 Astabhuja Marici 
(Indian Museum) 



276 




o 
"C 





cd ^^ 

II 



277 



y 




Fig. 156 Usnisavijaya 
(Indian Museum) 



278 




ICtf 



icd 

*- 
<M 

03 
Q* 

cd 

*- 
led 
*-* 

CO 
00 




IC3 



> 
cd 




03 

Q 



279 






_C 

2 

IOS 



* 
o\ 



DJO 



280 




led 

H3 

ij 









281 




Fig. 166 Khadiravanl Tara 
(Mahoba) 



36 



282 




"I'i 

i 



oo 






ica 

H 



2 

^5- 

a 




_ 

las 



as 

*-. 



db 2 



O 



284 




J 
Q 



CUD 



e 




ICti 

i-i 
ICQ 

4-f 

.g 

c/5 



O) 



ios 

OJ 

^ 

o 



285 




Fig. 173 Parnasaban 
(Vajrayogini, Vikrampur) 



286 




C9 

r I 

rt 





287 




Fig. 177 Jambhala 
(Vilcrarnf>wr, Dacca) 



288 




IOJ ^ 

S S 

2 H 
"5 s 5 

> s 
s 




6 

ca 

ON 




S 

oo -g* 

r- 6 




289 



103 

{-( 

'2 

03 ^^ 

I I 

'^ 

00 ^t 




icd 

4-> 
Ctf 




IC3 

4-> 

cs 



00 

14 

o . 



37 



290 







CO 

rt 



B 



in 







Si 



3: 

00 



291 




ICtf 

w 

03 



ON 



OD 



S 5S 

> s 

GO -S 

OO o 



'2 

103 



to 

OJ 



QO 



292 




Ctf 

C 

G 

OS 



* Ox 





293 





103 

*-> 


a 
</> 

03 



ON 




fca 



bo 



SS. 



294 




c 

ICO 

CO 

G 



c 

CO 



DJD 




c 

03 





2 

CO 
CO 

~C 
ICO 

CO 

ICO 



o\ 



. 

PH 




'2 

CO 

.22 

wu> 

2 
ex 

rctf 

ca 



tE 




295 



Ig 

H 



ctf 

tJ a 

as ^s 




s 

led 












| 

led 

i 

ON 






296 





CO 

6 




COLLECTIVE DEITIES 297 

1. VAJRANKUSI 

Colour White Face One 

Arms Two Direction East 

Symbol Goad 

The first goddess in the series is Vajrahkusi who is the presiding 
deity of the Eastern direction. Her form is as follows ; 

"Purvadvare Vajrankusi (sukla) suklankusahkasav^akara". 

NSP, p. 38. 

"On the Eastern gate is Vajrankusi white in colour holding in her 
right hand the white Goad". 

The left hand shows like the rest the raised index firmer. Her ixrages 
are found in China * . 

2. VAJRAPAsf 

Colour Yellow Face One 

Arms Two Direction South 

Symbol Noose 

The second goddess in the seiies is Vajrapasi who is the piesiding 
deity of the Southern quarter. Her form is as follows : 

"Daksine Vajrapasi pita pasabhrt-savyapanipallava*'. 

NSP, P . 38. 

' 'In the South is Vajrapasi, yellow in colour holding in the right 
hand the Noose". 

She shows the raised index linger in the left band. Her image is 
found in China J . One of the Chinese statuettes is illustrated in 
Fig. 193. 

3. VAJRASPHOTA 
Colour Red Face One 

Arms Two Direction West 

Symbol Chain 

The third goddess m the series is Vajrasphota as the presiding deity 
of the Western direction. Her form is given as under : 

"Pascime Vajrasphota rakta vajrasphotahkasavyakara" 

NSP, p. 38. 

1. Clark : TLP, II. p. 64 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 64 
38 



298 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"In the West, there is Vajrasphota, red in colour, holding in her 
right hand the Chain marked with a Vajra". 

The left hand as usual displays the raised index finger. There are 
statuettes of this deity in China l . One of the Chinese statuettes is 
illustrated in Fig. 194. 

4. VAJRAGHANTA 

Colour Green Face One 

Arms Two Direction North 

Symbol Bell 

The fourth deity in the series is Vajraghanta, who is the embodiment 
of the Northern direction and is described as follows : 



"Uttare Vajraghanta syama vajraghantahkadaksinabhuja''. 

NSP, p. 38 

"In the North there is Vajraghanta, green in colour, holding in her 
right hand the Bell", 

The left hand of the goddess displays as usual the raised index finger. 
A statuette of this goddess occurs in the Chinese collection -. 

5. USNISAVIJAYA 

Colour White FaceOne 

Arms Two Direction Up 

S y mbol Discus 

The fifth goddess in the series is Usmsavijaya who is the presiding 
deity of the Upper region. Her form is described thus : 

"Urddhve Usmsavijaya sukla cakrabhrtsavyabhuja". 

NSP, p. 38 

"In the upper region there is goddess Usnisavijaya, white in colour, 
holding the Discus in her right hand". 

The left hand of the goddess displays as usual the raised index finger. 
A statuette of this deity occurs in China 3 . 



u Qark: 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 286. 

3. Clark : TLP, II p. 65. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 299 

6. SUMBHA 

Colour Blue Face One 

Arms Two Direction Down 

Symbol Noose of Snake 

The sixth and the last goddess in the series is Sumbha who is the 
presiding deity ot the Nether region. Her form is described as 
under : 

"Adhah Sumbha nila savyena nagapasadhara" 

NSP, p. 38 

"Below is Sumbha blue in colour, holding in her left hand the 
Nocse made of a snake 1 '. 

Her left hand as usual displays the raised index finger. She is not 
represented in the Chinese collection. 

III. EIGHT USNISA GODS 

In Vajrayana there is a class of gods going under the generic name 
of Usmsas. The word Usmsa means 'the crown' but the deities have 
nothing to do with the crown. They are usually placed like the gods of 
Direction, in the four principal directions and the four intermediate 
corners. These eight Usmsa gods seem to be an extension of the four 
Dhyani Buddhas, and they show their characteristic symbols and 
mudras. They are nevertheless popular in Tantric works, and their 
statues are found in China. Hence it is necessary to make a passing 
reference to these Usmsa gods briefly, for without an account of these 
this chapter is likely to be incomplete. Below is given a description of 
these special deities in the same order as they appear in the Durpati- 
parisodhana Mandala of the Nispannayogavall, The Usmsa deities 
like all other deities of the Mandala are two-armed and one-faced. They 
wear rich dress and ornaments, and a bejewelled crown. They sit on 
human beings* 

1. VAJROSNISA 

Colour White Symbol Bhusparsa 

Direction East 

The first deity in this Usmsa series of gods is Vajrosmsa and his 
form is described thus : 

"Purvare Vajrosnisah suklo Bhusparsamudrah". 

NSP, p. 66 



300 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"On the Eastern spoke there is Vajrosmsa of white colour. He 
shows the Bhusparsa (Earth-touching) mudra". 

A statue of this god is found in the Chinese collection l . Fig. 195 
illustrates this Chinese statuette. 

2. RATNOSNISA 

Colour Blue Symbol Varada 

Direction South 

The second deity in the Usnisa series of gods is Ratnosmsa and his 
form is described as under : 

"Daksinare Ratnosmso nilo Varadamudrayanvitah". 

NSP, p. 66. 

"On the Southern spoke there is Ratnosmsa who is blue in colour 
and shows the Varada mudra". 

His statuette is not found in the Chinese collection. 

3. PADMOSNlSA 

Colour Red Symbol Dhyana 

Direction West 

The third deity in the series of eight Usnisa gods is called Padmo^ 
smsa and his form is described as under : 

"Pascimare Padmosmso rakto Dhyanamudrayanvitah" 

NSP, p. 66 

"On the Western spoke there is Padmosmsa who is red in colour 
and shows the Dhyana mudra". 

He is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

4. VISVOSN1SA 

Colour Green Symbol Abhaya 

Direction North 

The fourth deity in the series of eight Usnisa gods is called Visvo- 
snisa and his form is described as under : 

"Uttarare Visvosmso harito Abhayapradah". 

NSP, p. 66. 



1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 65 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 301 

"On the Northern spoke there is Visvosnlsa who is green in colour 
and shows the Abhaya mudra". 

He is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

5. TEJOSNISA 

Colour Whitish red Symbol Sun 

Direction Agm 

The fifth deity in the series of the eight Usmsa gods is called Tejo- 
snisa, and his form is described as under : 

'Agneyare Tejosmsah sitaraktamisravarnah suryabhrddaksinapanih 
katisthavamakarah". 

NSP, p. 66 

41 On the spoke in the Agni corner there is Tejosmsa of whitish red 
colour. In his right hand he holds the disc of the sun while the left 
rests on the hip". 

A statuette of his is found in the Chinese collection under the title 
of Tejorasyusmsa *. 

6. DHVAJOSNTsA 

Colour Reddish blue Symbol Cintamani Banner 

Direction Nairrta 

The sixth deity in the series of eight Usmsa gods is called Dhvajosm- 
sa, and his form is described in the following words : 

"Nairrtyare Dhvajosmso raktamisrakrsnah Cintamanidhvajadha' 
rah karabhyam" NSP, p. 66 

"On the spoke in the Nairrta corner there is Dhvajosmsa who is 
reddish blue in colour. He holds in his two hands the Cintamani 
banner" 

He is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

7. TIKSNOSNISA 

Colour Sky*green Symbol Sword and Book 

Direction - Vayu 

The seventh deity in the series of eight Usmsa gods is called Tiksno- 
smsa, and his form is described in the following words : 

"Vayavyare TIksnosnIso nabhahsyamo daksinapanina krpanarh vibh* 
rano vamena pustakarh." NSP, p. 66 



1. Clark : TLF, II, p. 158 



302 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"On the spoke in the Vayu corner there is Tlksnosmsa of sky-green 
colour* He holds in the right hand the sword and in the left hand a 
manuscript.'' 

His statuette is found in the Chinese collection l . 

8. CHHATROSNISA 

Colour White Symbol Parasol 

Direction Isana 

The eighth and the last deity in the series of eight Usnlsa gods is 
called Chhatrosnisa, and his form is described thus : 

"Isanare Chhatrosmso subhro bhujabhyam chhatram vibhranah. 

NSP, p. 66 

''On the spoke in the Isana corner there is Chhatrosnisa who is of 
white colour, and holds in his two hands the Chhatra (parasol). 
He is not represented in the Chinese collection, 

IV. FIVE PROTECTRESSES 



The five protectresses or the Raksa deities as they are called in 
Tantric works, are popular and well-known amongst the Mahayana 
Buddhists, particularly of Nepal. A manuscript copy of the Pancar- 
aksa describing the five Raksa deities, their worship on different occa- 
sions and their powers, is to be found in almost every Buddhist house- 
hold in Nepal. Such manuscripts are often very artistically written and 
they bear miniature pictures of not only the five Raksa deities but also 
of other Buddhist deities such as the Dhyani Buddhas and their Saktis* 
That their worship was much in vogue is evident from the fact that 
their images either in stone or in metal are met with in almost all mona- 
steries. The miniatures reproduced here are from a manuscript of 
Pancaraksa in the possession of Dr. Evans Wentz. 

The reason why the five Raksa deities are popular is to be found 
in the Sadhanamala According to this authority the five Raksa 
deities, when worshipped, grant long life. They protect kingdoms, 
villages and meadows. They protect men from evil spirits, diseases and 
famines, and from all possible dangers that may befall mankind. The 
Pancaraksa is recited in all varieties of domestic difficulties, such as, 
illnesses, adversities, loss of wealth, cattle, etc. 

All the five deities are worshipped either singly or collectively in a 
Mandala. A description of the Pancaraksa Mandala occurs both in 
the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavall. In both Mahapratisara 

1. Clark : TIP, II, p. 131 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 303 

is the central or the principal deity while the four others occupy the 
four cardinal directions. Below is given a description of the five Raksa 
deities as it appears in the Nispannayogavali. 

1. MAHAPRATISARA 

Colour Yellow Faces Four 

Arms Twelve Symbol Jewel 

The place of Mahapratisara is in the centre of the Mandala, and 
her form is described in the Nispannayogavali in the following words : 

" Mahapratisara pitabharaktaprabhamandalacaturmukha, mulamukharh 
pitam, savyam sitam, pascimarh mlam, vamam raktam. Daksine ratna* 
cchata-cakra-vajra'sara-khadga^varadamudrah. Vamair^vajram pasam tri- 
sularh dhanuh parasum sankham ca bibhratlti dvadasabhuja. Caitya- 
lankrtasiraska vajraparyankasma". NSP, p. 42 

" Mahapratisara has a yellowish red halo and is four-faced. The 
first face is yellow, the right is white, the face behind is blue and the 
left is of red colour. In her six right hands she holds : 1. the jewel, 
2. the discus, 3. the Vajra, 4 the arrow, 5. the sword and 6. the 
Varada mudra. In the six left hands she displays : 1. the Vajra. 2. the 
noose, 3. the trident, 4. the bow, 5. the axe and 6, the conch. 
Thus the deity is twelve-armed. Her head is beautified with a Caitya, 
and she sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude". 

The form described in the Sadhanamala is somewhat different. In 
this work she has only eight arms instead of twelve. Fig. 196 illustrates 
a miniature of Mahapratisara in the collection of Dr. Evant> Wentz. 
She is also popular in Tibet l and her statuette occurs in the Chinese 
collection of Peiping a . 

2. MAHAsAHASRAPRAMARDANl 

Colour White Faces Four 

Arms Ten Symbol Discus 

Mahasahasrapramardani is the second deity in the group of five 
Raksa deities and she is assigned to the eastern direction. Her form is 
described in the Nispannayogavali in the following words : 

"Purvasyam disi Mahasahasrapramardani visvambhojacandre lalitak- 
sepena nisanna sukla candraprabhamandala caturmukhl. Mulam sitam, 
savyam krsnam, prstharh pitam, vamam haritam. Savyabhujaih padma- 
sthastaracakram varadam ankusam banam krpananca. Vamairvajram 
tarjaniih pasarh dhanuh pasanceti dasabhuja." NSP, p. 42. 

1. For a Tibetan specimen see Gordon : ITL, p. 76. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 190, 216, 276 as Pratisara. 



304 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"In the East there is Mahasahasrapramardani sitting in the Lalita 
attitude on the orb of the moon placed on a double lotus. She is 
white in colour, has a halo of the white moon and is fouivfaced. Her 
principal face is of white colour, the right blue, the face behind is 
yellow and the left is of green colour. In her five right hands she shows 
1. the eight*spoked wheel on a lotus, 2. the Varada mudia, 3. the 
goad, 4. the arrow and 5. the sword. In her five left hands she exhibits 
1 the Vajra, 2. the raised index finger (Tarjam), 3. the noose 
4. the bow and 5. the noose Thus she is ten-armed". 

The Sadhanamala describes her form somewhat differently Here 
the deity has only eight arms instead of ten. Her images are widely 
known in Nepal, and in Tibet and China her statuettes are iound l . 

Fig. 197 illustrates a miniature in the collection of Dr. Evans Wentz 

3. MAHAMANTRANUSARlNl 

Colour Blue Faces Three 

Arms Twelve Symbol Vajra 

The form of this third Raksa deity is described in the Nispannayo- 
gavali in the following words : 

u Daksinasyarh visvambhojasurye suryaprabha Mahaman f tranusarinl 
vajraparyankini krsna krsnasitarakta-mula- avyavamamukhi. Dvada- 
sabhuja. Savyetarabhyam dharmacakramudiam bibhrana aparabhyam 
samadhimudram. Aparair-daksinair^vajra-bana-varad'abhayamudrah. 
Vamais-tarjanipasam caparh ratnacchatarh padmankitakalasam ca'\ 

NSP, p. 42. 

"In the South on the orb of the sun over a double lotus there is 
Mahamantranusanm with the halo of the sun. She sits in the Vajra* 
paryahka attitude and is blue in colour Her principal face is blue, 
the right is white and the left is red. She is twelve-armed. With one 
pair of hands she displays the 2. Dharmocakra mudra. With 
another pair of hands she exhibits the 4- Samadhi mudra. In the 
remaining four right hands she shows 5. the Vajra, 6. the arrow, 
7. the Varada and 8, the Abha>a mudras. The remaining four 
left hands exhibit 9. the Tarjam with the noose, 10. the bow, 11 the 
jewel and 12. the jar marked with a lotus 1 '. 

Like the other deities of the Pancaraksa group Mahamantranusarinl 
is also widely represented. She was probably known in China under 

1, For Tibetan specimens, see Gordon : ITL p. 76 ; Getty : GNB, p. 138. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 305 

the title of Mantranudharini l . Fig. 198 illustrates a miniature of the 
goddess in the collection of Dr. Evans Wentz. Here as well as in the 
Sadhanamala the goddess is twelve-armed. 2 . 

4. MAHA&TAVATI 

Colour Red Faces Thi ee 

Arms Eight Symbol Lotus 

The fourth deity in the series of five Raksa goddesses is named as 
Mahasitavati to whom the western direction is assigned. Her form is 
described in the Nispannayogavali thus : 

"Pascimayarh visvabjasurye ardhaparyahkanisanna suryaprabha 
Mahasitavati rakta rakta-sita-krsnamulasavyetaravaktra. Astabhuja. 
Savyaih sapadmabhayarh, saram, vajrarh, khadgam. Vamais*tarjam- 
pasarh, capam, ratnadhvajarh, hrdi pustakam ca bibhrati". 

NSP, p. 42 

*'ln the West on the orb of the sun on a double lotus there is 
Mahasitavati sitting in the Ardhaparyahka attitude with the halo of 
of the sun. She is red in colour, and her faces show the red, the white 
and the blue colour in the first, the right and the left faces respectively. 
She is eight-armed. In the four right hands she displays 1. the lotus with 
the Abhaya mudra, 2. the arrow, 3. the Vajra and 4. the sword. In 
the four left hands she shows 1. the noose with the Tar jam, 2. the 
bow, 3. the jewel banner and 4. the manuscript against the chest". 

In the Sadhanamala she is six-armed and green in colour. She is 
widely represented in Buddhist countries. Under the title of Sitavati 
she is known to the Chinese collection at Peiping B . Fig. 199 is an 
illustration of her miniature in the collection of Dr. Evans Wentz 4 * 

5. MAHAMAYUR1 
Colour Green Faces Three 

Arms Eight Symbol Mendicant on Bowl 

Mahamayuri is the fifth and the last deity of the Pancaraksa Mandala 
of the Nispannyogavall. Her form is described in the following words : 

"Uttarasyam visvabjacandre candraprabha sattvaparyahkl Mahamay- 
uri harita harita-krsna-sukla-mulasavyetaravaktra. Astabhuja. Savyair- 
mayiirapiccham banam varadarh khadgam ca. Vamaih patropari 
bhiksum capam utsahgastharatnacchatavarsighatam visvavajraratnanka- 
dhvajam ca bibhrana." NSP, p. 42 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 205, 275. 

2. For a Tibetan specimen, see Gordon : 1TL, p. 76. 

3. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 206, 275. 

4. For a Tibetan specimen, see Gordon : ITL, p. 76 

39 



306 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"In the North on the orb of the moon on a double lotus, with the 
halo of the moon and sitting on a man, there is Mahamayurl. She 
is green in colour, and her three faces show the green, the white and 
the blue colour in the first, the right and the left faces respectively. She 
is eight-armed. In the four right hands she holds 1. the jewel, 2. the 
arrow, 3. the Varada mudra and 4- the sword. In the four left hands 
she shows 1. the medicant on the bowl, 2. the bow, 3. the jar on 
the lap showering jewels, and 4 the banner marked with the double 
Vajra and the jewel". 

The description of the goddess in the Sadhanamala is somewhat 
different. Here she is endowed with the yellow colour* But in both 
places she is eight-armed. Like the other Raksa deities Mahamayurl is 
widely represented. She is known in Tibet l and in the Chinese collec- 
tion at Peiping 2 . Fig. 200 illustrates a miniature in the collection of 
Dr. Evans Wentz. 

According to a statement in the Nispannayogavali any one of the five 
Raksa deities may become a leader in the Mandala and occupy the 
central position. All the other deities in that case will become her 
subordinate companions. 

V. TARAS OF FIVE COLOUR 

Strictly speaking, only those deities can be called Taras to whom the 
mantia : Om Tare Tuttare Ture Svaha is assigned. In the simplest form 
Taras carry the night lotus in the left hand and exhibit the Varada 
mudra in the right. Some of them bear the miniature image of Amo- 
ghasiddhi on their crowns, but others may not have any effigy of the 
Dhyani Buddha. It is therefore difficult to identify their images, parti- 
cularly in stone where no definite colour can be seen. Special attention 
should therefore be paid not only to the particular pose in which the 
different Taras sit but also to their companions in order to arrive at a 
correct identification. In this section an attempt will be made to 
indicate the characteristic features of the numerous Taras described in 
the Sadhanas for the purpose of differentiation. 

In the Tantric works there are so many different varieties of Tara 
that it is physically impossible to classify them correctly without 
reference to their peculiar colour. All Taras are therefore brought 
together under one head in this section. From the colour of the 
different Taras it will be possible to refer them to their respective Kulas 
or families presided over by the five Dhyani Buddhas. 



1. For Tibetans specimen, see ITL, pp. 74, 76 ; Getty : GNB, pp. 137-138 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 206, 275. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 307 

A, GREEN TAR A ' 

1. Khadiravam Tara shows the Varada mudra in the right hand and 
the night lotus in the left. She can be identified by the presence of 
Asokakanta Marici and Ekajata. 

2. Vasyatara has as her characteristic feature the Bhadrasana or 
the European fashion of sitting. It may be noticed however that she 
is described as single and as such is not accompanied by any god or 
goddess. 

3. Aryatara. The characteristic feature of this form of Tara is 
that she sits in the Ardhaparyahka attitude and like Vasyatara is entirely 
alone. 

4. Mahattari Tara may be distinguished by the Vajraparyahka 
attitude in which she sits, and also by the fact of her being represen- 
ted without any companion whatsoever (Fig, 210). 

5. Varada Tara sits m the Ardhaparyanka attitude like Aryatara 
but she can be easily recognised by the presence of four goddesses 
Asokakanta Marici, Mahama^uri, Ekajata and Janguli. (cf. Mahasri 
Tara). 

6. DurgottarinI Tara has green complexion, the lotus for 
her seat, and garments of white colour; she has four arms and she 
carries m the first pair of hands the noose and the goad and displays in 
the second the lotus and the Varada mudra. 

7. Dhanada Tara carries the book and the rosary in the first 
pair of hands, while the second pair carries objects similar to those 
held by DurgcttarmL She has an animal for her Vahana, is accom* 
panied by eight goddevsses originating from the eight syllables of her 
mantra and bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on the crown. 

8. Jahguli emanates from Aksobhya and may have three 
different colour, yellow, white and green. When green, she is fouiv 
armed, and carries the Trisula, the peacock's feathers and a snake in 
three hands and exhibits the Abhaya mudra in the fourth. 

9. Parnasaban when green, emanates from Amoghasiddhi 
and when yellow from Aksobhya, and as such, both of her forms have 
already been described. She is generally three- faced and six-armed 
but may in rare cases, have four arms also. The peculiarity of the 
green variety is that all the three faces depict irritated smile (sakrodha- 
hasitananarh). 

J . Getty : GNB, p. 123 gives a list of Taras of green colour. 



308 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

B. WHITE TARA ' 

1. Astamahabhaya Tara. The distinguishing feature of this form 
of Tara is that she sits in the Ardhaparyahka attitude and is surrounded 
by ten goddesses originating from the ten syllables of the Tara 
mantra : Om Tare Tut tare Ture Svaha. These ten deities are identical 
in appearance with the principal deity. 

2. Mrtyuvancana Tara. The distinctive feature of this form of 
Tara is that she bears a wheel on her chest. She is absolutely unatten- 
ded and sits in the Vajraparyaiika attitude. 

3. Caturbhuja-Sitatara. Her form has already been described as 
an emanation of the DhvSni Buddha Amoghasiddhi. She has four 
arms and exhibits in the first pair of hands the Utpala mudra, and the 
lotus, and the Varada pose in the second. She may be recognized 
by the presence of two goddesses, Mahamayurl and Maricl. 

4. Sadbhuja-Sitatara. As she bears the image of Amoghasiddhi 
on the crown, her form has already been described. She is three- faced 
and six-armed and has no companions. 

5. Visvamata. She has been described in the Sadhanamala as 
one-faced, with the white complexion of the moon, white garments and 
a white serpent as her Vahana. She carries the white lotus in the left 
hand and exhibits the Abhaya pose in the right. She has not been 
described as bearing any image of her sire. 

6. Kurukulla as an emanation of Amitabha of red colour generally 
assumes the red colour, but when two-armed, she has, according to the 
Sadhanamala the white colour. She carries the rosary and the bowl of 
lotus, and her Vahana is an animal. 

7. Janguli as an emanation of Aksobhya ought to be of blue colour, 
but according to the Sadhanamala she may have three colour, white 
yellow or green. When white she is one-faced and four-armed, plays 
on the Vina with the first pair of hands, and shows the white serpent 
and the Abhaya pose in the second. 

C. YELLOW TARA * 

1. Vajratara. She is yellow, has four faces and eight arms and 
bears the image of the Dhyani Buddha Ratnasambhava on her crown* 
Forms of Vajratara have been described previously. She is accom- 
panied by ten goddesses when worshipped in the Mandala. 

L Getty ; GNB, p. 122 gives a list of Taras of white colour. 
2* Getty : GNB, p. 124 gives a list of Taras of yellow colour. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 309 

2. Jangull. The yellow variety of Jahguli has three faces and six 
arms and bears the image of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya on her 
crown. This form has already been described. 

3. Parnasabari. When yellow Parnasabari is an emanation of 
Aksobhya, has three faces and six arms, and a pleasant smile instead of 
an irritated expression on her faces. This form of Parnasaban has 
also been described under the female emanations of Aksobhya. 

4. Bhrkuti is yellow and emanates from Amitabha. She is one- 
faced and four-armed, shows the Varada mudra and the rosary in the 
two right hands and carries the Tridandl and the Kamandalu in the two 
left. 

D. BLUE TARA ] 

1. Ekajata. She may have several forms with blue colour, and bhe 
bears the image of her sire Aksobhya on her crown in all cases. All 
her forms have been described previously along with the other emana- 
tions of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya including the terrible form which 
goes by the name of Vidyujjvalakarali of blue colour, with twelve faces 
and twenty-four arms. 

2. Mahacma Tara. She also bears the image of Asobhya on her 
crown, and has already been described as one of the female emanations of 
that Dhyani Buddha. She is called Mahacina Tara because she is believed 
to have come from Mahacma, the place where she was originally wor- 
shipped. She is the subject of the Mahacinakrama-Tantra, and has been 
incorporated wholly into the Hindu Tantric pantheon. 

E. RED TARA - 

There are not many Red Taras in the Sadhanamala, Kurukulla being 
the only one belonging to the red variety. As she bears the image of 
Amitabha on the crown, she inherits from him as his emanation, her 
red complexion. Kurukulla may also bear the image of the five Dhyani 
Buddhas on her crown, but that will make no difference as to the colour 
of her complexion. She will be white when two-armed, and red when 
four, six or eight-armed All her forms have been described 
previously. 

VI. EIGHT GAURl GROUP 

The eight deities of the Gauri group of goddesses are extremely 
popular in Vajrayana and are found described in several places both in 
the Sadhanamala as well as in the NispannayogavalL These goddesses 

1. Getty: GNB, p. 125 gives a list of Taras of blue colour. 

2. Getty : GNB, p. 126 gives a list of Tras of ted colour 



310 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

are represented also in the Chinese collection of statuettes in the city of 
Peiping. Although it is not necessary to describe their different forms 
extensively, it is however desirable that at least one form should be 
recorded here to stimulate interest in their iconography and identification. 
Below is therefore given the description of the eight deities of the Gaurl 
group in the same order as it appears in the Pancadaka Mandala of 
the Nispannayogavali. All the deities are violent in character with 
fearful appearance and ornaments, and garlands of heads. They dance 
in Pratyalldha and show the raised index finger with clasped fist against 
the chest, as the common gesture. 

1. GAURl 
Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Goad 

The first in the series is Gaurl. Her form is described in the Panca- 
daka Mandala where the Gaun group of deities surround the principal 
god Vajradaka. GaurFs description is as under : 

%( Guuri sita savyenankusadharmr 1 NSP, p. 75 

''Gauri is white and holds in her right hand the goad". 

In the left hand she shows the Tarjani against the chest which is the 

common gesture. Three statuettes of this goddess are found in the 

Chinese collection at Peiping l . 

2. CAURl 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Noose 

The second goddess in the Gaun group is Cauri whose form is des- 
cribed in the Pancadaka Mandala as follows : 

tk Caun pita pasadhara" NSP, p. 75 

"Cauri is yellow in colour and holds in her right hand the noose". 
She shows the raised index finger in the left like all other deities of 
this group* 

Only one statuette of this goddess is found in China 2 . 

3. VETALl 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Chain 

The third goddess of the Gaurl group is Vetall whose form is 
described in the PaScadaka Mandala in the following words : 

" Vetall rakta bhujabhyam sphotabhrt." NSP, p, 75 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 72, 92, 105 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 92. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 311 

*'Vetali is red in colour and holds in her two hands the chain." 

A statuette of this goddess under the name of Vajravetali is found 
in the Chinese collection at Peiping l . Fig. 202 illustrates this Chinese 
statuette. 

4. GHASMARl 

Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Bell 

The fourth goddess of the Gaurl group is Ghasmari whose form is 
described in the Pancadaka Mandala as follows ; 

"Ghasmari harita vajraghantadhara" NSP, p. 75 

"Ghasmari is green in colour and holds in her right hand the bell 
marked with a Vajra, 17 

The left shows the common gesture of Tarjani. 

Two statuettes of this obscure goddess are found in the Chinese 
collection % One of the two statuettes is illustrated in Fig. 203. 

5. PUKKASl 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Bowl 

The fifth in the series of the Gauri group of goddesses is Pukkasi whose 
form is described in the Pancadaka Mandala in the following words : 
"Pukkasi nila Bodhicittaghatahasta." NSP, p. 75 

"Pukkasi is blue in colour and holds in the right hand the bowl of 
Bodhi mind." 

The left shows the Tarjani against the chest as a common gesture, 

Two statuettes of this obscure goddess occur in the Chinese collec- 
tion :} . One of the two statuettes is illustrated in Fig. 204. 

6. SABARl 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Mem 

The sixth goddess in the series of eight deities of the Gaurl group is 
described in the Pancadaka Mandala in the following words : 

"abarl sita Merudhara" NSP, p. 75 

"Sabari is white in colour and holds in her right hand the Meru 
mountain.'* 

The left exhibits the common gesture, the Tarjam. 

Two statuettes of this goddess are found in the Chinese collection 4 . 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 62. 

2. Clark: TLP, II, pp 96, 100. 

3. Cark : TLP, II, pp. 91, 100. 

4. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 92, 100. 



312 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

7. CANDALl 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Sym bol- Fire-pot 

The seventh deity among the eight goddesses of the Gauri group is 
known as Candali and her form is described in the Pancadaka Mandala 
as follows : 

"Candali nila vahnikundabhrt", NSP, p. 75 

"Candali is blue in colour, and holds a fire-pot in her right hand". 
The left shows the common gesture of Tarjani. 

Two statuettes of this goddess are to be found in the Chinese 
collection J . 

8. DOMBl 

ColourMixed Arms Two 

Symbol Banner 

The eighth and the last goddess in the group of deities headed by 
Gauri is described thus in the Pancadaka Mandala as an associate of 
Vajradaka : 

"Dombi visvavaina mahadhvajapatakam dhatte". NSP, p. 75 

"Dombl is of mixed colour and carries in her right hand the high 
flag and banner". 

The left hand displays the common gesture of the Tarjanl against 
the chest. 

She is represented only once in the Chinese collection as Dombinl L> . 
Fig. 205 illustrates this Chinese statuette. 

VII. FOUR DANCE DEITIES^ 

There are four deities in this group and they are homogenous in cha- 
racter. These are Lasya, Mala, GIta, and Nrtya, all required in the 
staging of a drama or in entertainments. All these four deities are 
popular in the Vajrayana pantheon and are described times without 
number both in the Sadhanamala as well as in the NispannayogavalL 
In the Chinese collection at Peiping statuettes of these deities are found. 
Although it is not possible to describe all their forms here, an endea- 
vour will be made at least to describe one typical form of each for the 
purpose of recognition. Below is given an account of the four 
goddesses headed by Lasya in the same order as it occurs in the Panca- 
daka Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. They are violent in charac- 
ter with garland of severed heads, and dance in Pratyalidha. They 
show the Tarjani against the chest as the common gesture. 

1. Clark : TIP, II, pp. 96, 110. ~~ 

2. Clark : TIP, II, p. 96. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 313 

1. LASYA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Lasya dance 

The first deity of the Lasya group is Lasya who is described in the 
following words : 

"Lasya rakta sagarvarh lasyabhinayobhayabhuja' 1 . NSP, p. 76 

"Lasya is of red colour and with pride she arranges her two hands 
in the Lasya act''. 

Two statuettes of Lasya are found in the Chinese collection 3 . One 
of the statuettes is illustrated in Fig. 206. 

2. MALA (MALYA) 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Garland 

The second deity of this group is Mala who is described as follows : 
"Mala rakta karabhyarh ratnamalabhrt' 1 . NSP, p. 76 

"Mala is of red colour and holds in her two hands the garland of 
jewels". 

Three statuettes of this goddess under the slightly different name of 
Malya occur in the Chinese collection of images at Peiping * J . 

3. G1TA 

Colour Reddish white Arms Two 

Symbol Indian Gong 

The third deity of this group is Gita who is described in the Panca* 
daka Mandala as under : 

"Gita raktasita bhujabh>arh karhsike vadayanti" NSP, p. 76. 

"Gita is reddish white in colour, and with her two hands she is 
engaged in playing on the Indian gong (Karhsi). 

Three statuettes of this goddess occur in the Chinese collection*. 
One of these three statuettes is illustrated in Fig, 207. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 63, 145, 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 63, 103, 145, 

3. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 63, 94. 146. 
40 



314 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

4. NRTYA 

Colour Mixed Arms Two 

Symbol Vajra 

The fourth and the last goddess in the Lasya group is Nrtya whose 
form is thus described in the Nispannayogavall : 

"Nrtya visvavarna savajrabhujabhyam nrtyanti", NSP, p. 76. 

"Nrtya is of variegated colour and she dances with her two hands 
holding the Vajra". 

Three statuettes of this goddess are noted in the Chinese collection 1 . 
One of the three statuettes is illustrated in Fig. 208* 

VIII. FOUR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 

There is a further group of goddesses representing the four 
musical instruments and are often mentioned in the Sadhanas and 
Mandalas as companions of important deities. When everything else is 
deified there is no reason why these musical instruments should not also 
be deified. These four Musical Instruments are named as Vamsa (flute) 
Vina (violin), Mukunda ((kettle-drum) and Muraja (drum) and we find 
them all deified with human form, colour, faces, hands and symbols. 
In the Vajradaka Mandala they are collectively described as nude, violent 
in appearance, wearing garlands of skulls and severed heads and dancing 
in Pratyalidha. They display the different instruments as their special 
symbols. They are described below in the same order in which they 
appear in the Pancadaka Mandala. 

1. VAMSA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Flute 

The first in the series of deities representing the musical instruments 
is called Vamsa whose form is described in the following terms in the 
Pancadada Mandala : 

"Vaihsa rakta karabhyam dhrtavamsam vadayanti". NSP, p. 76 

"Vamsa is red in colour. She holds the flute in her two hands and 
plays on it/' 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 
1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 64, 93, 143. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 315 

2. VlNA 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Vina Instrument 

The second goddess representing musical instruments is called Vina, 
and her form is described in the following words : 

"Vina pita vmavadanakaradvaya/' NSP, 76 

"Vina is yellow in colour. With her two hands she plays on the 
musical instrument, the Vina." 

In the Chinese collection she is represented as goddess Vmadhara 
which is the same as Vina l . This Chinese statuette is illustrated in 
Fig. 209. 

3. MUKUNDA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Mukunda Instrument 

The third goddess in this series is the goddess Mukunda who plays 
on the instrument called the Mukunda. Her form is described thus in 
the Nispannayogavali : 

"Mukunda sita karabhyarh Mukundarh vadayanti." NSP, p. 76 

"Mukunda is white in colour. She plays on the instrument called 
the Mukunda with her two hands", 

One statuette of Mukunda is found in the Chinese collection under 
the name of Mukundadhara, who is the same as Mukunda -* This 
Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig 210. 

4. MURAJA 

Colour Smoky Arms Two 

Symbol Muraja Instrument 

The fourth and the last deity in the series of goddesses of musical 
instruments is the goddess Muraja whose principal symbol is the Muraja 
on which she plays. Her form is described as under : 

"Muraja dhumravarna murajavadanaparabhujadvaya." 

NSP, p. 76 

''Muraja is of the colour of smoke, and she is engaged with her two 
hands in playing on the Muraja instrument." 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 107 

2. Clark ; TLP, II, p 107. 



316 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

IX. FOUR DOOR GODDESSES 

The door is an important item in household furniture, because of 
its power of giving protection against thieves and animals and unpleasant 
intruders. The door planks, the lock, the key, and the curtain, all the 
four are important articles, and thus these are all deified in Vajrayana. 
They are given human form, colour, faces, arms and symbols. They 
are found described in the Pancadaka Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. 
Collectively they are described as nude, dancing in Pratyalidha, with 
fearful appearance, and awe-inspiring ornaments. They are described 
below in the same order in which they are treated in the Mandala. They 
hold their special symbols appropriate to their names, 

1. TALIKA 
Colour White Arms T wo 

Symbol Lock 

The first in the list of door goddesses, is Talika. Her form is des- 
cribed as follows : 

"Talika sita talikahasta" NSP, p. 77 

"Talika is white in colour and holds in her two hands the Talika or 
the Lock." 

A statuette of this most obscure but interesting deity is found in 
the Chinese collection. In this collection her name is somewhat differ- 
ently stated as Dvaratalakadhara '. Fig. 211 illustrates her statuette in 
China. 

2. KUNCI 
Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Keys 

The second goddess in this series is called Kunci from the keys 
that she holds. Her form is described as under : 

"Kunci pita kuncikahasta", NSP, p. 77 

"Kunci is yellow in colour and holds the Keys in her two hands/' 

A statuette of this goddess occurs in the Chinese collection under 
the title Kuncikadhara. She is of the same description as above L '. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 108. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 108, 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 317 

3. KAPATA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Planks 

The third deity in the series of the four door goddesses is called 
Kapata. Her form is described as follows : 

* 'Kapata rakta kapatadhara". NSP, p. 77 

* 'Kapata is of red colour and holds in her two hands the Door 
Planks. 1 ' 

A statuette of this goddess is found in the Chinese collection under 
the title of Dvaradhara. The two are identical ] . Fig, 212 illustrates 
her statuette found at Peiping. 

4. PATADHARINl 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Curtain 

The fourth and the last goddess in the series of four deities of the 
door is called by the name of Patadharim. Her form is described in 
the Pancadaka Mandala as under : 

"Patadharim krsna karabhyarh kandapatam vibhrati." 

NSP, p. 77 

"Patadharim is blue in colour. She holds in her two hands the 
curtain (Kandapata) . 

A statuette of this goddess occurs in China under the title of Vita* 
nadhara where Vkana means a curtain. The two are identical J . 

X. FOUR HOOT GODDESSES 

There are four goddesses of Light in the Vajrayana pantheon. They 
are named as Suryahasta, Dlpa, Ratnolka and Taditkara and described 
in the Pancadaka Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. Collectively, they 
are conceived as nude, and as violent in appearance with garland of 
skulls and severed heads. They dance on a corpse in the Pratyalidha 
attitude and hold their special marks of recognition in their hands. 
They are described below in the order in which they appear in the 
Pancadaka Mandala. 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p, 108 

2. Clark : TLP, II. p. 108 



318 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

1. SURYAHASTA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Sun 

Suryahasta is the first deity in the series of four goddesses of Light 
and her form is described in the following words : 

"Suryahasta sita suryamandaladhara". NSP, p. 76 

''Suryahasta is of white colour and she holds in her hands the disc of 
the Sun". 

One statuette of the goddess is found in the Chinese collection 
under the tide of Suryadhara. The two are identical l . 

2. DIP A 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Light stick 

The second Light deity is called Dipa. Her form is described as under: 
"Dipa mla dipayastibbrt."' NSP, p. 76 

"Dipa is blue in colour and holds in her hands the light stick". 
A statuette of this goddess occurs in the Chinese collection. 2 . This 
Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig. 213, 

3. RATNOLKA 
Colour Yellow Arms two 

Symbol Jewel 

The third in the series of four goddesses of Light is called Ratnolka. 
She is described as under : 

"Ratnolka pita ratnadhara". NSP, p* 76 

"Ratnolka is yellow in colour and holds the jewel in her hands*'. 

She is represented in the Chinese collection under the name of 
Ulkadhara. This statuette is illustrated in Fig. 214- 

4. TADITKARA 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Lightening 

The fourth and the last in the series of four goddesses of Light is 
called Taditkara (Lightening Bearer). Her form is described in the 
following words : 

'Taditkara harita vidyullatadhara". __ 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 88, 

2. Clark : TUMI, pp. 67*90. 



COLLECTIVE DEITIES 319 

'Taditkara is green in colour and holds in her hands the creeper- 
like lightening''. 

A statuette of this goddess occurs in the Chinese collection under 
the title of Vidyuddhara. The image answers the description in all 
details The two are therefore identical ! . 

XL FOUR ANIMAL-FACED GODDESSES- 

There is a set of four very interesting deities described in the 
Nispannayogavall ; they all have animal faces and have several forms. 
They are given each a different direction in the Mandala. Their names 
are : Hayasya, Sukarasya, Svanasya, and Simhasya, according to the 
animal face they bear. To this number, in the Kalacakra Mandala, four 
more deities with birds f?ces are added for the intermediate corners. 
These birds deities are named as Kakasya (crow-faced), Grdhrasya 
(vultur effaced), Garudasya (Garuda-faced) and Ulukasya (owl-faced). 
All these are described in the text as violent in appearance, nude, 
dancing on a corpse, and wearing garlands of severed heads. They carry 
in their hands the Kartri (chopper) and the Kapala (skull-cup). A 
Khatvahga (magic stick) hangs from their shoulders. They are some- 
times two-armed and at others four-armed. When four armed, the four 
chief deities are represented like the goddesses of the VajiankusI 
group. With regard to the face, it may be noted that the principal 
face is either human or of an animal. When it is human, the 
animal face is shown over the head or on the crown. Normally, there 
are four goddesses in this group, but the series of goddesses found 
only in the Kalacakra Mandala are without adequate description. The 
group of four goddesses of the Nairatma Mandala is here described. 
It may be noted that their images are also popular in the Chinese collec- 
tion of Peiping, although a few are available in India also. 

1. HAYASYA 

Colour Whitish Blu Arms Two 

Symbol Horse-face 

The first in the series of goddesses with animal faces is Hayasya 
(horse-faced) and her form is described in the Nairatma Mandala in the 
following words : 

'Turvadvare Hayasya sitamla" NSP, p. 16 

"On the Eastern gate there is Hayasya of whitish-blue colour". 
I. Clark : TLP, II, p. 88. ~ ~~ 



320 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Like all other deities of the group she displays in her two hands the 
Kami and the Kapala. 

In the Hevajra Mandala of the Nispannayogavali (p. 15) she is des- 
cribed as four-armed and four- faced and as similar in appearance to 
Vajrankusl. 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection, 

2. SUKARASYA 

Colour Yellowish Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Sow-face 

The second in the series of four goddesses with animal faces is 
Sukarasya (sow-faced) and her form is described in the Nairatma 
Mandala thus : 

"Daksine Sukarasya pltanila". NSP, p. 16 

"On the South there is Sukarasya with yellowish-blue colour" 

Like all other goddesses of the group, she also holds the Kartri in 
the right hand and the Kapala in the left. 

She is also described as four-armed and four-faced, and as similar in 
appearance to VajrapasI ] . 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

3. SVANASYA 

Colour Reddish Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Dog- face 

The third goddess in the series of four goddesses with animal faces 
is called Svanasya (dog-faced) and is described in the Nairatma Mandala 
as : 

<fc Pascime Svanasya raktanlla" ' NSP, p. 16 

"On the West there is Svanasya of reddish-blue colour 
Like all other goddesses of the group she holds the Kartri in the 
right hand and the Kapala in the left. 

In the Hevajra Mandala she is described as four*faced and four- 
armed and as similar in appearance to Vajrasphota. 
She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

1. A remarkable specimen of the four-armed variety of the goddess is illustrated 
in Gordon r ITL, p. 80 under the title of Vajravarahl. 



' COLLECTIVE DEITIES 321 

4. SIMHASYA 

Colour Reddish Blue Arms Two 

Sy m bol Lioi>f a ce 

The fourth and the last deity in the series is called Simhasya (lion- 
faced) in the Nairatma Mandala. Her form is described thus : 

"Uttare Simhasya raktanlla" NSP, p. 16 

"On the North there is Simhasya of reddish blue colour". 

Like all other deities of the group she also holds the Kartri in the 
right hand and the Kapala in the left. 

She is described in the Hevajra Mandala as four-faced and four- 
armed, and as similar in appearance to Vajraghanta. 

Under the title of Simhavaktra she appears in the Chinese collec- 
tion at Peiping l . She was also known in Tibet *. Figs, 215, 216 illus- 
trate a very artistic specimen of Simhasya with human face with the face 
of the lion overhead. This image is in the collection of Dr. Moghe of 
Khar (Bombay). 

XII. FOUR DAKINI GROUP 

Usually in this group of goddesses are included the names of Dakini 
Lama, Khandaroha and Rupim who are widely mentioned in the Tantric 
works of rituals. In the Sumbara Mandala of the Nispannayogavall 
their names are mentioned as companion deities of Sambara. Again, 
in the Satcakravarti Mandala they are mentioned as companion deities. 
But their forms are found described only in the Sadhanamala. Accord- 
ing to this authority they are all alike in appearance holding identical 
symbols. Only in colour they differ. In the Vajravarahi Sadhana 
(No. 217) they are described as follows : 

^Pakml-Lama-Khandaroha-Rupimh krsna-syama-rakta-gaurah. Eta 
ekavaktrah caturbhuja vame kapalakhatvafigakapalahastah daksine 
damarukartrikah trinetra muktakesa nagna alidhasanasamsthita panca- 
mudravibhusita bhavayet." Sadhanamala p. 425 

"Dakim, Lama, Khandaroha and Rupim are of blue, green, red and 
white colour respectively. They are one-faced and four-armed and 
carry in their left hands the Kapala-marked Khatvanga and the Kapala, 
and in the two right the Damaru and the knife. They are three-eyed, 
have dishevelled hair, stand in the Alidha attitude and are decked in 
the five bone ornaments. Thus they are to be meditated upon". 

1. Clark :TLP, II, p. 314. 

2. Gordon : II L, p. 80 illustrates a two-armed image of the deity. See also 
Getty : GNB, pp. HO, 150. 

41 



322 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Two statuettes of Dakim occur in the Chinese collection *. The 
names of three others do not find mention in China. In Tibet, Lama* 
dakim belongs to this group, and a remarkable and perhaps unique 
statuette of the goddess from the W.B. Whitney collection in the Freer 
Gallery of Art is illustrated in the Iconogrphy of Tibetan Lamaism 2 . 

Fig. 217 illustrates the Chinese statuette of Dakim, and Fig* 218 
is a Nepalese picture of Lama Dakim. 



1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 96,110 

2. Gordon: ITL,p. 81 



CHAPTER Xli 

PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 

In the Nispannayogavali of Abhyakara Gupta mention is made of a 
number of deities who are designated here, for the sake of convenience, 
as philosophical deities. In Buddhism, the Twelve Paramitas are consi- 
dered to be the perfections of cardinal virtues which entitle one to 
Buddhahood. They are deified in human form with colour, and 
weapons. Similar is the case with the others, such as the Twelve 
Vasitas or spritual disciplines, the Twelve Bhumis or the successive 
spiritual spheres, the Twelve Dharims or sacred chain of words, the 
Four Pratisamvits or the four branches of logical analysis. All these 
belong to the realm of philosophy and abstract ideas and, therefore, 
they are brought together here under a separate chapter as a matter 
of logical necessity. 

These deities are rarely represented. Except probably Prajnapara- 
mita and some of the Dharim goddesses, others are not even known 
in art or sculpture. But their statuettes are found in the Chinese collec* 
tion at Peiping, and it is therefore necessary to indicate their forms 
from original Sanskrit texts so that the statuettes on the one hand and 
the Sanskrit texts on the other may mutually enlighten each other. 



In Buddhism, importance is given to the Paramitas or perfections. 
These are certain cardinal human virtues carried to perfection in one 
birth. It is said that Lord Buddha in each of his previous births 
practised one or another of the virtues and carried it to perfection, 
and because of that he obtained enlightenment in his last birth. These 
Paramitas are usually ten in number, but the Vajrayanists raised the 
number to twelve. In Vajrayana the craze for deificatian led to the 
conception of the Twelve Paramita goddesses in human form, for the 
purpose of worship. One of the Paramtta deities, Prajnaparamita is 
the most important and popular in Buddhist countries. Prajnaparamita 
or transacendental intuition was taught in the Prajnaparamita scripture 
which is supposed to have been rescued from the Nether regions by 
Nagarjuna. In the Dharmadhtuvagisvara Mandalaofthe Nispannayogavali 
an account of the iconography of rhe Twelve Paramita deities is given, 



324 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

and it is stated briefly here in the same order as found in the Mandala. 
Such a description of all the Paramita goddesses cannot be met with in 
any other published literature on Buddhism. The twelve deities collec- 
tively have their spiritual father in Ratnasambhava. They are widely 
represented in the Chinese collection at Peiping which seems to have 
been profoundly influenced by India in general, and the Nispannayoga- 
vail in particular. These Paramita deities are described in detail in the 
following sections. 

1. RATNAPARAMITA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbols Moon on Lotus 

Ratnaparamita heads the list of the Paramita deities and is described 
as : 

" Ratnaparamita rakta padmasthacandramandaladhara" 

NSP, p. 56 

"Ratnaparamita is red in colour and holds the disc of the moon on 
a lotus in her hand." 

According to a statement in the Mandala all the deities are two- 
armed, and they hold in the right hand the flag marked with the Cinta* 
mani jewel, and in che left their special symbols. Prajnaparamita is an 
exception since she has two more hands. The passage is : 

"Dvadasaparamita dvibhujah savyena Cintamanidhvajam vamena 
svasvacihnadharah Prajnaparamita tvadhikakaradvaya." 

NSP, p. 56 

"The Twelve Paramitas are two-armed and hold in the right hand 
the flag marked with the Cintamani jewel, and in the left their own 
symbols. But Prajnaparamita has two more hands." 

Ratnaparamita thus holds in the right hand the Cintamani flag and in 
the left the moon's disc on a lotus. She is not represented in the 
Chinese collection, 

2, DANAPARAMITA 
Colour Whitish Red Arms Two 

Symbol Ears of Corn 

Danaparamita is second in the series of Twelve Paramita goddesses 
and has been described as : 



4 'Danaparamita skaraktavarna nanadhanyamanjarihasta." 

T '' ^^ NSP, p. 56 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 325 

"Danaparamita is whitish red in colour and holds in her left hand 
various kinds of ears of corn." 

In the right she displays the Cintamani banner. Her statue is found 
in China l . 

3. SILAPARAMITA 

Colour -White Arms Two 

Symbol Flowery Discus 

Sila'paramita is the third in the series of Paramita goddesses and her 
form has been described thus : 

"Silaparamita sveta sapallavagaurakusumacakradhara". 

NSP, p. 56 

"Silaparamita is white in colour and holds in her left hand the dis- 
cus made of white flowers and leaves " 

The right hand holds the Cintamani banner as usual. A statuette 
of this deity occurs in China ~\ 

4, KSANTIPARAMITA 
Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol White Lotus 

Ksantiparamita is the fourth in the series of Paramita goddesses 
and her form has been described thus : 

"Ksantiparamita pita sitabjadhara " 

* 'Ksantiparamita is of yellow colour and holds in her left hand 
the white lotus." 

Her right hand as usual holds the Cintamani banner, A statue of 
this deity is to be found in China -\ 

5. VlRYAPARAMITA 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Blue Lotus 

Viryaparamita is the fifth Paramita goddess and her form has been 
described thus : 

"Viryaparamita marakatavarna mlotpaladhara", NSP, p. 56 
*' Viryaparamita is of the colour of emerald and holds in her left 
hand the blue lotus." 

"1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 120 

2. Clark: TLP, II, p. !20 

3. Clark : TLP, II, p. 120 



326 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

She holds the Cintamani banner as usual. A statue of this deity is 
found in China l . 

6. DHYANAPARAMITA 
Colour Sky Colour Arms Two 

Symbol White Lotus 

The sixth Paramita goddess in the series is Dhyanaparamita whose 
form is described as under : 

"Dhyanaparamita gaganasyama sitabjahasta." NSP, p. 56 

" Dhyanaparamita is of sky colour and holds in her left hand the 
white lotus " 

The right hand as usual carries the Cintamani banner. A statuette 
ot this goddess is found in China a . Fig. 219 illustrates this Chinese 
specimen. 

7. PRAJNAPARAMITA 
Colour Yellow Arms Four 

Symbol Manuscript on Lotus 

The seventh goddess in the series is the famous deity Prajnapara- 
mita. As the embodiment of the Prajnaparamita literature, she has 
been dealt with in detail in a previous chapter. Here she will be des- 
cribed as an embodiment of transcendental intuition and as part of 
a collection of deities in a group. In the Nispannayogavall her form 
has been described as : 

'Trajnaparamita kamaniyakanakakantih padmastha-Prajnaparamita- 
pustakadhara karadvayena dhrta-Dharmacakramudra*\ NSP, p. 65. 

"Prajnaparamita is of delightful yellow colour- In her left hand 
she holds the Prajnaparamita book on lotus. The two principal hands 
display the Dharmacakra mudra". 

The right hand as usual holds the Chintamani banner. 

This goddess has been treated in a previous chapter, and her statues 
are found in several places. She is represented also in the Chinese 
collection at Peiping 6 . 

1 Clark : TLP, II, p. 127. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 127 

3. Clark : TIP, II, pp. 208, 290. 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 327 

8. UPAYAPARAMITA 

Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Vajra on Lotus 

The eighth goddess in the series is Upayaparamita who has been 
described in the Nispannayogavali thus : 

"Upayaparamita priyahgusyama pitapadmasthavajrabhrt." 

NSP, p. 16 

"Upayaparamita is green like the Priyahgu flower and holds in her 
left hand the Vajra on a yellow lotus". 

The right hand carries the Cintamani banner as usual. Her statue is 
found in China l . 

9. PRANlDHANAPARAMIlA 
Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Sword an Lotus. 

Pranidhanaparamita is the ninth in the series of the Paramita group 
of goddesses, and her form has been described as under : 

"Pranidhanaparamita nilotpalavarna nllotpalasthakhadgadhara". 

NSP, p. 56 

4 'Pranidhanaparamita is of the colour of the blue lotus, and she 
holds in her left hand the sword on a blue lotus". 

The right hand as usual displays the Cintamani banner. Her statuette 
is found in China 2 , Fig. 220 illustrates this Chinese statuette. 

10. BALAPARAM1TA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Manuscript 

Balaparamita is the tenth goddess of the Paramita group and her 
form has been described thus : 

"Balaparamita rakta Prajnaparamitapustakadhara". NSP, p. 56 
"Balaparamita is red in colour and holds the book Prajnaparamita 
in her left hand 1 '. 

The right hand as usual holds the Cintamani banner. Her statue 
is found in China 3 . 

1. Clark :TLP, II, p. 117. She is kno.vn here by the name of Upayakaulalya 
Paramita. 

2. Clark : TUP, II, p. 117. 

3* Clark : TLP, II, pp. 1 96, 3 1 1 . 



328 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

11. JNANAPARAMITA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Bodhi Tree 

"Jnanaparamita is the eleventh in the series of the Paramita goddes* 
ses, and her form has been described as : u- \ r ? ( 

"Jnanaparamita subhra nanaratnaphalalankrta'Bodhivrksadhara.-* 

*NSP, p. 56 

"Jnanaparamita is white in colour and holds in her left hand the 
Bodhi tree which is adorned with various kinds of jewels and fruits"," 

The right hand displays the Cintamani .^banner as usual. A statue 
of this goddess is found in China 1 . v < ^ , 

12. VAJRAKARMAPARAMITA 

Colour Variegated Arms Two 

Symbol Visvavajra on Lotus 

Vajrakarmaparamita is the twelfth and the last of the group of 
Paramita goddesses and her form has been described thus in the 
Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala : 

" Vajrakarmaparamita visvavarna nilotpalastha-visvavajradhara'\ 

NSP, p. 56 

"Vajrakarmaparamita is of variegated colour and holds in her left 
hand the Visvavajra (double thunderbolt) on a blue lotus' '. 

The right hand as usual holds the Cintamani banner. 

(II) TWELVE VA&TA GODDESSES 

The Vasitas according to Buddhism, are the controls or disciplines 
which lead to the spiritual regeneration of its followers. The Vajra- 
yanists recognized twelve Vasitas, each with a special name and con- 
ceived them in the form of deities with heads- arms, weapons and 
special symbols. These Vasitas are collectively taken to be the 3piri' 
tual daughters of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. Below is given a 
description of the twelve Vasita goddesses in the same order in which 
they appear in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala of tKe Nispahna* 
yogavall. The description of the Vasita goddesses is not found in 
the existing original literature and thus it is of unusual interest. Their 
iconographjc interest becomes all the more attractive since in Chkia 
there are statuettes in metal which correctly represent the Vasita 



1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 121 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 329 

goddesses. Statues of these are not found anywhere in India, but 
their statuettes in the Chinese collection of Buddhist deities at Peiping 
are illustrated in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons of W. E. Clark. 

i. AYURVAITA 

Colour Whitish Red Arms Two 

Symbol Image of Buddha 

The twelve Vasita goddesses are described collectively as two-armed, 
holding in their right hands the lotus and in the left proudly bearing 
their special symbols, (cf. DvadasVvasita dvibhuja daksinenambhoja- 
bhrto vamena sagarvam svasvacihnadharah, op. cit p. 56). Ayurvasita 
is the first goddess of the series and her form has been described 
thus : 

''Ayurvasita sitaraktavarna padmaragamanisthasamadhimudra' 
Amitayur-Buddhabimbadhara." NSP, p, 56 

"Ayurvasita is whitish red in colour and holds in her left hand 
the image of the Buddha Amita>us in the Samadhi mudra on the 
Padmaraga jewel . 

The right hand displays the lotus as in all other Vasita deities. 
Her statue is found in China ] . 

2. CITTAVASITA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Sym bol Vajra 

The second goddess in the series is Cittavasita, who has been 
described as : 

"Cittavasua sita raktapancasucikavajradhara" NSP, p. 56 

"Cittavasita is white in colour and holds in her left hand the red 
Vajra with five thongs. 

The right hand as usual holds the lotus. Her image is found in 
China *. 

3. PARISKARAVA&TA 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol -Cintamani Banner 

The third in the series of Vasita goddesses is Pariskaravasita who 
is described in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala in the following 
words : 

"Pariskaravasita pita Cintamanidhvajadhara". NSP, p. 56 



1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 136 

2. Clark : TLP> II, p. 136 
42 



330 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Pariskaravasita is yellow in colour and holds in her left hand the 
Cintamani banner"* 

The right hand displays the lotus as usual. Her statuette is found in 
China l . 

4. KARMAVA&TA 

Colour Green Arms two 

Symbol Visvavajra 

The fourth in the series of Vasita goddesses is Karmavasita who is 
described in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala as under : 

"Karmavasita harita visvavajradhara" NSP, p. 56 

"Karmavasita is green in colour, and holds in her left hand the 

Visvavajra (double crossed thunderbolt). 

The right hand displays the lotus as usual. Her statuette is found 

in China a . 

5, UPAPATTI VASITA 

Colour Mixed Arms Two 

Symbol Creepers 

The fifth goddess in the Vasita series is Upapattivasita who is des- 
cribed in the text as follows : 

"Upapattivasita visvavarna vividhavarnajatilatahasta." 

NSP, p. 56 

"Upapattivasita is of variegated colour and holds in her left hand 
various kinds of creepers of variegated colour/' 

The right hand displays the lotus as usual. Her statue is found 
in China *. Fig. 221 illustrates this Chinese specimen. 

6. RDDHIVA&TA 

Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Sun and Moon on Lotus 

The sixth goddess in the Vasita series is Rddhivasita whose form is 
described as follows : 

"Rddhivasita nabhahsyama padmastha-suryacandra^mandaladhara." 
^ NSP, p. 57 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 136 ~ 

2. Clark; TUP, II, p. 137 

3. Clark : TLP, II, p. 133 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 331 

"Rddhivasita is green as the sky and holds in her left hand the discs 
of the sun and the moon on a lotus. 

The right hand displays the lotus as usual. Her statue is found 
in China 1 . Fig. 222 illustrates this Chinese specimen. 

7. ADHIMUKTIVA&TA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Priyangu flower 

The seventh goddess in the same series is Adhimuktivasita and her 
form is described in the text as follows : 

"Adhimuktivasita mrnalagaura priyangukusumamanjarldhara/ 5 

NSP, p. 57 

"Adhimuktivasita is white like the stalk of a lotus, and holds in her 
left hand the buds of the flowers of Priyangu*" 

The right hand displays the lotus as usual. She is not represented in 
the Chinese collection. 

8. PRANIDHANAVA&TA 
Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Blue Lotus 

The eighth goddess in the series is Pranidhanavasita whose form is 
described in the following words : 

Pranidhanavasita pita nilotpala-hasta." NSP, p. 57 

"Pranidhanavasita is yellow in colour and holds in her left hand 
the blue lotus/' 

The right hand displays the lotus as usual. Her statue is found in 
China 2 

9. JNANAVASITA 
Colour Whitish Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Sword on Lotus 

Jnanavasita is the ninth in the series of Vasita goddesses and her 
form is described in the text of Nispannayogavall as follows : 

"Jnanavasita sita nilotpalasthakhadgadhara." NSP, p. 57 

"Jnanavasita is whitish blue in colour and holds in her left hand the 
sword on a blue lotus." 

The right displays the lotus as usual. Her statue is found in 
China 3 . ^ 

1. Clark; TLP, II, p. 133 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 134 

3. Clark : TLP, II, p'. 137 



332 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

10. DHARMAVA&TA 
Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Bowl on Lotus 

The tenth goddess in the Vasita series of goddesses is Dharmavasita 
whose form is described in the text as under : 

" Dharmavasita sita raktavarnapadmasthabhadraghatahasta." 

NSP, p. 57 

"Dharmavasita is white in colour and holds in her left hand 
the Bhadraghata (auspicious bowl) on a lotus of red colour/' 

The right hand displays the lotus -as usual, A statue of this goddess 
is found in China l . 

11. TATHAT A VASITA 
Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Bunch of Jewels 

The eleventh deity in the group of Vasita goddesses is Tathata 
whose form is described in the following terms : 

"Tathata sveta svetasubhrambhojabhrddaksinapanir*vamena ratna- 
manjaridhara". NSP, p 57 

"Tathata is white in colour. She holds in her right hand the white 
lotus and in the left the bunch of jewels/' 

Her statue is found in China 2 . 

12. BUDDHABODHIPRABHA-VASITA 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Discus on Banner. 

The twelfth and the last goddess in the series of Vasita goddesses 
is Buddhabodhiprabha, and her form is described in the Dharmadhatu* 
vaglsvara Mandala with the following words : 

"Buddhabodhiprabha kanakabha savyenapitapadmasthapancasuci' 
kavajradhara vamena Cintamanidhvajopari cakradhara". 

NSP, p. 57 

"Buddhabodhiprabha is of yellow colour. She holds in her right 
hand a Vajra with five thongs on a yellow lotus, and in the left the 
discus on the Cintamani banner". 



1. Clark :TLP, II, p. 137 

2, Clark : TLP, II, p. 107 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 333 




(Hi) TWELVE 

In Buddhism the Bhumis are recognized as different spiritual spheres 
through which a Bodhisattva moves in his quest for Buddhahood and 
omniscience. They are recognized as ten in number to which the Vajra- 
yana added two to make it twelve. As the Bodhisattva progresses in spi- 
ritual path, he develops certain special qualities which entitle him to 
move towards the higher Bhumis. They are arranged one upon another 
in a regular order with the last at the top which when reached, makes 
the Bodhisattva equal to a Buddha and he attains omniscience. 

These Bhumis or spiritual spheres also received the attention of 
Vajrayana, and in no time they were deified, and were given different 
forms. Statues were prepared and many of them were found represen- 
ted in China. 

These twelve Bhumis are now describe^ in the same order as given 
in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavall, They 
are two-armed and hold in the right hand the Vajra and in the left 
their own weapons or signs. (Dvadasabhumayo dvibhuja daksine 
vajradharinyo vamena svasvacihnadharah, p. 55). 

1. ADHIMUKTICARYA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Red Lotus 

The first of the twelve heavens is the Adhimukticarya Bhumi and is 
described in the following words in the Nispannayogavall : 

"Adhimukticaryabhumih padmarakta raktapadmadhara", 

NSP, p. 55 

"Adhimukticarya Bhumi is of the colour of a red lotus, and holds 
in her left hand the red lotus'*. 

The right hand as usual holds the Vajra which is the common sign 
of all Bhumi goddesses. 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection at Peiping, 

2. PRAMUDITA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Jewel 

The second goddess in the series "of Bhumi deities is Pramudita. 
Her form is described in the following words : 

"Pramudita rakta Cintamanibhrt". NSP, p, 55 



334 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Pramudita is red in colour and holds in her left hand the Cinta^ 
mani jewel". 

The right hand displays the Vajra which is the common sign. 
Her statue is found in the Chinese collection '. 

3. VIMALA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol White Lotus 

The third goddess in the series of Bhumi deities is known as 
Vimala and hei form is described as under : 

"Vimala sukla sukla-kamaladhara". NSP, p. 55 

" Vimala is white in colour and holds in her left hand the white 
lotus . 

The right holds the common symbol, the Vajra. 
Her statue is found in the Chinese collection a . 

4. PRABHAKARI 
Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol - Sun on Lotus 

The fourth goddess in the series of Bhumi deities is Prabhakari 
whose form is described in the following words : 

"Prabhakari rakta visvapadamasthasuryamandaladhara" 

MSP, p. 55 

"Prabhakari is red in colour and holds in her left hand the disc of 
the sun on a lotus*'. 

The right hand shows the Vajra or the common symbol. This 
goddess is represented in the Chinese collection of Peiping 3 . 

5. ARCISMATI 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Blue Lotus 

The fifth goddess in the series of Bhumi deities is called Arcismati 
and her form is described in the Nispannayogavali as follows : 

"Arcismati marakatavarna mlotpaladhara". NSP, p. 55 

1* Clark : TLP, II, p. 123 "~~ 

I, Clark ; TLP, II, p. 123 
3. Ckrk: TLP, II, p. 123 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 335 

"Arcismati is of the colour of an emerald and holds in her left 
hand the blue lotus". 

The right holds the common symbol* 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

6, SUDURJAYA 
Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Emerald 

The sixth goddess in the series of Bhumi deities is called Sudurjaya 
and her form is described as under : 

"Sudurjaya pita utsafigasthottanapanina marakatamanidhara". 

" NSP, p. 55 

"Sudurjaya is yellow in colour and carries an emerald on her open 
palm on the lap" 

The right holds the common symbol, the Vajra. 
She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

7. ABHIMUKHI 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Manuscript 

The seventh goddess in the series is called Abhimukhi. She is 
described as follows : 

"Abhimukhi hemavarna padmopari Prajnaparamitapustakadhara''. 

NSP, p. 55 

"Abhimukhi is of the colour of gold and holds on a lotus the Prajna^ 
paramita manuscript". 

The right hand displays the common symbol. 
A statuette of this goddess is found in China ! . 

8. DURANGAMA 

Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Double Vajra on Double Lotus. 

The eighth in the series of Bhumi goddesses is known by the name 
of Durafigama and is described as follows : 

"Durafigama gaganasyama visvapadmopari visvavajradhara". 

NSP, p. 55 

77 ClarkTrLP, II, p. 121 



336 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Durangama is green like the sky and holds in her left hand the 
Visvavajra (double thunderbolt) on a Visvapadma (double conventional 
lotus). 

The right hand displays the common symbol. 

A statuette of this goddess is found in China ] . 

9. ACALA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Vajra on Lotus 

The name of the ninth goddess in the series of Bhumi deities is 
Acala whose form is described thus : 

"Acala saraccandrabha candrasthapancasucikavajrankitapahkajasya 
nalam sagarvam vibhrati", NSP, p. 52 

"Acala is of the colour of the moon in autumn, and holds with 
pride in her left hand the stalk of a lotus over which is placed the five- 
thonged Vajra on the disc of the moon". 

The right hand displays the common weapon, the Vajra. 
Her statue is found in China 2 . 

10. SADHUMATl 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Sword on Lotus 

The tenth deity in the series of Bhumi goddesses is Sadhumatl. 
Her form is described thus : 

"Sadhumatl sita khadgankitotpaladhara" NSP, p. 55 

"Sadhumati is white in colour and holds in her left hand the sword 
on a night lotus'*. 

The right hand holds the common weapon, the Vajra. 

A statuette of this deity is found in China 8 . 

11. DHARMAMEGHA 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Manuscript 

The eleventh goddess in the series of Bhumi deities is Dharma- 
megha whose form is described in the following words : 
"Dharmamegha dharmameghaparikalita-Prajnaparamitapustakadhara". 

NSP, p. 55 



1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 118 

2. Clark: TLP, II, p. 118 

3. Clark: TLP, II, p. 118 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 337 

"Dharmamegha holds in her left hand the Prajnaparamita manus- 
cript which is composed of the clouds of Dharma". 

A statuette of this goddess is found in China l . Fig. 223 illustrates 
this Chinese specimen. 

1 2 S AMANTAPRABH A 

Colour Red A tms Two 

Symbol Image of Amitabha 

The twelfth and the last in the series of Bhumi goddesses is Samanta- 
prabha. Her form is as follows : 

"Samantaprabha madhyahnadityavarna padmopari samyaksambo- 
dhisucaka-Amitabha-Buddhabimbadhara". NSP, p. 56 

"Samantaprabha is of the colour of the sun at noon, and holds in 
her left hand the image of Amitabha Buddha which indicates Perfect 
Enlightenment". 

The right hand displays the common symbol, the Vajra. 
A statue of this goddess is found in China -. 



(iv) (TWELVE DHARI^JS) 



The Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala describes another set of interes* 
ting deities, twelve in number, called theDharims. InTantric Buddhism, 
there is a class of literature which is known by the name of Dharanls, 
or Dharinis, and in the Nepal Durbar Library there are collections of 
Dharam works called Brhaddharamsangraha *. The Dharanls are 
mostly unmeaning strings of words which are required to be kept in 
memory, so that they may be repeated at will for the purpose of deve^ 
loping psychic powers. The Dharanls sometimes reveal traces of a 
language now unknown. Several Dharanls are recorded in the Sadhana- 
mala 4 . Nispannayogavali spells the word somewhat differently as 
DharinI and recognizes a group of Twelve Dhannis. In the process of 
deification these Dharinis also became deities with form, colour and 
symbols. The Dharinis collectively are placed in the family of the 
Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi of green colour. 

When conceived in the form of deities, the Dharinis are endowed 
with one face and two arms. They all hold in their right hand the 
double thunderbolt or the Visvavajra, while in the left they carry their 

1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 118. ~ 

2. Clark: TLP, II, p. 118. 

3. H. P. Sastri, Nepal Catalogue Vol. II. p. 25 1 ff. 

4. Sadhanas, Nos. 21, 23, 41, 116, 147, 150. 216, are all Dharanls. 

43 



338 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

own special symbols 1 . The form, colour, and special symbols of 
all the Dharim deities are given below in the same order as it appears 
in the Nispannayogavali under the Mandala of Dharmadhatuvaglsvara. 

1. SUM ATI 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Ears of Corn 

The first in the series is Sumati whose form is described below : 
"Sumati pita dhanyamanjarldhara". NSP, p. 57 

4 'Sumati is yellow in colour and holds in her left hand the ears of 

corn"* 

The right holds the common symbol, the Visvavajra* She is not 

represented in the Chinese collection. 

2. RATNOLKA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Cintamani Banner 

The second deity in the series of Dharim goddesses is Ratnolka 
whose form is described as under : 

''Ratnolka rakta Cintamanidhvajadhara'*. NSP, p. 57 

tl Ratnolka is red in colour and in her left hand she holds the Cinta- 
mani banner". 

In the right hand she holds the common weapon, the Visvavajra. 
She is not represented in the Chinese collection unless some of the 
deities like Ratnagni or Ratnarcis is a mistranslation in Sanskrit from 
Chinese 2 

3. USNISAVIJAYA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Jar of Moonstones. 

The third in the series of the Dharim goddesses is Usnisavijaya who 
is a popular deity in the Buddhist pantheon, and as such, has already 
been described in a previous chapter. As a Dharim goddess, Usnisa- 
vijaya is described as : 

"Usnisavijaya sita candrakantamani-kalabahasta". NSP, p* 57 

"Usnisavijaya is white in colour and holds in her left hand a jar 
full of Moonstones". 



1. The relevant text is "Dvadasadharinyo dvibhujah savyena visvavajram vibhrana 
vameha sagarvam svasvacUmabhrtah. NSP, p. 57 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 245, 24o. 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 339 

Her right hand displays the Visvavajra, as usual. She is known to 
the Chinese collection T . 

4. MARl 

Colour Reddish White Arms Two 

Symbols Needle and String 

The fourth deity in the Dharim series of goddesses is Man who is 
described in the following words : 

"Marl raktagauravarna sasutrasucldhara." NSP, p. 57 

"Marl is reddish white in colour and holds in her left hand the 
needle with string/' 

The right hand holds the common weapon, the Visvavajra. Man is 
not represented in the Chinese collection. 

5. PARNASABARI 

Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Peacock's Feathers 

Parnasabari is the fifth in the list of Dharim deities in the Nispan^ 
nayogavali, and her form is described therein as follows : 

"Parnasabari syama mayurapicchadhara"'. NSP, p. 57 

"Parnasabari is green in colour and holds in her left hand the 
peacock's feathers/ 7 

The right hand shows the common weapon, the Viivavajra She is 
popular in all Buddhist countries and several six-armed forms of her 
have already been noted '*. The text of the Dharim is given in the 
Sadhanamala l . Parnasabari images are found in Tibet and China <J in 
fairly large numbers. 

6. jANGULl 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Flowers 

The sixth in the Dharim series of goddesses is the well-known 
deity Jahgull whose iconography has been dealt with earlier. As a 
Dharim deity her form is as follows : 

"Jahgull sukla \dsapuspamanjaridhara." NSP, p. 57 

1. Clark: 'ILP, II, p. 286 

2. See Supra 

3. Sadhana No. 150, p 308. 

4. A Tibetan specimen of the six-armed form is illustrated in Gordon : ITL, p. 71 ; 
A two-armed form is illustrated in Clark : TLP, II, p. 267, and in the same volume two 
six-armed specimens are shown on pp. 207, 287. See also Getly : GNB, pp. 134 r 135. 



340 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"Jafxguli is white in colour and holds in her left hand buds of 
poisonous flowers." 

Her right hand as usual holds the common weapon, the Visvavajra. 
She is represented in the Chinese collection and her statuettes have been 
noted } . The text of the Janguli Dharam is given in the Sadhanamala 2 . 
Jahgull Dharinl is said to be effective against snake poison. 

7. ANANTAMUKHI 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Jar 

The seventh goddess in the series of twelve Dharim deities is Anan* 
tamukhl whose form is described in the following words : 

"Anantamukhi priyangusyama raktabjasthaksaya*mahanidhikalas* 
ahasta". NSP, p. 57 

"Anantamukhl is green as the Priyangu flower and holds in her left 
hand the jar full of inexhaustive treasures, on the red lotus." 

The right hand displays the common symbol, the Visvavajra. She 
is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

8. CUNDA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Rosary with Kamandalu 

The eighth deity in the series of twelve Dharim goddesses is the 
well-known Cunda whose iconography and antiquity have already been 
dealt with in detail in an earlier chapter. As a Dharini goddess her form 
is described in the following words : 

''Cunda sukla aksasutravalarnbitakamandaludhara''. 

NSP, p. 57 

"Cunda is white in colour and holds the rosary from which a 
Kamandalu is suspended " 

The right hand as usual shows the common weapon, the Visvavajra. 

Cunda is popular in the Chinese collection, and several of her statue- 
ttes are found there 3 . Cunda is also popular in Tibet *. 

1. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 204, 217 

2. SadhanaNo. 118, p. 247 

3. Clark; TLP. II. pp. 222, 283, 284 

4. The Cunda image in the collection of the late W. B. Whitney is illustrated in 
Gordon : ITL, pp 74. It is a four'armed image. See also Getty : GNB, pp. 129, 130 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 341 

9. PRAJNAVARDHANl 

Colour White Arm s Two 

Symbol Sword 

The ninth in the series of twelve Dharim goddesses is Prajnavardha- 
ni whose form is described in the following text : 

"Prajnavardham sita nllotpalakhadgadhara". NSP, p. 57 

"Prajnavardham is white in colour and holds in her left hand 
the sword on a blue lotus". 

The right hand as usual displays the common weapon, the 
Visvavajra. 

She is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

10. SARVAKARMAVARANAVISODHANI 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Vajra 

The tenth in the series of twelve Dharim goddesses is Sarvakarma^ 
varanavisodhani whose form is described in the following words : 

"Sarvakarmavaranavisodham harita trisucikavajrahka*sitakamala~ 
dhara". " NSP, p. 57 

"Sarvakarmavaranavisodhani is green in colour and holds in her 
left hand the Vajra with three thongs on a lotus' '. 

The right hand displays the common weapon, the Visvavajra. She 
is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

11. AKSAYAJNANAKARANDA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Basket 

The eleventh deity in the series of twelve Dharim goddesses is Aksa- 
yajnanakaranda, whose form is described in the following words : 

"Aksayajnanakaranda rakta ratnakarandadhara." NSP, p. 57 

"Aksayajnanakaranda is of red colour and holds in her left hand 
the basket full of jewels.*' 

The right displays as usual the common weapon, the Visvavajra. She 
is not represented in the Chinese collection. 



342 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

12. SARVABUDDHADHARMA-KOSAVATI 
Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Trunk 

The twelfth and the last deity in the series of twelve Dharim goddes- 
ses is Sarvabuddhadharma-KosavatI whose form is described in the 
following text : 

"Sarvabuddhadharmakosavatiplta padmasthananaratnapetakadhara/' 

NSP, p. 57 

''Sarvabuddhadharma-Kosavati is yellow in colour and holds in 
her left hand the trunk full of various kinds of jewels on a lotus". 

The right hand displays the common weapon, the Visvavajra* She is 
not represented in the Chinese collection. 

(V) FOUR PRATISAMVITS 

In Buddhism Four Pratisamvits are acknowledged as the branches of 
logical analysis, and these are named as Dharma (nature), Artha (ana- 
lysis), Nirukti (etymological analysis) and Pratibhana (context). These 
abstract ideas also received the attention of the Vajra>anists and were 
duly deified with human form, colour, weapon, and symbols. In a 
deified form these four Pratisamvits are found described in the Dharma- 
dhatuvagisvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. These are described 
below with necessary details in the same order in which they appear 
in the Mandala. 

1. DHARMA PRATISAMVIT 

Colour Whitish Red Arms Two 

Symbol Goad and Noose 

The first in the series of Pratisamvit deities is Dharma Pratisamvit 
whose form is described in the text as follows : 

1 Turvadvare Dharma-Pratisamvit sitarakta vajrankusapasabhrd- 
bhujadvaya". NSP, p. 5?' 

"On the Eastern gate there is Dharma Pratisamvit of whitish red 
colour, holding in her two hands the goad and the noose marked with 
the thunderbolt". 

A statue of this obscure Buddhist deity is found in the Chinese 
collection l . 



1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 134. 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEITIES 343 

2. ARTHA PRATISAMVIT 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Noose 

The second goddess in the series of four Pratisamvit deities is Artha 
Pratisamvit whose form is described thus in the text : 

"Daksine Arthapratisamvit marakatavarna savyetarabhujabhyarh 
ratnapasabhrt". NSP, p. 57 

"In the South, there is Artha Pratisamvit of the colour of an 
emerald and holding in her two hands the jewel and the noose. 

A statuette of this obscure deity is found in the Chinese collec- 
tion ] . 

3. N1RUKTI PRATISAMVIT 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Chain 

The third in the series of four goddesses of the Pratisamvit group 
is Nirukti Pratisamvit whose form is described in the text as follows : 

"Pascime Nirukti'Pratisamvit rakta haddhapadmantasrfikhala- 
bhrdbhuiadvaya". NSP, p. 58 

"In the West there is Nirkuti Pratitamvit of red colour, holding in 
her two hands the chain from which a lotus is suspended". 

A statuette of this obscure deity is found in the Chinese collection 
of Peipmg 2 . Fig. 224 illustrates this Chinese specimen. 

4. PRATIBHANA PRATISAMVIT 
Colour Green Arms Two 

Symbol Bell 

The fourth and the last goddess in the series of Four Pratisarhvit 
deities of the Buddhist pantheon is described in the Dharmadhatuva* 
gisvara Mandala in the following words : 

*'Uttare Pratibhanapratisarhvit marakatasyama trisucikavajrahkita- 
ghantavyagrakaradva>a". NSP, p, 58 

"On the North there is Pratibhana Pratisamvit of the colour of an 
emerald (green), holding in her two hands a bell marked with a Vajra 
with three thongs" 

A statuette of this extremely obscure deity is found in the Chinese 
collection at Peiping \ Fig. 225 illustrates this Chinese statuette. 

1. Clark: TLP, II, p 134 

2. Clark : TLP, II, p. 134 

3. Clark : TLP, II, p. 135 



CHAPTER XIII 

HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 

It is not a fact that Hindu gods were unknown in the Buddhist 
pantheon or that the Buddhist pantheon wholly consisted of Buddhist 
gods. It is already well-known that several Hindu gods especially 
Sarasvatl and Ganapati were given independent forms as principal 
gods in the Sadhanas, besides a large number as companion 
deities or as Vahanas or vehicles of important Buddhist deities. 
They were also given humiliating roles to be trampled upon by 
angry Buddhist gods. A perusal of the Nispannayogavali and 
especially the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala will show what a 
large number of Hindu deities was incorporated in the Mandala, and 
how this large number was tackled intelligently and fitted into the 
scheme of the Buddhist Mandalas. How these Hindu gods were 
classified and how directions and colours were assigned to them, and 
how they were put under a Dhyani Buddha family, represent a study 
interesting to the extreme. It is necessary to make a brief reference to 
this aspect of Buddhist Iconography. That these Hindu deities were 
fully converted to Buddhist Faith is also evidenced by the fact that a 
large number of their statuettes is actually found in the purely 
Buddhist atmosphere of China in the Chinese collection of statuettes 
at Peiping. The collection although exists in China, its spirit is per- 
fectly Indian, as image after image follows the description given either 
in the Nispannayogavall or in the Sadhanamala. 

Several series of Hindu gods are found in the Buddhist pantheon 
and they are described below under appropriate heads with relevant 
quotations. 

Amongst the Hindu deities incorporated into the Buddhist pantheon, 
three deities appear to be of great importance. These are Mahakala 
the prototype of Siva Mahadeva with the Trisula as the recognition 
symbol, Ganapati the elephant-faced god, and Sarasvatl the Goddess of 
Learning with her characteristic Vina. Separate Sadhanas are assigned 
to all of them, and even independent shrines for them are not wanting 
in the Buddhist countries of the North. 

1. MAHAKALA 

In the Sadhanamala as well as in the Nispannayogavall there are 
several descriptions of the ferocious Hindu god, Mahakala. He has 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 345 

been given a variety of forms in these two works. He may have one 
face with two, four or six arms, or eight faces with sixteen aims. He 
is one of the many terrible deities of the Buddhist pantheon with 
ornaments of snakes, canine teeth, protruding belly and garment of 
tiger-skin. The different forms of Mahakala are described belou . 

(I) TWO-ARMED 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbols Kartri and Kapala 

At least six Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the two-armed 
variety of Mahakala. One among them is quoted here. 

"Srl-Mahakalabhattarakam dvibhujarh ekamukhfeih kr&navarnam 
trinayanam mahajjvalam kartrikapaladharinam daksinavamabhujabh^am 
mundamalalahkrtorddhvapingalakesopari pancakapaladharorh damstra- 
bhimabhayanakam bhujahgabharanayajnopavitarh kharvaruparh srava* 
drudhiramukharh atmanam jhatiti mspadya.. ". Sadhanamala, p. 585. 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as Sri Mahakala Bhattara- 
ka who is two-armed and one-faced and has blue colour. He is three- 
eyed, has fiery radiance, and carries the Kartri and the Kapala in his 
right and left hands respecti vely. He bears five skulls on his brown 
hair which rises up on his head and is decorated with a chain of severed 
heads. He looks terrible with bare fangs, and is decked in ornaments 
of serpents and a sacred thread made out of a snake. He is short and 
from his mouth trickles forth blood. Thus quickly meditating...". 

Instead of the Kartri, Mahakala carries the Trisula in his right 
hand in some cases. Images of Mahakala abound in Nepal and are found 
in large numbers in Buddhist temples, monasteries and even in the 
streets. Sometimes the head only is represented. Fig. 226 illustrates one 
of the finest specimens of Mahakala beloniug to the collection of 
Pandit Siddhiharsa Vajracarya of Nepal. Here the god tramples upon 
two figures representing two human corpses as required by the Sadhana. 
He weilds the menacing Kartri in the right hand and the Kapala full of 
blood in the left. Images of Mahakala are also found in abundance in 
Tibet ' and China *. 

1. Gordon: 1TL, p. 90 in which four images of Mahakala are represented. See 
also Getty : GNB, PL XLIX where four more illustrations are available. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 101, 299, 301 and 75 

44 



346 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(II) FOUR-ARMED 
Colour Blue Arms Four 

Symbols Kartri and Kapala, Sword and Khatvahga 

When four-armed he resembles the two-armed one in all details 
except in the number of arms and the symbols he displays in his 
hands* Here he carries the Kartri and the Kapala in the first or the prin- 
cipal pair of hands, and the sword and the Khatvanga in the second pair. 

(III) SIX-ARMED 
Colour Blue Arms Six 

Symbols r. Kartri, Rosary, Damaru 
1. Kapala, Sula, Vajrapasa 

When six-armed the form of Mahakala resembles the two-armed 
variety already described, with the difference that here he has six arms 
carrying six different symbols. In his six hands he exhibits the Kartri, 
the rosary and the Damaru in the right and the Kapala, the Sula and 
the Vajrapasa in the left. 

(IV) SIXTEEN-ARMED 

Colour Blue Arms Sixteen 

Faces Eight Legs Four 

When sixteen-armed, he is eight-faced and is represented in yab-yum 
in the embrace of his Sakti, and what is really strange, he is also four- 
legged. The Sadhana describes his form in the following words : 

"Atmanam Bhagavantam sodasabhuja-Mahakalam bhavayet ; asta- 
vadanam caturvimsatinetram catuscarnam sodasabhujam ; daksinakaraih 
kartri-vajra-gajacarma-mudgara-trisula-khadga-yamadandah, vamakaraih 
raktapurnakapala-gajacarma-ghanta-ahkusa-svetacamara-damaru-narasiro 
dadhanam sesabhujabhyarh Prajnalingitam ; kharvakrsnam hahahihi* 
hehepuritamukham maharaudrarh trikayatmakam panca-Buddhamu- 
kutinam naramundamalabharanam bhayasyapi bhayankaram", 

Sadhanamala, p. 598 

"The worshipper should conceive himself as sixteen-armed Maha- 
kala with eight faces, twenty-four eyes, four legs, and sixteen arms. 
He carries in his (seven) right hands the Kartri, the Vajra, the elephant- 
hide, the Mudgara, the Trisula, the sword and the staff of Yama, and in 
the (seven) left hands the Kapala full of blood, elephant-hide, the bell, 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 347 

the goad, the white chowrie, the Damaru and the human head. The 
two remaining hands are engaged in embracing the Prajna. He is short 
and blue in complexion, utters laughing sounds, such as ha ha, hi hi, 
he he, and looks terribly tierce. He is the essence of the Three Kayas, 
bears the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas on his crown, is decked 
in garlands of heads as ornaments, and is more awe-inspiring than Awe 
itself." 

The Sadhana further adds that Mahakala should be surrounded by 
seven goddesses, three in the three cardinal points, (the fourth being 
occupied by his own bakti) and the other four in the four corners. 

To the East is Mahamaya, consort of Mahesvara, who stands in the 
Alidha attitude and rides a lion. She has four arms, of which the two 
left hands carry the Kapala and the Damaru, and the two right the Kartri 
and the Mudgara. She is blue in complexion, has dishevelled hair, 
three eyes and protruding teeth. 

To the South is Yamaduti, who is of blue complexion and has four 
arms. She carries in her two right hands the staff of lotus stalk and 
the Kartri. and in her two left the bowl of blood and the fly^whisk. She 
stands in the Alidha attitude on a buffalo and has dishevelled hair. 

To the West is Kaladuti, who carries in her two left hands the 
Kapala and the Cow's head and in the two right the Mudgara and the 
Trisula. She stands in the Alidha attitude on a horse, has red com- 
plexion and dishevelled hair. 

All these deities are terrible in appearance, with protruding teeth 
and ornaments of serpents. 

The four corners are occupied by the following goddesses. Kalika 
in the SE corner is blue in complexion, has two arms carrying the 
Kapala and the Kartri, and stands on a corpse in the Alidha attitude. 
Carcika in the SW corner has red complexion, carries the Kartri and 
the Kapala in her two hands and resembles Kalika in all other respects. 
Candesvan in the NW corner has yellow complexion, carries in her 
two hands the grass and the deer, and stands in the Alidha attitude on a 
corpse. Kulisesvarl in the NE corner has white complexion, carries 
the Vajra and the staff, stands in the Alidha attitude on a corpse. These 
four deities are nude, and look terrible with bare fangs, three eyes and 
dishevelled hair. 

Surrounded by all these deities Mahakala should be meditated upon 
as trampling upon Vajrabhairava in the form of a corpse. 

Mahakala is a ferocious god who is generally worshipped in the 
Tantric rite of Marana and for the destruction of enemies, Mahakala 
was also regarded as a terrible spirit, and was calculated to inspire awe in 



348 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

the minds of those Buddhists, who were not reverential to their Gurus, 
and did not care much for the Three Jewels. He is supposed to eat these 
culprits raw, and the process of eating has been minutely described in 
almost all the Sadhanas. The Sadhanas generally contain the following 
verses in order to show the terrible nature of Mahakala t 

Acaryye yah sada dvesi kupito Ratnatrayepi yah 1 
Anekasattvavidhvamsl Mahakalena khadyate II 
Cchedayet svangamamsani pivedrudhiradharaya I 
Sirasi vinivesyaiva tilamatranca karayet II 

Sadhanamala, p. 586 

u He who hates his preceptor, is adversely disposed to the Three 
Jewels, and destroys many animals is eaten up raw by Mahakala. 

He, (Mahakala) cuts his flesh to pieces, drinks his blood, and (after) 
entering into his head breaks it into small bits." 

2. GANAPATI 
Colour Red Arms Twelve 

Vahana Mouse 
Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka 

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of Gana* 
pati. He is twelve-armed and one-faced and rides his favourite Vahana, 
the Mouse. The Dhyana describes him in the following terms : 

"Bhaga van tarn Ganapatirh raktavarnam jatamukutakirltinam sarva- 
bharanabhusitam dvadasabhujam lambodaraikavadanam ardhaparyanka- 
tandavam trinetram api ekadantam savyabhujesu kuthara-sara-ahkusa- 
vajra-khadga-sulanca ; vamabhujesu musala-capa-khatvahga asrkkapala' 
phatkanca raktapadme musikopari sthitam iti 1 ' 

Sadhanamala, pp. 592-593 

"The worshipper should concieve himself as god Ganapati of red 
complexion, bearing the Jatamukuta, decked in all ornaments, having 
twelve arms, a protruding belly and one face. He stands in the Ardha- 
paryahka in a dancing attitude, is three-eyed and has one tusk He 
carries in his right hands the Kuthara, the arrow, the goad, the Vajra, 
the sword and the Sula, and in his left the Musala, the bow, the Khat* 
vahga, the Kapala full of blood, the Kapala of dried meat and the 
Phatka. He rides the mouse on a red lotus." 

Fig. 227 is an Indian image of the four-armed Ganapati which is 
described later in this chapter. This image is in the possession of 
Dr. Moghe of Khar, Bombay. Fig. 228 is another image with twelve 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 349 

arms in the possession of the Dowager Maharani Chimanabai Gaekwad 
of Baroda. Both the pieces are Buddhist in character. 

Ganapati images are also noticed in China l and in painted banners 
of Tibet. 

3. GANAPATIHRDAYA 
Asana Dancing Arms Two 

Mudras Abhaya and Varada 

Like Ganapati himself Ganapatihrdaya who is in all probability is his 
Sakti or female counterpart, cannot be easily assigned to any particular 
Dhyani Buddha. Her form is described in the Dharmakosasangraha of 
Amrtananda in the following words : 

"Ganapatihrdaya ekamukha dvibhuja varada abhaya nrtyasana". 

Dharmakosasangraha, Fol. 43 

"Ganapatihrdaya is one-faced, two-armed, exhibits in her two hands 
the Varada and Abhaya poses, and shows the dancing attitude ". 

Fig. 229 illustrates a miniature in the possession of Dr. W. Y. Evans^ 
Wentz. 

4. SARASVATl 

Sarasvati is the name of an ancient river now filled up by the sands 
of Rajputana on the banks of which the Vedic Aryans originally settled 
after their migration to India. As the banks of the river were occupied 
by the Vedic Aryans who composed many hymns, and were the scene of 
many sacrifices, the river was, later on, in the Pauranic age deified as the 
the Goddess of Learning. The Buddhists borrowed this Hindu goddess, 
incorporated her bodily into their pantheon in the Tantric age when she 
was equally popular with the Hindus and the Buddhists, and modified 
her form in various ways. The Buddhist Sarasvati may have one face 
with two arms, or three faces and six arms. When two-armed, she has 
four different variations. As her worship is widely prevalent among the 
Buddhists owing to the belief that like Manjusri and Pro jnaparamita, she 
confers wisdom, learning, intelligence, memory, etc. a comparatively 
large number of Sadhanas is assigned to her in the Sadhanamala. 

(I) MAHASARASVATl 

Symbols r. Varada Mudra ; 1. Lotus. 
Colour White 

She has white complexion, shows the Varada pose in the right hand 
1. Clark: TLP, II, p. 153 



350 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

and carries the white lotus in the left. The Dhyana describes her form 
in the following terms : 

" Bhagavatlm Mahasarasvatlm anuvicintay et saradindukarakaram 
sitakamalopari candramandalastham ; daksinakarena varadam, vamena 
sanalasitasarojadharam smeramukhlm atikarunamayam svetacandanaku* 
sumavasanadharath muktaharopasobhitahrdayam nanaratnalankaravatlih 
dvadasavarsakrtim muditakucamukuladanturorastatlm sphuradanantaga- 
bhastivyuhavabhasitalokatrayam.'' Sadhanamala, p. 329 

"The worshipper should think himself as goddess Mahasarasvati, 
who is resplendent like the autumn moon, rests on the moon over the 
white lotus, shows the Varada mudra in her right hand, and carries in the 
left the white lotus with its stem. She "has a smiling countenance, is 
extremely compassionate, wears garments decorated with white sandal 
flowers. Her bosom is decorated with the pearl-necklace, and she is 
decked in many ornaments ; she appears a maiden of twelve years, and 
her bosom is uneven with half-developed breasts like flower-buds ; 
she illumines the three worlds with the immeasurable light that radiates 
from her body." 

This is the general appearance of Sarasvati, and all the other varieties, 
unless otherwise stated, are identical in appearance with the one just 
described. The distinctive feature of this goddess Mahasarasvati is that 
she shows like the ordinary Taras the Varada mudra in the right hand 
and carries the lotus in the left (Fig. 230), and is surrounded by four 
deities identical in form with herself Prajna is in front of her, Medha 
to her right, Smrti to her left, and Mati in the west. These four divi- 
nities may also accompany other varieties of Sarasvati. As the Sadhana 
is silent about the particular Asana, she may be represented in any 
attitude, sitting or standing. 

Sarasvati is a popular goddess both in Tibet 1 and China - where she 
is widely represented. 

(II) VAJRAVINA SARASVATI 
Colour White Symbol Vina 

Vajravlna Sarasvati like Mahasarasvati is also white in complexion, 
peaceful and benign in appearance. She is also two*armed but the dis- 
tinguishing feature in her case is that she carries in her two hands the 
Vina, a kind of stringed musical instrument, and plays upon it. She 

1. Gordon, ITL, pp. 72, 88 ; Getty : GNB, pp. 127, 128 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 173, 181 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 351 

may also be represented as accompanied by the four divinities as in the 
previous case. 

Fig, 231 illustrates her statuette at Peiping. 

(iii) VAJRAARADA 

Symbol r. Lotus ; 1. Book 

According to the Dhyana in the Sadhanamala she rests upon a pure 
white lotus, and a crescent decorates her crown ; she is three-eyed and 
two-armed and carries the book in the left hand and the lotus in the 
right. The accompanying illustration (Fig. 232) shows how she is pictur^ 
ed by Nepalese artists. She may, however, be accompanied by the four 
attendants, Prajna and others. As the Sadhana is silent about the 
Asana, she may have any attitude. The Nalanda image (Fig. 233) which 
has been identified as Kotisri (?) is probably a stone representation 
of this goddess. Vajrasarada here sits in Bhadrasana, as do her compa- 
nions. All the figures in the group are mutilated, but at least one 
among them carries the Utpala and the book, in the right and left 
hands respectively. 

(iv) ARYASARASVATI 

Symbol Prajnaparamita on Lotus 

Arya Sarasvati is another variation of Sarasvati, and is also desig- 
nated Vajrasarasvati, which seems to be the common name of Saras* 
vatl of the Vajrayanists. She appears a maiden of sixteen, is in 
the prime of youth, has white complexion, and carries in the left hand 
the stalk of a lotus on which rests the Prajnaparamiia Book. The 
Dhyana is silent about the symbol carried in the right hand, which may 
or may not remain empty. The Asana also is not mentioned which 
shows that she may be represented in any attitude. 

Fig. 234 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Arya-Sarasvatl. 

iV) VAJRASARASVATI 
Faces Three Arms Six 

Asana Pratyalldha 

The name Vajrasarasvati is given to this goddess in order to distin- 
guish her from the other four varieties of Sarasvati, with four different 
names given in the Sadhanas. It has already been said that Sarasvati 
has a form with three faces and six arms. In all other respects her form 
is identical with that of Mahasarasvati. The difference here is that her 
hair is brown and rises upwards, and she stands in the Pratyalldha 



352 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

attitude on the red lotus. Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are 
assigned to her worship, and according to these, she is red in colour, 
with the right and left faces of blue and white colour respectively* 
She carries in her three right hands the lotus on which is the Prajna- 
paramita Book, the sword and the Kartri, and in the three left the 
Kapala of Brahma, the jewel and the Cakra. Instead of the book on 
lotus and Brahmakapala she may also hold the lotus and the Kapala only. 
Fig 235 illustrates a Nepalese drawing belonging to the latter 
variety. 

5. THE EIGHT DIKPALAS 

The eight Dikpalas or the Lords of the Eight Quarters are described 
in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala and other places in the Nispan* 
nayogavall. They are the Lords or rather the embodiments of the four 
principal directions and the four intermediate corners, and resemble the 
Yamantaka group of deities of the Buddhists. Their forms are described 
below in the same order as they appear in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara 
Mandala. Here only one typical form is given, although there are 
many more, even with their female counterparts. 

(I) 1NDRA 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Vehicle Elephant Direction East 

The first in the series of Eight Hindu gods of direction is Indra 
who presides over the Eastern quarter. His form is described as 
follows : 

"Airavatarudhah Indrah pito vajram stanam ca dadhanah." 

NSP, p. 61 

"Indra (of the east) rides on the Airavata elephant and is yellow in 
colour. He holds in his two hands the Vajra and the breast of a 
woman." 

Under the name of Sakra he appears in the Chinese collection ] . 
Fig. 236 illustrates his Peiping image. 

(II) YAMA 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Vehicle Buffalo Direction South 

The second in the series of eight deities of direction is called Yama 
here as well as in Hindu scriptures. Yama is described in the following 
words : 

"Yamyarh Mahise Yamah krsno yamadandasulabhrt." 

" NSP, p. 61 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 89, 178 



353 




103 

|*fM _^ 

o '*? 

si- 
"! 

ti ^" 




o -r 




o tS 

Q-.S 

S* 

o 

(SI k *- 



45 



354 




103 



o 

r-4 




ICtf 



1 




led 
^ 

x-> 

5-< 

Z 

oo 




355 







ICO 

ft 

h 







rrt 

4->- 

res 

a 

C3 to 

. 




. 

i-4 *S< 



356 




J 

>>* 
</) ^ 

ins ^e 

.jcs *- 

a 









o 

- 



^ o 
: g O 

C/3 ^ 



DJD 



o 

s 




I! 



bb 



357 




10$ 

P-. 

03 

I i 



05 
U< 

ex. 
o 







e 

03 



t>0 
. 



- 
Q 

ON 




103 -T- 

Qbfl 
. c 



358 




103 



e 

OS 

it 



b 




IC0 

-t! 
-co 




ted 



359 




s * 



VO 
r*4 Q- 




I 

CO 



OS 

G 



OJ 






.1 

.2 

4- 

2 



DO 



360 




c! 




_O 



O '5 

*4^ 
OO ^ 



Q 



H 




C 

O 



* 

o ^ 

IS 






HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 361 

"In the south, there is Yama riding on a Buffalo. He is blue in 
colour and holds in his two hands the staff of death and the Sula". 

Yama, the God of Death is fairly popular in Tibet where his images 
are found l . 

(III) VARUNA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Vehicle Crocodile Direction West 

The third in the series of gods of direction is Varuna whose form is 
described in the text as follows : 

"Varune makare Varunah svetah saptaphano nagapasasankhabhrt." 

NSP, p. 61 

"In the west there is Varuna riding on a Crocodile. He is white in 
colour and has seven hoods. He holds in his two hands the noose of 
snake and the conch". 

His statuettes occur in the Chinese collection under the title of 
Varuna (deva) 2 . 

(IV) KUBERA 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

VehicleMan Direction North 

The fourth deity in this series is Kubera of the North and his form 
is described in the text as follows : 

"Kauberyarii nare Kuberah supltonkusagadadharah." 

NSP, p. 61 

"In the north, there is Kubera riding on a man. He is of deep 
yellow colour and holds in his two hands the goad and the Gada 
(mace)", 

Kubera is fairly well represented in Tibet b . 

(V) 1SANA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Vehicle Bull Direction Isana 

The fifth in the series of gods of direction is Isana the Lord of the 
Isana corner, and his form is described in the following words : 

Aisanyam Vrsabharudhah Isanah trisulakapalapanih jatardhacandra- 
dharah sarpayajnopaviti nllakanthah." NSP, p. 61 



1. See for instance Gordon : 1TL, p. 90 ; also Getty : GNB, PL XLVII, a and b. 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 98, 178 

3. See for instance Gordon : 1TL, p. 90 also Getty : GNB, plate LII, b 

46 



362 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

"In the Isana corner there is isana riding on a Bull. He is white in 
colour and holds in his two hands the Trisula (trident) and the Kapala 
(skull'cup). On his matted hair appears the half-moon, on his body 
a sacred thread of serpent and his throat is blue/' 

As isana he is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

(VI) AGNI 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Vehicle Goat Direction Agni 

The sixth in the series of direction gods is Agni the Lord of the 
Agni corner. His form is described thus : 

"Agneyyam Cchage'gnih raktah sruvakamandaludharah." 

NSP, p. 61 
"In the Agni corner there is Agni riding on a Goat. He is red in 

colour and holds in his two hands the Sruva (ladle) and the Kamandalu 
(water bowl)." 

As Agnideva his forms occur twice in the Chinese collection l . 
Fig, 237 illustrates one of the two statuettes from Peiping. 

(VII) NAIRRTI 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

VehicleCorpse Direction Nairrta corner 

The seventh direction god is called by the name of Nairrti who 
presides over the Nairrta corner. His form is described in the text as 
follows : 

"Nairrtyarh Raksasadhipo Nairrtih mlah save khadgakhetakabhrt." 

NSP,' p. 61 

"In the Nairrta corner there is the Lord of the Raksasas (goblins) 
called Nairrti who is blue in colour and rides on a corpse. In his two 
hands he holds the sword and the Khetaka (stick)". 

He is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

(VIII) VAYU 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Vehicle Deer Direction Vayu. 

The eighth and the last deity in the series of direction gods is called 
Vayu the Lord of the Vayu corner. His form is described thus : 

"Vayavyam mrge Vayurmlo vataputadharah". NSP, p. 61 

1. Clark :TLP, II, pp. 87, 65 ~ 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 363 

"In the Vayu corner there is Vayu riding on a Deer and blue in 
colour. In his two hands he shows the Vataputa" (empty fold). 

Under Vayudeva his statuette occurs in the Chinese collection l . 
Fig. 238 illustrates this image. 

6. TEN PRINCIPAL HINDU DEITIES 

In the Brahma group there are ten deities. They are popular in 
India and their statuettes occur in the Chinese collection. Their 
appearance in the Buddhist pantheon is almost the same as we find 
them described in the Puranas and Tantric works of the Hindus. The 
gods of the Brahma group are described with typical examples in the 
same order as they appear in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala of 
the Nispannayogavali. 

(I) BRAHMA 

Colour Yellow Arms Four 

Vehicle Swan 

The first among the ten gods of this list is Brahma. His form is 
given in the following text : 

"Harhse Brahma pitascaturbhujah aksasutrabjabhrt~savyetarabhyam 
krtanjalir-danda-kamandaludharah". NSP, p. 61 

"On a Swan appears Brahma of yellow colour with four arms. 
With the two principal hands carrying the rosary and the lotus, he 
displays the Anjah (clasped hand) mudra, and the two other hands 
carry the staff and the Kamandalu'*. 

Three statuettes of his occur in the Chinese collection L \ Fig. 238 
illustrates one of the three. 

(II) VISNU 
Arms Four Vehicle Garuda 

The second god in this series of ten principal gods of the Hindu 
pantheon is called Visnu. His form is described as under : 

"Garude Visnus-caturbhujah cakrasankhabhrtsavyavamabhyam 
murdhni krtanjalir-gadasarngadharah". NSP, p. 61 

"On a Garuda there is Visnu with four arms. With the two prin* 
cipal hands carrying the Cakra and the Sahkha he displays the Anjali 
on his head. With the two others he holds the Gada (mace) and the 
bow". 

Two statuettes of Visnu occur in the Chinese collection 3 . 



1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 181 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 100, 156, 179 

3. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 98, 156. 



364 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(III) MAHESVARA 
Colour White Arms Four 

Vehicle-Bull 

The third in this series of ten principal gods of the Hindus is 
Mahesvara. His form is described thus : 

"Vrsabhe Mahesvarah sitah sasikanakankitajatamukutas-catur 
bhujah sirasi krtanjalis-trisulakapalabhrt". NSP, p. 62 

"Mahesvara sits on the Bull, and is white in colour. His crown of 
matted hair is beautified by the moon. He is four-armed. With the two 
principal hands he displays the Anjali over the head, and with the two 
others he carries the Trisula and the Kapala". 

One statuette of Mahesvara occurs in the Chinese collection ] . 
It is illustrated in Fig. 240. 

(IV) KARTTIKEYA 
Colour Red Arms Six 
Symbol Hen Vehicle Peacock 

The fourth god in this series is Karttikeya and his form is des* 
cribed as follows : 

"Mayure Karttikeyo raktah sanmukhah savyabhyam saktim vajram 
ca vamabhyarh kukkutam ca dadhano dvabhyam krtanjalih," 

NSP, p. 62 

* 'Karttikeya rides a Peacock, is red in colour, and has six faces. 
With the two right hands he holds the Sakti (javelin) and the Vajra 
and with the two left the hen. With two others he shows the Anjali". 

One statuette of this deity is found in the Chinese collection 2 . 

(V) VARAHI 

Colour Blue Arms Four 

Symbol Fish Vehicle Owl 

The fifth deity in this series is a goddess and is called here as Varahl. 
Her form is described as follows : 

"Varahl krsna pecakarudha caturbhuja savyavamabhyam rohita- 
matsyakapaladhara dvabhyam krtanjalih". NSP, p. 62 

" Varahl is blue in colour. She rides on an Owl and is four'armed. 
In one pair of hands she shows the Rohita fish in the right and the 
Kapala in the left. Two others are clasped in Anjali". 

Two statuettes of the deity are represented in the Chinese collec- 
tion *, 

1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 156 

2. Clark: TLP, II, p. 157 

3. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 72, 176 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 365 

(VI) CAMUNDA 
Colour Red Arms Four 

Veh icle Corpse 

The sixth deity in the series of Hindu gods is also a goddess and is 
known by the name of Camunda. Her form is described as follows : 

"Pretopari Camunda rakca caturbhuja kartrikapalabhrtsavyetara 
krtSnjali". NSP, p. 62 

"Camunda rides on a corpse and is of red colour. She is four- 
armed. With the first pair of hands she holds the Kartri in the right 
and the Kapala in the left. In the second she exhibits the Anjali". 

One statuette of this goddess occurs in the Chinese collection *, 

(VII) BHRNGI 

Colour Blue Arms Four 

The seventh deity in this series is Bhrhgi whose form is described 
in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala as follows : 

"Bhrhgi krsriah krsnaksasutrakamandaludharah krtanjalih". 

NSP, p. 62 

"Bhrhgi is blue in colour and he holds in the first pair of hands 
the blue rosary and the Kamandalu. In the second pair the Anjali is 
shown'*. 

Bhrhgi is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

(VIII) GANAPATI 

Colour White Arms Four 

Symbol Elephant-face Vehicle Rat 

Ganapati is a popular deity in the Buddhist pantheon. He is des- 
cribed several times in the Nispannayogavall, and as already stated an 
independent Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is devoted to his worship. 
In the Mandala of Dharmadhatuvagisvara his description is as follows : 

Musake Ganapatih sitah karivaktrah sarpayajnopaviti caturbhujah 
savyabhyam trisulaladdukau vamabhyam parasumulake dadhanah. 

NSP, p". 62 

"Ganapati rides on a Mouse and is white in colour. He has an 
elephant face and a snake forms his sacred thread. He is four-armed. 
In the two right hands he carries the' Trisula and the Ladduka (sweet 
balls), and in the two left the Parasu (axe) and the Mulaka (radish). 

U Cla^kl TLP, IT, p. 176 " 



366 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

In the Bhutadamara Mandala, he is given four hands carrying the 
Mulaka and the Parasu in the two right, and the Trisula and the 
Kapala in the two left J . 

One statuette of his is recorded in the Chinese collection 2 . It is 
illustrated in Fig. 241- 

(IX) MAHAKALA 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Trident 

The ninth in this series of Hindu deities in the Buddhist 
pantheon is called Mahakala who is popular both in the Sadhanamala 
as well as in the Nispannayogavall. His form is described as follows : 

"Mahakalah krsnas-trisula-kapalabhrt". NSP, p. 62 

" Mahakala is blue in colour and carries the Trisula and the Kapala 
in his two hands". 

One statuette of his occurs in the Chinese collection 3 . His des- 
cription in the Sadhanamala is more detailed. The different forms of 
Mahakala have already been discussed in an earlier section in this very 
chapter. 

(X) NANDIKEVARA 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Muraja Vehicle Muraja 

The tenth and the last in this series of Hindu gods is called Nandi- 
kesvara. His form is described thus in the Mandala of Dharmadhatu- 
vagisvara : 

"Nandikesvarah krsnah Murajarudho Murajavadanaparah". 

NSP, p. 62 

"Nandikesvara is blue in colour and sits on a Muraja drum and is 
engaged in playing on the Muraja". 

Two statuettes of this deity occur in the Chinese collection under 

the title Nandisvara (deva) which is the same as Nandikesvara *. 
_____ 

2. Clark : TLP> II, p. 153 
3* Clark : TIP, II, p. 101 
4. Clark :TLP, II, pp. 104, 153 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 367 

7. NINE PLANETS 

From time immemorial people in India believed in the power of 
the planets either for evil or for good. That belief is still current. The 
Hindus, Buddhists and Jainas alike shared in this belief, and in all these 
three religious systems the planets were deified and they were given a 
form, weapon and colour. To compare the forms of the different 
planets in the three religious systems is itself an independent and 
stupendous study. It is not the purpose here to compare their forms, 
nor even to study their iconography extensively, but a passing and 
brief reference to the planets is what can and should be given. As the 
planets were deified in Buddhism also, their forms are stated below in 
the same order and in the same manner as they appear in the Mandala of 
Dharmadhatuvagisvara of the Nispannayogavall* 

(i) ADITYA 

Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol Discs 6f the Sun 
Vehicle Chariot of Seven Horses 

Aditya or the Sun-god heads the list of the Nine Planets, and his 
form is described in the Nispannayogavall as follows : 

"Saptaturagarathe Adityo rakto daksinahastena vamena ca padmas- 
tha-suryamandaladharah". NSP, p. 62 

"Aditya rides on a chariot drawn by seven horses. He is red in 
colour. Both in the right and in the left he holds the discs of the sun 
on lotuses". 

In the Chinese collection, one statuette of this planet occurs under 
the title of Surya *. 

(II) CANDRA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Discs of the Moon Vehicle Swan 

The second planet in this series is Candra or the Moon-god who is 
described thus in the text : 

"Hamse Candrah subhrah savyahastena vamena ca kumudastha- 
candramandalabhyt". NSP, p. 62 

"Candra rides on a Swan, is white in colour and holds in his right 
and left hands the discs of the Moon on lotuses". 

As Candradeva this planet is popular in the Chinese collection 2 . 

lT~Clark : TLP, II, p. 176 

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 89, 182 



368 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(III) MANGALA 
Colour Red Arms Two 

Symbol 'Human head Vehicle Goal 

The third in the series of Nine Planetjs is Mangala or the War*Lord 
Mars whose form is described in the following words : 

"Chhagale Mangalo raktah savyetfa kattaram vamena Manusa- 
mundam bhaksanabhinayena dadhanah". NSP, p, 62 

" Mangala rides on a Goat. He is red in colour. In the right hand 
he holds the Kattara (cutter) and in the left a severed human head in the 
act of devouring". 

He is not found in the Chinese collection. 

(IV) BUDHA 

Colour Yellow Arms Two 

Symbol Bow and Arrow 

The fourth god in the series of Nine Planets, is Budha or Mercury 
and his form is described as under : 

"Padme Budhah pitah saradhanurdharah" NSP, p. 62 

'*On a lotus there is Budha who is yellow in colour and holds in 
his two hands the arrow and the bow". 

Budha is represented in the Chinese collection only once ] . 

(V) BRHASPATI 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbols Rosary and Kamandalu 
Vehicle Frog or Skull 

The fifth god in the series of Nine Planets is Brhaspati or Jupiter* 
His form is described in the text as under : 

"Bheke Kapale va Brhaspatir'gauro'ksasutrakamandaludharah," 

NSP, p. 62 

"On a Frog or a skull there is Brhaspati of white colour. He 
carries the rosary and the Kamandalu in his two hands". 

Brhaspati is not represented in the Chinese collection of Peiping. 
1. Clark : TLP, II, p. 83 



369 




-0 

03 



C-4 

ob 




CO 



,1- 1 




CO 
10* 



a 
s? 



47 



370 




rt 

CO 



03 



cti 



OJ 

GO 







103 

-o 
2 

105 




371 



D 

>* 
103 



23 .-9. 

o '"^ Q 



PL 




DJD 




2 



uu 



372 




03 

o, 

as 

g* "5 
o . s 

."9< 

Y-H Ol 






373 



rJQ 

4- 

H 

"g ^ 
> .S 
2 t 








tl'^fff 
F^St^ 
: 'M:- ! '; ^^T-^if'S 



iv^^^K/--^]-^-) 
t^'r^JVr 1 '-' 1 - 1 '' : ^ 



le 



374 





J2 

D 




H 

i "5 

CO .*; 

&t 



E 



375 




Fig* 248 Mlna 
(Peking) 




Fig. 249 Khadiravani Tara 
(Dacca Museum) 



376 




Fig. 218 Lama 
(Nepalese Painting) 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 377 

(Vi; SUKRA 

Colour White Arms Two 

Symbol Rosary and Kamandalu 

The sixth in the series of Nine Planets is Sukra or Venus whose form 
is described in the text as under : 

"Sukrah suklah kamalastho'ksasutra-kamandalubhrt.'' 

NSP, p. 62 

"Sukra is white in colour. He sits on a lotus and holds in his two 
hands the rosary and the Kamandalu/' 

Sukra is not represented in the Chinese collection. 



Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Rod Vehicle Tortoise 

The seventh deity in the series of Nine Planets, is Sani, Sanaiscara or 
Saturn. His form is described in the following words : 

"Kacchape Sanaiscarah krsno dandadharah/' NSP, p. 63 

Sanaiscara rides on a tortoise and is blue in colour. He holds the 
rod". 

Saturn is not represented in the Chinese collection. The selection 
of the slowest animal tortoise for the slowest of the planets, Saturn, is 
very significant, 

(VIII) RAHU 

Colour Reddish Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Sun and Moon 

The eighth deity in this series ot Nine Planets, is the destructive 
deity Rahu. His form is as under : 

"Rahu raktakrsnah suryacandrabhrt'Savyetarakarah." 

NSP, p. 63 

"Rahu is reddish blue in colour, and he holds in his two hands the 
Sun and the Moon." 

As Rahudeva he occurs once in the Chinese collection. This 
Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig. 242 1 . 

1. Clark ; TLP, II, p. 153 
48 



378 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(IX) KETU 

Colour Blue Arms Two 

Symbol Sword and Snake-noose 

The ninth and the last in the series of deities representing the Nine 
Planets is Ketu. He is described thus in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara 
Mandala : 

"Ketuh krsnah khadga-nagapasadharah". NSP, p. 63 

"Ketu is blue in colour and holds the sword and the noose of snake*" 

Under the name Ketugrahadeva, he occurs once in the Chinese 
collection '. Fig- 243 illustrates this Chinese specimen. 

8. BALABHADRA GROUP 

A set of four Hindu deities under the Balabhadra group is describ- 
ed fully in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala of the NispannayogavalL 
They include Balabhadra, Jayakara, Madhukara, and Vasanta, and in 
Hinduism, all these are the companions of the god Kamadeva, the deity 
of Desire. 

(I) BALABHADRA 
Colour White Arms Four 
Symbol Plough Vehicle Elephant 

The first deity in this group is called Balabhadra who may be identi- 
fied with Balarama the brother of Krsna. These two pastoral deities of 
Hinduism broadly represented Agriculture and Dairying, Balabhadra 
is described as under : 

"Kunjare Balabhadrah sitah khadga-langaladharah." 

NSP, p. 63 

"Balabhadra rides an elephant and is white in colour. He holds the 
sword and the plough." 

He is not to be found in China. 

(II) JAYAKARA 

Colour (White) Arms Four 

Symbol Garland Vehicle Cuckoo Chariot 

The second deity of this group is called Jayakara whose form is 
described as under : 

"Kokilarathe Jayakaras-caturbhujah (sitah) savyabhyam puspama- 
lam banam ca vamabhyarh casaka-dhanusl dadhanah." . 

' ' ' p. 63 



I. Clark : TLP, II, p. 99 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 379 

"Jayakara rides a chariot drawn by cuckoos ; he is (white in colour) 
and is four-armed. With the two right hands he carries the garland of 
flowers and the arrow and with the two left Casaka (wine-glass) and the 
bow". 

He is not represented in the Chinese collection. 

(Ill) MADHUKARA 
Colour White Arms Four 

Symbol Makara Banner Vehicle buka Chariot 

The third deity in this series of Hindu gods is Madhukara whose 
form is described as under : 

"Sukasyandane Madhukaro gauras-caturbhujah savyabhyam makar- 
adhvajasare vamabhyam casakacapau vibharti". MSP, p. 63 

"Madhukara rides a chariot drawn by Suka birds and is white in 
colour. He is four-armed, and holds in his two right hands the 
Makara banner and the arrow. With the two left hands he carries the 
wine-glass (Casaka) and the bow". 

(IV) VASANTA 
Colour White Arms Four 

Symbol Wine-glass Vehicle Monkey 

The fourth and the last in this series of four Hindu gods is Vasanta 
or the Spring-god. His form is described in the following words in the 
Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala : 

"Plavange Vasantah sitas-caturbhujah savyabhyarii bana-krpanabhrt- 
vamabhyam dhanus-casakadharah". NSP, p. 63 

"Vasanta rides on a monkey and is white in colour. He is four-armed 
and in his two right hands he holds the arrow and the sword. With 
the two left he carries the bow and the wine-glass''. 

None of these four deities is represented in the Chinese collection. 

9. LORDS OF THE YAKSAS, KINNARAS, GANDHARVAS 
AND VIDYADHARAS 

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala eight Lords of Yaksas are 
described briefly. This list of Yaksa kings is important as it is not found 
elsewhere ; it is not possible also to individualize them in their forms. 
The Yaksas are a semi-mythical class of beings who are supposed to 
preside over treasures and shower wealth on mankind when propitiated. 
Kubera is said to be the greatest among the Yaksas, who according to 
the Hindus, lives in the North along with the Yaksa hordes. The name 
of his capital is said to be Alakapuri adjacent to Mount Kailasa in the 
Himalayan region. 



380 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

(I) YAKSA KINGS 

The names of the eight Yaksa kings are ; 

1. Purnabhadra 2. Manibhadra 

3. Dhanada 4. Vaisravana 

5. Civikundali 6. Kelimali 

7. Sukhendra 8. Calendra 

They are all collectively described in the Mandala in one brief 
sentence : 

"Purnabhadradayo Yaksadhipah b!japuraphala~nakulabhrt-savyet- 
arakarah". NSP,*p. 63 

*'The Yaksa kings beginning with Purnabhadra hold in their hands 
the Bijapura (citron) and the Nakula (mongoose) in the right and left 
hands respectively". 

In colour they differ. Purnabhadra is blue, Manibhadra is yellow, 
Dhanada is red, Vaisravana is yellow, Civikundali is red, Kelimali is 
green, Sukhendra and Calendra are yellow. 

The citron and the mongoose are the natural symbols of Jambhala 
the Buddhist god of wealth, and as such, he is of the Yaksa group. 

Except Jambhala these Yaksas are rarely represented. In the 
Chinese collection there are two illustrations one under the title of 
Yaksadeva and another under Yaksa Purnabhadra l . They refer 
evidently to this group of deities. Besides them there is a series of 
statuettes which are designated with the general title of Mahayaksa^ 
senadhipatis. They carry the citron and the mongoose. 

Allied to the Yaksas are the Kinnaras, Gandharvas, and Vidyadharas. 
They are all semi^mythical beings next to gods, who have power to 
confer benefit when propitiated. Some information about their kings 
is found in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala of the Nispannayo- 
gavalL Their forms are described below in the order in which it is 
found* 

(II) KINNARA KING 

The Kinnara king is not named here but his form is given in the 
following words : 

"Kinnararajendro raktagauro vinavadanaparah" NSP, p. 63 

"The Kinnara king is reddish white in colour and is engaged in 
playing on the musical instrument called the Vina". 

1. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 102, 313 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 381 

(III) GANDHARVA KING 

The Gandharva king is known by the name of Pancasikha and his 
form is described as follows : 

"Pancasikho Gandharvarajendrah pito vmam vadayati". 

NSP, p. 63 

"Pancasikha the king of the Gandharvas is yellow in colour and he 
plays on the Vina instrument". 

(IV) VIDYADHARA KING 

The king of the Vidyadharas is named as Sarvarthasiddha and his 
form is described as below : 

"Sarvarthasiddho Vidyadhararajendro gaurah kusumamalahastah". 

NSP, p. 63 

"Sarvarthasiddha the king of the Vidyadharas is white in colour 
and holds in his two hands the garland of flowers". 

10. TWENTY-EIGHT CONSTELLATIONS 

The Zodiac is divided into 27 or 28 constellations or Naksattras. 
These are called the Lunar Mansions. These Lunar Mansions are 
believed to exercise great influence on human beings and their affairs. 
They are constantly bringing good or bad effects and are supposed to be 
great store-houses of power. It is no wonder, therefore, that in 
Buddhism these Naksattras should be deified with colour, faces and 
hands. The Naksattras are described collectively in the Dharmadhatu- 
vagisvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. In this Mandala the 
Naksattras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against 
the chest in the Anjali mudra. In colour, however, they differ. 

The Naksattras have the following features in common : 

"Asvinyadayo devyasca ratnakancukiparidhanah krtanjalayah". 

NSP, p. 65 

"The deities beginning with Asvinl are decked in bejewelled jackets 
and they all show the Anjali mudra". 

They differ in colour. Their distinctive colour is given below in 
the order in which it is found in the Mandala : 

1. Asvini White 2. Bharam Green 

3, Krttika Green 4. Rohim Reddish White 

5. Mrgasira Blue 6. Ardra -Yellow 

1. Punarvasu Yellow 8. Pusya Green 

9. Aslesa White 10. Magha Yellow 



382 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

11. PurvaphalgunI Green 12. Uttaraphalgum Green 

as Priyahgu 

13. Hasta -White 14. Citra Green 

15. Svati-Yellow 16. Visakha-Blue 

17. Anuradha Green 18. Jyestha- Yellow 

19. Mula Yellow 20. Purvasadha Blue 

21. Uttarasadha White 22. Sravana White 

* 

23. Dhanistha Blue 24. Satabhisa Yellow 

25. Purvabhadrapada 26. Uttarabhadrapada Yellow 

Green 

27. Revati-- White 28. Abhijit Green 

11. TIME DEITIES 
(I) MONTHS 

Another set of interesting Hindu deities is described in the Kalaca- 
kra Mandala as Lords of the Twelve Months of the Hindu Calendar. 
As they are rarely represented, it is not necessary to deal with them 

in detail. Only a brief and passing reference is all that is necessary 
here. 

There are altogether twelve months having twelve deities and their 
names are given below in the same order as it is given in the Kalacakra 
Mandala : 

1. Caitra Naiirti 2. Vaisakha Vayu 

3. Phalguna Yama 4. Jyaistha Agni 

5. Asadha Sanmukha 6* Pausa Kubera 

7. Asvina Sakra 8. Karttika -Brahma 

9. Margasirsa Rudra 10. Sravana Samudra 

11. Bhadrapada Ganesa 12. Magha Visnu 

These twelve gods, at least most of them, are described previously. 
But the forms in the Kalacakra Mandala are somewhat different. Hete 
they are all accompanied with their Saktis, mostly four-armed and have 
their distinctive vehicles. 

(II) DATES 

The Tithis or the distances between the sun and the moon are also 
deified, but these cannot be properly determined in the absence of 
definite iconographic information. Some of these Tithis (dates) are 
found represented in the Chinese collection at Peiping *. Figs. 224 
and 245 illustrate the Navami and DasamI Tithis. 

I. See for instance Clark : TLP, II, p. 84 where the Tithis, Saptaml, Astami, 
Navami and DasamI are illustrated. 



HINDU GODS IN VAJRAYANA 383 

(III) ZODIACAL SIGNS 

Besides these, there are the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac, named in 
the Hindu books on Astrology as Mesa, Vrsabha, Mithuna, Karka, 
Sirhha, Kanya, Tula, Vrscika, Dhanu, Makara, Kumbha and Mina. It 
has not been possible to trace any Sanskrit text from Buddhist 
Tantric literature which mentions the Dhyana or even a tolerable 
description of these Signs of the Zodiac, But the Rasis are long 
believed in India to be the store-houses of mystic power, and it is but 
natural to expect that these Twelve Signs should be deified with 
colour, form, weapons and the rest. It is also natural that these deities 
should be assigned to one or another of the families of the Dhyani 
Buddhas so that they may be fitted into the Buddhist pantheon. When 
more literature on the subject is published, only then it will be possible 
to find descriptive texts. It is however desirable at this stage to refer 
to the excellent statuettes of the different Signs of the Zodiac that have 
been discovered in China and illustrated by Professor Clarke in his Two 
Lamaistic Pantheons, Vol. II, ] . 

Figs. 246, 247 and 248 illustrate the three Signs, Tula, Kumbha and 
Mina. 

(IV) SEASONS 

The seasons of the year wore likewise deified and were given 
form, colour, weapons, and were affiliated to one or another of the 
Dhyani Buddhas. Descriptions of seasons are also not available in the 
Buddhist Tantric literature, but their images and statuettes have been 
discovered both in Tibet 2 and China 3 . 



1. See for instance, Clark : TLP, II, p. 102 for Kanya Devi, p. 101 for Tula Devi, 

p. 87 for Kumbha Deva, and p. 86 for Makara Deva. 

f 

2 & 3. For instance, Gordon : ITL, p. 82 where goddesses for Vasanta, Sarad and 
Hemanta seasons are illustrated. Also Clark : TLP, II, p. 308 for Sarad and Hemanta 
and p. 307 for Vasanta and Varsa seasons. 



CHAPTER XIV 

CONCLUSION 

The foregoing is an account of the iconography of Buddhist gods 
and goddesses as reconstructed from Sanskrit texts of the Buddhist 
Tantric literature. The study confines itself to the iconography of gods 
and goddesses only, excluding all other favourite themes of the Buddh- 
ists carved on stone or painting, such as the scenes from Buddha's life, 
the Jataka stories, the Avadanas and others, representations of which, 
are available from Bharhut, Sanchi, Amaravati, Gandhara or even the 
cave temples of Ajanta. This book does not refer to them nor makes 
an attempt to identify them by hunting out the original Sanskrit texts 
which are illustrated on stone in the form of stories. It is a practical 
handbook for the guidance of Museologists who have to handle large 
number of images of gods and goddesses with strange faces, weapons 
and poses. It is a work giving indications as to how such images 
should be studied, analyzed, and finally identified with the help of 
original Sanskrit texts such as are quoted in this book at every place. An 
image is nothing but a symbol, and it is the business of the students of 
iconography to find out how the image was made, by whom it was 
made, and what philosophical and cultural background was necessary 
for the production of such an image. In this work, therefore, problems 
such as these have been treated and enough information is given in 
order to understand a Buddhist image from different view-points. The 
scope of this work thus is limited, and it does not claim to unravel the 
mystery of all stones on which something is carved. But within the 
limited scope, it has enough information of the highest practical value 
to the students of iconograghy, and this value is enhanced by the 
inclusion of photographs of excellent sculptures, bronzes and original 
Nepalese drawings procured with difficulty and at high cost. 

The Buddhist pantheon as such did not exist before cir. 300 A. D. 
which is the approximate time of the composition of the famous 
Tantric work the Guhyasamaja. The pantheon got a good start from 
the theory of the five Dhyani Buddhas, the embodiment of the five 
cosmic forces, Rupa, Vedana, Samjna, Samskara and Vijnana. The 
pantheon further got a fillip from the theory of the Kulas (families) of 
the Dhyani Buddhas and their Saktis or female counterparts* The 
Dhyani Buddhas thus became the Kulesas or progenitors or heads of 



CONCLUSION 385 

families, and the families are seen multiplying until they become 
overwhelming in number. And along with numerical strength, the 
excellent and meritorious artists went on producing such wonderful 
specimens of images which were backed by the religious inspiration of 
the most transcedental type. The pantheon became extremely attrac* 
tive, and all including the Hindus and Jainas started building their 
pantheons and adding to their gods and goddesses. In the meantime 
other Buddhist countries like Tibet, China, Japan and the rest were 
struck by the wealth of gods and sculptures of the most bewildering 
variety, and started constructing their own pantheons according to 
their own national and cultural genius. The pantheon of the Buddhists 
created in India thus became world property, although Buddhism as a 
religion vanished from India the land of its birth long long ago. 

The teachings of the Guhyasamaja remained dormant for some 
300 years, and was handed down secretly from Gurus to disciples, but 
later, when it became popular, gradually the process of deification 
rapidly grew with newer and newer gods and goddesses. Each 
image received and absorbed cultural currents and cross-currents, and 
as a living organism took newer and newer forms according to time 
and according to space. It has now become so unwieldy and its 
ramifications have been so intricate and vast, that it has become a highly 
specialized study requiring experts to handle the gods and goddesses 
of Buddhism. The study is fascinating to the extreme, and the interest 
in the subject is bound to grow with the lapse of time and with the 
publication of the original MSS on the subject, such as the Vajravali, 
Kriyasamuccaya, the original Tantras like the Kalacakra Tantra, Heruka 
and Hevajra Tantras, Vajrayoginl and Vajravarahi Tantras, vast in 
number and voluminous in extent. Let us hope that India will take 
care of these priceless original manuscripts, preserve them in good 
libraries, and gradually through publications make them available to the 
world of Buddhists comprising a third of the population of the globe. 
Just at the present moment however, for unravelling the mysteries 
of the Buddhist images of gods and goddesses, there are only two 
books of outstanding value. These are the Sadhanamala and the 
Nispannayogavali both published in the Qaekwad's Oriental Series for 
the first time. The Sadhanamala was composed in A. D. 1165 since 
the earliest manuscript of the work bears a date in the Newari era 
which is equivalent to 1165 A. D. Nispannayogavali was written by the 
famous Buddhist author and mystic Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta 
whose time is co-eval with that of the Pala king Ramapala who flouris- 
hed in A, D. 1084-1130. Both these works were written at a time when 

49 



386 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

the psychic phase of Buddhism reached its very zenith, before being 
destroyed by the sword of Islam. Both the Sadhanamala and the 
Nispannayogavall therefore record faithfully the highest development 
of the psychic phase of Buddhism in the 12th century. 

The Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala were composed by men distingue 
shed in the mediaeval age as great Tantric authors. The Dhyanas 
contained in the Sadhanas laid down the essential features of different 
gods, and the sculptors and artists prepared images with the help of 
these general directions. The Dhyanas left much scope for the exercise 
of imagination on the part of the sculptors, and the products of their 
chisels were also very greatly influenced by the spirit of the age in 
which they flourished, as well as by the geographical situation in which 
they worked. The ornaments, dress and even facial expressions of the 
images reflected local conditions to a great extent, while the particular 
Tantric rites in which the images were used had also a modifying in* 
fluence. 

It has been pointed out several times that the most important factor 
in the identification of images is the miniature figure of the Dhyani 
Buddha on their crowns. When, however, the parental Dhyani Buddha 
is not present, other marks of identification have to be sought for. 
Moreover, difficulties may arise even when the Dhyani Buddhas are 
present. In cases where all the Dhyani Buddhas are present on the 
aureole, the Buddha right on the top of the head is to be taken as the 
parental Dhyani Buddha. The standing figure of Khadiravam Tara in 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta or the Vikrampur figures of Parnasabari 
are the cases in point. They are both emanations of Amoghasiddhi, 
whose effigy appears right above the heads of the goddesses. The 
figures of all the other four Dhyani Buddhas are not required either 
by the Sadhana or for identification. Their presence can only be ex- 
plained by the fact that in all kinds of worship the five Dhyani Buddhas 
are the first to be invoked. Sometimes, however, the Dhyani Buddhas 
appear on the image for artistic reasons only, as for instance, in the 
case of the Dacca Museum image of Arapacana Manjusri. The Java 
figure of Arapacana is surrounded by four companions, identical in 
appearance with himself, but in the Dacca Museum image there are 
four Dhyani Buddhas in addition, on the aureole although the central 
position just above the head of the principal deity is occupied by one 
of the attendants of Arapacana. The Dhyani Buddhas, here are not 
required by the Sadhana and are, therefore, more ornamental than 
otherwise. 

But the most serious difficulty arises when instead of the Dhyani 
Buddha prescribed by the Sadhana some other Dhyani Buddha appears 



CONCLUSION 387 

on the crown of any figure. For instance, the Sarnath image of 
Ucchusma Jambhala should have shown in accordance with the Sadhana 
the figures either of Aksobhya or Ratnasambhava on its crown, but 
the effigy of Amitabha is shown instead. Again, when a reference is 
made to the Lucknow figure of Marici, who according to the Sadhana 
should have shown the figure of Vairocana on her crown, shows 
Amitabha instead. Again the Indian Museum image of Usmsavijaya 
shows the figure of her parental Dhyani Buddha as Aksobhya instead of 
her own sire Vairocana. 

True reasons for these discrepancies can hardly be given at this state 
of our knowledge. The most reasonable suggestion seems to be that 
the original texts are not stil] known in their entirety. It must be re- 
membered that the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavall are not 
the only texts produced in Vajrayana. It is quite likely that new 
Sadhanas will be forthcoming when further material is published. It is 
difficult, however, to believe that a new Sadhana for either Marici or 
Usmsavijaya will be available. In the Sadhanamala itself a large 
number of Sadhanas is published, but nowhere there is any mention 
of any other parental Buddha than Vairocana. Thus the possibility of 
discovering further Sadhanas prescribing parental Buddhas other than 
Vairocana seems to be remote. 

Another alternative suggestion presupposes the existence of ^ 
fferent cults according as one or another of the Dhyani Buddhas 
is believed to be the principal or the Adi-Buddha 1 . The Buddhists of 
Nepal even now are divided into so many different cults, some regard^ 
ing Amitabha as the Adi-Buddha, and others acknowledging either 
Vairocana or Aksobhya as the Adi-Buddha. Now though the Sadhanas 
prescribe the figure of * the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana for both Marici 
and Usmsavijaya, the followers of the Amitabha cult are at liberty to 
assign them to that Buddha whom they consider to be the ,Adi'Buddha. 
Similarly, Ucchusma Jambhala being regarded as the offspring pf 
Amitabha, is made to bear an image of that Dhyani Buddha on his 
crown in the Sarnath figure already alluded to. It is not necessary to 
multiply instances. This is the only reasonable explanation it is 
possible to offer at the present state of our knowledge. 

In identifying Buddhist images the student of iconography should 
guard himself against taking unnecessary figures in the image for prin- 
cipal ones, or necessary figures for unnecessary ones. A fulLfledgejd 

1. The theory of Adi-Buddha originated in the Nalanda monastery about the 
beginning of the 10th century and was accepted first in the Kalacakrayana, a later form 
of Vajrayana. See Csoma de Koros : The Origin of the Theory of Adi-Buddha in 
J. A. S. B., Vol. II (1833), p. 57f. See also Bhattacharyya : Buddhist Iconography in 
JBORS, March, 1923. 



388 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Buddhist icon shows in the first place, the principal god, an effigy of 
his sire on his crown, and the Dhyani Buddhas on the 
aureole. The icon may further show miniature figures of the com- 
panions of the principal god, some worshippers, mythical figures and 
the three, seven, or sixteen jewels or sacred objects of Buddhism. The 
figure of Vajrasattva seems to be a favourite decoration with the artists. 
He appears on many Buddhist images and is perhaps conceived as a 
sort of general guardian of Buddhism and Buddhist worship. For 
purposes of identification the principal figure, the figure of the Dhyani 
Buddha on the top, and the companions are the indispensable parts of 
the image. When, again, a reference is made to the Dacca Museum 
image of Arapacana Manjusn in which besides the four companions 
there are present four Dhyani Buddhas Vairocana, Aksobhya, Amitabha 
and Ratnasambhava, two mythical figures supporting the lotus seat, 
and two worshippers to the extreme left of the pedestal. All these 
figures are redundant for the purpose of identification, and their 
absence in the Java figure of Arapacana in no wise affects it. But if, 
for instance, the companions are confused with the worshippers the 
identification must be regarded as incorrect. The figures flanking 
Vajrasana, for instance, are clearly Maitreya and Avalokitesvara accor^ 
ding to the Sadhana, but if they are described as worshippers, as has 
been done previously, the identification of the whole image becomes 
vitiated. 

Another difficulty in identification arises when the letters of the 
Mantra of the god are deified and appear on the image. This is 
found in the case of Vajratara who is surrounded by ten goddesses 
who originate from the ten syllables of the Mantra "Om Tare Tuttare 
Ture Svaha". It has also been pointed out previously how from the 
five letters of the name of Arapacana Manjusri originated the five deities 
Candraprabha, Jalimprabha, Kesinl, and UpakesinI, and the principal 
deity Manjusri. The Dacca image of Khadiravam Tara (Fig. 249) is a 
remarkable instance of the deification of the Tara Mantra. The main 
figure in accordance with the Sadhana carries the Utpala in the left 
hand and shows the Varada mudra in the right, and she is flanked on 
either side by Asokakanta and Ekajata. But on the aureole there are 
eight female figures identical in appearance with the principal figure* 
They obviously represent none but the eight syllables of the Tara 
Mantra "Orh Tare Tuttare Ture", the two others, Usmsavijaya and 
Sumbha, being omitted. 

Sometimes in the images of Buddhist gods and goddesses we 
notice the presence of Ganesa, who is regarded by the Hindus as 
"Siddhidata" or the Bestower of Perfection or success in Tantric rites. 



CONCLUSION 389 

The Buddhists as a proof of their aversion to the followers of the 
Brahmanical faith, made their gods trample upon Ganesa. Thus in the 
Indian Museum images of Parnasabari and Aparajita, and in the Baroda 
Museum image of Vighnantaka, etc., the deities have been represented 
as trampling Ganesa under their feet. In the two Vikrampur images 
of Parnasabari and in the Dacca Sahitya Parisat image of Mahapratisara, 
Ganesa appears below the lotus seat lying prostrate on the ground 
crushed under the weight of Buddhist deities. Thus did the Buddhists 
manifest their animosity against the Hindu god, Ganesa, giving him the 
epithet of Vighna or Obstacle. Their animosity may be further illus- 
trated by the following features of the Sadhanas. The four Hindu gods, 
Brahma, Visnu, Siva and Indra have been designated uniformly as the 
four Maras or Wicked Beings, and several Buddhist gods have been 
described as trampling them under their feet. The Sadhanas of 
Prasanna-Tara, Vajrajjvalanalarka, Vidyujjvalakarall, and the like, are 
instances in point. Trailokyavijaya has been represented as trampling 
upon the prostrate forms of Siva and Gauri ; Narayana has been made 
a Vahana or vehicle by Harihariharivahana. Poor Brahma has been 
most severely handled by the Buddhists. The severed head of Brahma 
is a favourite trophy in the hands of Buddhist deities According to 
Hindu traditions, Brahma should be very old with grey beard, and four 
heads, and the Buddhist deities mercilessly hold the heads by the 
matted hair and flourish them in their hands. This is how the Buddhists 
attempted to exhibit the superiority of their gods over those of the 
Brahmanical faith. It is a matter of satisfaction, however, that the 
Hindus never disgraced any gods belonging to the alien faith in this 
manner. On the contrary, they placed Buddha among the ten Avataras 
of Visnu. In this connection it may be pointed out that in the Kala* 
cakra Tantra a work of the 10th century A. D. there is evidence that 
an attempt was made by the Buddhists to unite with the Hindus under 
the common banner of the god Kalacakra 'The Circle of Time', against 
the cultural penetration of the Mlecchas. The later history showed, 
however, that the attempt proved futile. 

A deep spiritual significance is attached to the colour, weapons, and 
the Asanas of Buddhist gods who are either represented singly or 
in yab-yum. The conception of yab-yum images, however, is much 
more complicated than the single ones. 

It has been stated in the Sadhanamala that a single deity may take 
any colour according to the particular Tantric rite in which he is invoked. 
For instance, in the Santikavidhi or propitiatory rite the god takes the 
white or the yellow colour. In Paustikavidhi or protective rite the 



390 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

yellow colour is taken by the deity. Similarly, in Vasyavidhi (bewitch- 
ing) and Akarsana (attraction) he may take yellow, green or red colour. 
In Ucatana (total destruction) and in Marana (killing) the god is 
generally blue. It may be pointed out here that the word 'Krsna 1 in 
the Sadhanamala always signifies the blue colour, and not black. 
Buddhist gods are rarely black, not because the Buddhists had no 
perception of the black colour, but because there seems to have been 
some prejudice against using the black colour in the paintings of gods. 
It may further be pointed out that whenever a deity gets the blue 
colour his appearance becomes terrible with protruding teeth and 
tongue, garland of severed heads, ornaments of snakes and the garment 
of tiger-skin. 

With regard to colour it may be remembered that their stock 
number is usually five corresponding to the five cosmic elements. Thus 
according to authoritative books, the element of Water is white in 
colour, Earth is yellow, Fire is red, Ether is green, and Air is blue. Of 
these the two colours white and yellow representing Water and Earth are 
benign, and the other colours red, green and blue are clearly malefic. 
The earthy and watery gods are peaceful, while the gods of the other 
three elements are fearful in character. Blue seems to be the most 
violent of all. 

The Asanas have likewise a spiritual significance. The Vajraparyahka 
attitude signifies meditation and introspection, the Ardhaparyahka shows 
serenity, the Alidha heroism, the Pratyalidha destruction and disgust, 
and the dancing in Ardhaparayanka displays wrath and horror. 

A reference may be made here to the yab-yum representations. The 
Tibetan yab means 'the honourable father' and yum likewise signifies the 
'honourable mother'. Therefore, the word yab-yum means the honour- 
able father in the company of the honourable mother. A yab-yum 
image has a deep spiritual significance. It signifies that the god, the 
embodiment of Sunya is perfect, having attained Karuna and therefore 
the highest state of Nirvana. 

The conception of Sunya in Vajrayana took the concrete shape of 
a god and a goddess. Sunya took the shape of Heruka when a male god, 
and became known as Nairatma when a goddess. That unya took 
the form of a deity does not seem strange in Vajrayana, where we find 
conceptions, such as Safigha, Dharma, Prajnaparamita, the twelve Para- 
mitas, and the five Skandhas deified in the Buddhist pantheon. Thus 
the conception of Sunya in the form of a god or a goddess is perfectly 
in keeping with the tradition of the Vajrayana system. When the Bodhi 
Mind attains Nirvana it merges in Sunya and there remains in eternal 
bliss and happiness. And when Sunya was made a goddess, it was 



CONCLUSION 391 

easily understood, how eternal bliss and happiness was possible after the 
attainment of Nirvana. The yab-yum figures, representing Sunya in 
the form of Heruka in the embrace of oiinya in the form of Nairatma, 
were held up before the mass as ideals, and they readily attracted them 
and helped them in their conception of a bright and definite spiritual 
prospect. 

Buddhists of the Vajrayana consider Sunya as the Ultimate Reality, 
and they believe that the host of gods and goddesses, including the 
Dhyani Buddhas, are ounya in essence. The innumerable gods and 
goddesses of the Vajrayana pantheon are all manifestations of 
Sunya. The gods have no real existence, the images have no real 
existence, and therefore, it may be positively asserted that a true 
Vajrayanist never worshipped an image or god. Naturally, since these, 
paintings, images, or even the deities themselves have no real or inde- 
pendent existence, they are merely manifestations in a variety of forms 
of the One, Undifferentiated Sunya. But it cannot be denied that these 
images were very useful, since the forms they presented, in accordance 
with the Dhyanas, to the gaze of the worshippers undoubtedly helped 
the latter to visualise the deities with whom they were asked to identify 
themselves. As they had no real existence, these deities had to be 
attracted to the mind-sky from unknown regions in the firmament by 
the luminous rays of light issuing from the BIja mantras uttered by the 
worshipper. The Sunya takes the form of a divinity in accordance 
with the germ-syllable uttered, and exists only as a positive idea in the 
mind of the worshipper who identifies himself with that transformation 
of Sunya. 

The question may be raised as to the necessity of a veriety of gods 
and goddesses when one Sunya would have been sufficient. In answer 
to this a number of things have to be considered. It may be remember- 
ed that Sunya, which was identified with Compassion by the Vajrayan- 
ists was conceived as manifesting itself in diferent forms in accordance 
with the different functions it had to discharge. For instance, if any 
disease is to be cured, Sunya takes the form of Simhanada ; when it is 
a question of snake-bite, Sunya becomes Janguli ; when destruction of 
the wicked is needed, Sunya takes the form of MahSkala ; when again, 
diseases and pestilences are to be prevented, Sunya is conceived as 
Parnasabari ; for success in love-affairs, Sunya is invoked in the form 
of Kurukulla ; and when forcible submission is required in love-affairs, 
unya becomes Vajrananga, and when finally, Buddhahood is wanted by 
the worshipper, he should conceive himself as Heruka* From the above 
it appears that the conception of the multitude of Buddhist deities 



392 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

emerges from the one grand conception of ounya in accordance with 
the various functions it is supposed to discharge, as a mark of compa- 
ssion towards the Buddhists. 

Secondly, the number of gods and goddesses increases when Sunya 
manifests in different forms the nine "Rasas" or dramatic sentiments. 
For instance, Sunya will be Khadiravam or Lokanatha when benign 
(Karuna), Marici when Heroic (Vira), Vighnantaka, Heruka or Maha- 
kala when awe-inpiring (Bhaya), Aparajita when wrathful (Raudra), 
Vajracarcika in its moments of disgust and loathsomeness (Blbhatsa), 
Prajnaparamita when peaceful (Santa), and so on. 

Thirdly, the number of deities increases as objects such as the 
Three Jewels ; philosophical conceptions such as the Paramitas, Bhumis 
or Pratisamvits ; literature such the Prajnaparamita, the Dasabhumika 
Sastra, the Dharims and the like ; desires such as for eating, drinking, 
sleeping and the rest ; the directions such as the north, south, east and 
west ; the musical instruments such as the flute, the violin, and the 
drum ; and other innumberable ideas and objects, are required to be 
worshipped in the forms of gods and goddesses, By these and various 
other ways the number of deities in the Buddhist pantheon increased 
phenomenally. 

As all these deities centre round the one grand conception of Sunya 
so also the host of weapons revolve round the one grand conception of 
Bodhicitta or the Will to Enlightenment. As these weapons are required 
to discharge different functions, the Bodhicitta resolves itself into so 
many different forms of weapons J . For instance, when the darkness 
of ignorance is to be dispelled Bodhicitta becomes a sword by which 
the veil of ignorance is cut asunder. The sword is also to be used to 
destroy the Mara hordes who disturb the worshippers. Bodhicitta 
becomes the Ahkusa (goad) when the hearts of the wicked are to be 
pierced. It is conceived as a noose when the Mara hordes are to be 
securely bound. It becomes a needle and a thread when the eyes of 
the wicked have to be sewn up. Bodhicitta becomes a Kartri (knife) 
when the wicked have to be chopped. It is a Bhindipala (javelin) when 
Maras have to be attacked from a distance, and a bow and an arrow if 
the distance be greater. 

1. Compare the statement in the Jnanasiddhi of Indrabhuti in the Two Vajrayana 
Works (GOS), pp. SO, 81 

Bodhicittam bhaved Vajram Prajna Ghanta vidtuyate I 
Cakratn-ajnanacchedat ca Ratnantu durlabhadapi II 
Bhavadosair-aliptatvat jninam tat Padam-ucyate I 
Khadgah klearisamcchedat Utpaiam plavanat tatah II 



CONCLUSION 393 

The Mudras also are nothing but the manifestations of the Bodhi- 
citta. If protection is needed, Bodhicitta is conceived as the Abhaya 
mudra ; if boon is desired it becomes Varada ; when instruction 
in Buddhist Law is required it becomes Dharmacakra, and so on. 

The Bodhicitta, or the Will to Enlightenment, is that state of Mind 
which has already acquired the potentiality of dissolving itself in Sunya. 
As a matter of fact, Sunya or Nirvana would be unattainable without 
the help of the Bodhicitta, which like Sunya exists only in the mind. 
The Bodhi mind leads the aspiring soul into the very presence, so to 
speak, of Sunya ; it ultimately merges and loses itself completely in 
Sunya. 

The gods of the Buddhist pantheon are conceived as carrying the 
Bodhicitta in their hands, both being of the nature of Sunya It is 
with the help of this Bodhicitta that a god is supposed to confer 
Buddhahood or success in Tantric rite upon his worshipper. The 
yab-yum conception of deities is still more sublime. The god Heruka, 
the embodiment of Sunya, carrying weapons the embodiments of 
Bodhicitta also of the nature of Sunya, is embraced by Nairatma, 
whose essence is Sunya, carrying weapons also of the nature of Sunya. 
Thus the Infinite with the Infinite commingles. In Involution, the 
Many become One. This is the highest state the Anupadhisesa* 
Nirvana. 

Krto vah sarvasattvarthah 

siddhir-datta yathanuga I 
Gacchadhvam Buddhavisayarh 

punaragamanaya Muh II 

"Gods, I bid Ye farewell ! Ye have fulfilled the desires of all 
beings. Ye have conferred the desired success. Go Ye to the region 
of the Buddhas. Return Ye once again, Muh". 



50 



APPENDIX 

108 FORMS OF AVALOKITESVARA 
(In the Machhandar Vahal, Kathmandu, Nepal) 

1. Hayagriva Lokesvara. The god sits in the Vajraparyanka 
attitude on a lotus. He has four hands, out of which the two principal 
ones exhibit the Vyakhyana pose. The second pair holds the rosary 
in the right hand and the lotus in the left. He is accompanied by six 
other gods and a dragon. 

2. Mojaghanjabala (?) Lokesvara. He stands in the Samabhahga 
attitude on a lotus, with his two hands showing the Abhaya mudra in 
the right and the noose in the left. 

3. Halahala Lokesvara. He sits in the Lalita attitude on a lotus 
with his Sakti on the lap. He has three faces and six arms. The face 
above represent probably the head of the Dhyani Buddha, whose effigy 
he should bear on his crown. In his three right hands he shows the 
sword, the rosary and the Varada pose. In the three left hands he 
carries the lotus, the noose and the Utpala. The hand holding the 
noose passes round the Sakti in the act of embracing. The Sakti exhibits 
the Varada mudra in the right hand and the Abhaya in the left. 

4. Harihariharivahana Lokesvara. Lowermost is the snake, on it 
is the lion, over the lion is Garuda, Narayana rides Garuda, and on 
his shoulder sits Lokesvara. The Garuda has two hands in the Anjali 
mudra. Narayana has four hands, of which the first pair is engaged 
in forming the Anjali against the chest ; while the second pair has the 
Cakra in the right hand and the Gada in the left. Lokesvara sits in 
Vajraparyanka and has six arms ; the right hands show the rosary, the 
Cakra and the Varada pose, while the three left carry the Tridandi, the 
noose and the Utpala, 

5. Mayajalakrama Lokesvara. He has five faces and twelve arms. 
The head on the top probably represents Amitabha. He stands 
in the Alidha attitude, and wears the tiger-skin and the garland of 
heads, but his faces do not present a fearful appearance. The six right 
hands carry the Tridandi, the Khatvahga, the jewel, the Khadga, the 
Vajra and the rosary, and the six left show the noose, the Kapala, the 
Utpala, the fruit, the Cakra and the lotus. 



APPENDIX 395 

6. Sadaksarl Lokesvara. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, 
fie has four arms and one face. The principal pair of hands is joined 
against the chest in forming the Anjali. The second pair carries the 
rosary in the right and the lotus in the left. 

7. Anandadi Lokesvara. He stands in the Samabhahga attitude, 
and carries the lotus, the stem of which he holds in his right hand, while 
the left displays the Varada pose. 

8. Vasyadhikara Lokesvara. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude 
and carries the bowl in his two hands arranged in the Samadhi mudra. 

9. Potapada Lokesvara. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, and 
has four arms. The two principal hands exhibit the Anjali against the 
chest, while the other pair holds the rosary in the right and the noose 
in the left. 

10. Kamandalu Lokesvara. He stands in the Samabhahga attitude, 
and is endowed with six arms. His two principal hands are engaged 
in drawing the bow to its full length. The other four hands carry the 
Vajra and the Cakra in the two right andtheGhanta and the Kamandalu 
in the two left. 

11. Varadayaka Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed and 
stands on a lotus. The two principal hands join against his chest in 
forming the Anjali. He shows also the rosary and the Varada pose in 
the two right hands, and the book and a mudra (probably Karana ?) in 
the two left. 

12. Jatamukuta Lokesvara. He is four-armed and one-faced, the 
head on the top representing the head of Amitabha. The two right 
hands show the rosary and the Varada pose, while the two left hold the 
lotus and the water-pot. He is represented in a standing attitude. 

13. Sukhavati Lokesvara. He is one-faced, and six-armed, and sits 
on a lotus in the Lalita attitude. The first pair of hands exhibits the 
Dharmacakra mudra, the second pair carries the rosary and the book, 
and the third pair shows the Varada mudra in the right and the water- 
pot in the left. 

14. Pretasantarpana Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed and 
stands on a lotus. In his threee right hands he displays the rosary, the 
jewel and the Varada mudra, while the three left carry the Tridandi 
and the book and exhibit the Varada mudra. 

15* Mayajalakramakrodha Lokesvara. He presents a very fierce 
appearance with five faces terrible with protruding teeth, and eyes roll- 
ing in anger. His hair rises upwards like flames of fire* He stands in 
the Pratyalldha attitude and wears the tiger-skin. He has twelve arms, 



396 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

of which the six right carry the sword, the Vajra, the goad, the noose, 
the Trisula and the arrow, and the six left hold the shield, the Cakra, 
the jewel, the deer-skin, the Kapala and the Tarjani with the noose. 

16. Sugatisandarsana Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed 
and stands on a lotus. In his three right hands he carries the rosary 
and exhibits the Varada and Abhaya poses. The three left have the 
Tridandi, the Utpala and the water-pot. 

17. Nilakantha Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two-armed, and 
sits on a lotus in the Vajraparyafika attitude. He carries the bowl of 
gems in his two hands arranged in the Samadhi mudra. 

18. Lokanatha Raktaryyavalokitesvara. He is one-faced and two- 
armed and sits in the Lalita attitude on a lotus The right hand displays 
the Varada mudra while the left holds the stem of a lotus on his lap. 

19 Trilokasandarsana Lokesvara. He also is one-faced and two- 
armed and sits in the Vajraparyafika attitude on a lotus. His right hand 
is raised against the chest with outstreched fingers and palm turned 
inwards. The other hand exhibits exactly the same pose (Karana ?) as 
displayed by one of the left hands of Varadayaka Lokesvara. 

20. Sirhhanatha Lokesvara. He is one-faced and four-armed and 
sits in Bhadrasana, or in the European fashion, on a raised seat placed on 
the lotus. In his two right hands he carries the sword and the jewel, 
while the two left hold the book and the noose. 

21. Khasarpana Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two armed and 
sits in the Lalita attitude on a lotus. His right hand exhibits the Varada 
pose and the left is raised against the chest, holding the stem of a lotus. 

22. Manipadma Lokesvara. He is one-faced and four-armed and 
sits in the Vajraparyafika attitude on a lotus. His two principal hands 
are joined against his chest forming the Anjali and the other pair holds 
the rosary in the right hand and the lotus in the left. He is identical 
in form with No, 6 described above. 

23. Vajradharma Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two-armed and 
sits in the Vajraparyafika attitude on a lotus. The right hand displays 
the Abhaya pose and the left on the lap holds the stem of the Utpala, 

24. Pupala Lokesvara. He is one- faced and four-armed and sits in 
the Vajraparyafika attitude on a lotus. One of his two right hands 
carries the rosary while the other exhibits the Abhaya pose. One of 
the two left carries the book and the other displays a mudra with the 
index and little fingers pointing outwards (Karana ?). 



APPENDIX 397 

25. Ucnauti (?) Lokesvara He is one-faced and six-armed and sits 
in Bhadrasana on the raised seat of a lotus. His three right hands exhibit 
the rosary, the Vajra and the Abhaya pose, while the three left carry 
the Kapala, the noose and the water-pot. 

26. Vrsnacana Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed and sits 
in the Lalita attitude on a lotus. The three right hands display the 
Utpala, the arrow and the Varada pose, while the three left show the 
book, the bow and the Abhaya pose. 

27. Brahmadanda Lokesvara. He is one-faced and four-armed, 
sits in the Lalita attitude on a lotus, and is accompanied by his Sakti 
who sits on his lap. His two right hands show the Tridandi and the 
Varada pose, while the two left show the Ratnakalasa (vessel containing 
jewels) and a mudra with the index and little fingers pointing outwards 
The Sakti displays the Varada pose in the right hand and the Abhaya 
in the left. 

28. Acata (?) Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed, and sits 
in the Lalita attitude on a lotus. His three right hands show the 
sword, the arrow and the Varada pose, while his three left hold the 
Kartri and the bow a'nd display the Abhaya pose. 

29. Mahavajrasattva Lokesvara. He is one-faced and eight-armed, 
and sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude on a lotus. His four right hands 
exhibit the sword, the rosary, the Cakra and the Abhaya pose, while his 
four left hold the noose, the Tridandi, the conch and the bowl of gems 
on his lap. 

30. Visvahana Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed and sits 
in the Vajraparyanka attitude on a lotus. His three right hands hold 
the sword, the arrow, and the Cakra, while his three left show the noose, 
the bow and the Abhaya pose. 

3L Sakyabuddha Lokesvara. He is one-faced and four-armed, 
and is represented as standing on a lotus. His two right hands hold 
the arrow and the Khatvanga, while his two left show the bow and 
the TarjanL 

32. Santasi Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed and stands 
on a lotus. His two principal hands are joined against his chest in form* 
ing the Dharmacakra mudra. The other four hands show the rosary 
and the Varada pose in the right, and the book and the Abhaya mudra 
in the left. 

33. Yamadanda Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six*armed, and 
sits in the Lalita attitude on a lotus. His three right hands hold the 
sword, the lotus and the Vajra, while his three left display the fruit, the 
bowl of gems and an unspecified mudra (Karana ?). 



398 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

34- Vajrosnisa Lokesvara. He is one-faced and six-armed, and is 
represented as standing on a lotus. His three right hands show the 
rosary, the Tridandi and the Abhaya pose, and his three left the book, 
the noose and the Varada pose. 

35. Vajrahuntika (?) Lokesvara. He is one-faced and twelve-armed 
and stands in Ardhaparyahka in a dancing attitude on a lotus. He 
holds the Utpala in all his twelve hands. 

36. Jnanadhatu Lokesvara. He is one-faced and eight-armed and 
stands on a lotus. Two of his hands are joined against his chest in 
forming the Anjali mudra ; the second pair exhibits what is called the 
Ksepana mudra. The remaining hands hold the rosary and the Tridandi 
in the right and the book and the noose in the left. 

37. Karandavyuha Lokesvara. He is one- faced and two-armed 
and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus. He holds the Vajra 
in his right hand and the book against his chest in the left. 

38. Sarvanivaranaviskambhl Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two- 
armed and sits in the Vajra paryahka attitude on a lotus. His right 
hand holds by its stem a lotus on which there is a sword, and his lefr 
hand holds the Vajra against his chest. 

39. Sarvasokatamonirghata Lokesvara. He is one-faced and four- 
armed and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus. Each of his 
two principal hands exhibits the Abhaya pose against his chest, while 
the other two hands hold the rosary in the right and the Utpala in the 
left. 

40. Pratibhanakakuta Lokesvara. He is one-faced and four-armed 
and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus. He holds the noose 
against the chest with his right hand and the bowl of gems in his left. 

41. Amrtaprabha Lokesvara. He also is one- faced and two-armed 
and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus. He holds the double 
Vajra on his lap with his right hand, and the lotus on a water-vessel in 
his left. 

42* Jaliniprabha Lokesvara. He also is one-faced and two-armed 
and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus. He holds the sword 
on a lotus in his right hand and the stem of a lotus against his chest 
with his left. 

43. Candraprabha Lokesvara. He also is one-faced and two-armed 
and sits in the Vajra paryahka attitude on a lotus. He exhibits the 
Vitarka mudra with' his right hand and holds the stem of a lotus against 
the chest with his left* 



APPENDIX 399 

44. Avalokita Lokesvara. He also is one-faced and two-armed and 
sits in the same attitude on a lotus. He wields the sword in his right 
hand and holds the stem of a lotus against the chest with his left* 

45* Vajragarbha Lokesvara. He also has the same number of 
hands and faces as No. 44. He holds the Vajra in his right hand and 
the stem of a lotus in his left. 

46. Sagaramati Lokesvara. He is in all respecrs identical with 
No. 44 except that he holds the double Vajra in his right hand. 

47. Ratnapani Lokesvara* He also is identical with No. 44 in all 
respects, except that he holds the sword in his left hand and displays 
the Varada mudra with his right, 

48. Gaganaganja Lokesvara. He also is identical with No. 44 in all 
respects except that he exhibits the Vitarka mudra in his right hand 
and the book in his left. 

49. Akasagarbha Lokesvara. He also is identical with No. 44 in 
all respects, except that here the god exhibits the Varada pose in the 
right hand and the stem of a lotus in the left. 

50. Ksitigarbha Lokesvara. He also is identical with No. 44 except 
that here the god carries a tray of gems in his right hand and displays 
the Varada mudra in his left. 

51. Aksayamati Lokesvara. He also is identical with No. 44, 
except that he holds the rosary in his right hand and the lotus on a 
water-vessel against the chest with his left. 

52. Srstikanta Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two-armed and 
stands on a lotus. He displays the Varada pose with his right hand, 
while his empty left hand rests near his navel. A large number of 
four-armed gods issue from various parts of his body, while Amitabha 
appears over his head. 

53. Samantabhadra Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two-armed and 
sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude on a lotus. He exhibits the Varada 
pose with his right hand, and holds the stem of a lotus against the chest 
with his left. 

54. Mahasahastabhuja Lokesvara. In all respects he is identical 
with No. 53, with this difference that here the god wields the sword 
in his right hand and displays the Varada mudra with his left. 

55. Maharatnakirti Lokesvara. . He is three-faced and six-armed 
and stands on a lotus* He holds the fruit, the Utpala and the conch 
in his three right hands, and displays the bow, the whip and' the Namas- 
kara mudra in his three left. - * * ' " r ' 



400 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

56. Mahasankhanatha Lokesvara. He is identical in all res- 
pects with No 55, except that he bears different symbols. Here the 
god shows the Namaskara mudra, and the two Vajras in his three right 
hands, while his three left hold the noose, the arrow and the Ghanta. 

57. Mahasahasrasuryya Lokesvara. He is eleven-faced and eight- 
armed and stands on a lotus. Each of his two principal hands exhibits 
the Abhaya pose against his chest. The remaining hands show the 
rosary, the Cakra and the Varada pose in the three right hands and the 
Utpala, the bow charged with an arrow, and the vessel in the three left* 
This form of Lokesvara is very popular in Tibet. 

58. Maharatnakula Lokesvara. He is three-faced and six-armed 
and stands on a lotus. The head on the top represents Amita- 
bha. He carries the sword, the Utpala and the rosary in his three right 
hands and the book, the lotus and the Utpala in the three left. 

59. Mahapatala Lokesvara. He is three-faced and six-armed 
and stands on a lotus. He holds in his three right hands the Vajra, the 
Visvavajra and the Utpala, and in his three left, the banner, the Ghanta 
and the Kamandalu. 

60. Mahamanjudatta Lokesvara. In all other respects he is similar 
to No. 59. But he carries the Ghanta, the sword, and the Ratnapallava 
in his three right hands, and the Vajra, the Ghanta and the Utpala in his 
three left. 

61. Mahacandrabimba Lokesvara. He is thiee-faced and six-armed 
and stands on a lotus. He holds the arrow, the Utpala and the fruit in 
his three right hands, and the bow, the Vajra and the Cakra in his three 
left. The head on the top probably represents Amiiabha. 

62 Mahasuryyabimba Lokesvara. He is identical in all respects 
with No. 61, except that here the god carries two Vajras and the Cakra 
in his three right hands, and two Utpalas and the bowl of gems in his 
three left. 

63. Maha-Abhayaphalada Lokesvara. He also is similar in form 
to No. 61, except that he holds the Vajra, the sword and the Utpala 
in his three right hands, and two Ghantas, and the book in his three 
left. 

64 Maha*Abhayakan Lokesvara. He also is similar in form to 
No. 61, but the symbols in his hands are different. Here the god holds 
the book against the chest with his two principal hands, the Vajra and 
the rosary in his right, and the Ghanta and the Tridandi in his left. 



401 




Fig. 1(A) 
Hayagriva Lokesvara 



Fig. 2 (A) 
Mojaghanjabala Lokesvara 




Fig. 3(A) 
Halahala Lokesvara 




Fig. 4(A) Hariharihari 
Vahana Lokesvara 



51 



402 





Fig. 5(A) 
Mayajalakrama Lokesvara 



Fig. 6(A) 
Sadaksan Lokesvara 





Fig. 7(A) 
"Anandadi Lokesvara 



Fig. 8(A) 
Vasyadhikara Lokesvara 



403 





Fig. 9(A) 
Potapada Lokesvara 



Fig. 10(A) 
Kamandalu Lokesvara 





Fig. 11(A) 
Varadayaka Lokesvara 



Fig. 12(A) 
Jatamukuta Lokesvara 



404 





Fig. 13(A) 
Sukhavati Lokesvara 



Fig. 14(A) 
Pretasantarpana Lokesvara 





Fig. 15(A) 
Mayajalakramakrodha-Lokesvara 



Fig. 16(A) 
Sugatisandarsatxa Lokesvara 



405 





Fig. 17(A) 
Nilakantha Lokesvara 



Fig. 18(A) Lokanatha- 
Raktaryyavalokitesvara 





Fig. 19(A) 
Trilokasandarsana Lokesvara 



Fig. 20(A) 
Siihhanatha Lokesvara 



406 





Fig. 21 (A) 
Khasarpana Lokesvara 



Fig 22(A) 
Manipadma Lokesvara 





Fig.23(A) 
Vajradharma Lokesvara 



Fig. 24(A) 
Pupala (?) Lokesvara 



407 




Fig. 25(A) 
Ufnauti (?) Lokesvara 



Fig. 26(A) 
Vrsnacana Lokesvara 




Fig. 27(A) 
Brahmadanda Lokesvara 



Fig. 28(A) 
Acata Lokesvara (?) 



408 




Fig. 29(A) 
Mahavajrasattva Lokesvara 



Fig. 30(A) 
Visvahana Lokesvara 





Fig. 31(A) 
Sakyabuddha Lokesvara 



Fig. 32(A) 
Santasi Lokesvara 



409 




Fig. 33(A) 
Yamadanda Lokesvara 



Fig. 34(A) 
Vajrosmsa Lokesvara 





Fig. 35(A) 
Vajrahuntika Lokesvara 



Fig. 36(A) 
Jnanadhatu Lokesvara 



52 



410 





Fig. 37(A) 
Karandavyuha Lokesvara 



Fig. 38(A) Sarvanivarana- 
Viskambhl Lokesvara 




Fig. 39(A) Sarvasokata 
monirghata Lokesvara 




Fig. 40(A) 
Pratibhanakakuta Lokesvara 



411 





Fig. 41(A) 
Amrtaprabha Lokesvara 



Fig. 42(A) 
Jalimprabha Lokesvara 




Fig, 43(A) 
Cardraprabha LokesVara 



Fig. 44(A) 
Avalokita Lokesvara 



412 





Fig. 45(A) 
Vajragarbha Lokesvara 



Fig. 46(A) 
Sagaramati Lokesvara 





Fig. 47(A) 
Ratnapani Lokesvara 



Fig. 48(A) 
Gaganaganja Lokesvara 



413 





Fig. 49(A) 
Akasagarbha Lokesvara 



Fig. 50(A) 
Ksitigarbha Lokesvara 





Fig. 51(A) 
Aksayamati Lokesvara 



Fig. 52(A) 
SrstikantS Lokelvara 



414 





Fig. 53(A) 
Samantabhadra Lokesvara 



Fig. 54(A) 
Mahasahasrabhuja Lokesvara 





Fig. 55(A) 
MahjLratnakirti Lokesvara 



Fig. 56(A) 
Mahasahkhanatha Lokesvara 



415 





Fig. 57(A) 
Mahasahasrasuryya Lokesvara 



Fig. 58(A) 
Maharatnakula Lokesvara 





Fig. 59(A) 
Mahapatala Lokesvara 



Fig. 60(A) 
Mahamanjudatta Lokesvara 



416 





Fig. 61(A) 
Mahacandrabimba Lokesvara 



Fig. 62(A) 
Mahasuryyabimba Lokesvara 





Fig. 63(A) 
Maha-Abhayaphalada Lokesvara 



Fig. 64(A) 
MahS-Abhayakari LokesVara 



417 





Fig. 65(A) 
Mahamanjubhuta Lokesvara 



Fig. 66(A) 
Mahavisvasuddha Lokesvara 





Fig. 67(A) 
Mahavajradhatu Lokesvara 



Fig. 68(A) 
Mahavajradhrk Lokesvara 



53 



418 





Fig. 69(A) 
Mahavajrapani Lokesvara 



Fig. 70(A) 
Mahavajranatha Lokesvara 





Fig.^ 7KA) 
Amoghapasa Lokesvara 



Fig. 72(A) 
Devadevata Lokesvara 



419 





Fig. 73(A) 
Pindapatra Lokesvara 



Fig. 74(A) 
Sarthavaha Lokesvara 





Fig. 75(A) 
Ratnadala Lokesvara 



Fig. 76(A) 
Visnupani Lokesvara 



420 





Fig. 77(A) 
Kamalacandra Lokesvara 



Fig. 78(A) 
Vajrakhanda Lokesvara 





Fig. 79(A) 
Acalaketu Lokesvara 



Fig. 80(A) 
Sirisara Lokesvara 



421 





Fig. 81 (A) 
Dharmacakra Lokesvara 



Fig. 82(A) 
Harivahana Lokesvara 





Fig. 83(A) 
Sarasiri Lokesvara 



Fig. 84(A) 
Harihara Lokesvara 



422 





Fig. ^ 

Sirhhanada Lokesvara 



Fig. 86(A) 
Visvavajra Lokesvara 





Fig. 87(A) 
Amitabha Lokesvara 



Fig. 88(A) 
Vajrasattvadhatu Lokesvara 



423 





Fig. 89(A) 
Visvabhuta Lokesvara 



Fig. 90(A) 
Dharmadhatu Lokesvara 





Fig. 91(A) 
Vajradhatu Lokesvara 



Fig. 92(A) 
Sakyabuddha Lokesvara 



424 





Fig. 93(A) 
Cittadhatu Lokesvara 



Fig. 94(A) 
Cintamani Lokesvara 





Fig. 95(A) 
Santamati Lokesvara 



Fig. 96(A) 
Manjunatha Lokesvara 



425 





Fig. 97 (A) 
Visnucakra Lokesvara 



Fig. ^ 

Krtanjali Lokesvara 





Fig. 99(A) 
Visnukanta Lokesvara 



Fig. 100(A) 
Vajrasrsta Lokesvara 



54 



426 





Fig. 101(A) 
Sahkhanatha Lokesvara 



Fig. 102(A) 
Vidyapati Lokesvara 





Fig. 103(A) 
Nityanatha LokeSvara 



Fig. 104(A) 
Padmapani Lokesvara 



427 





Fig. 105(A) 
Vajrapani Lokesvara 



Fig. 106(A) 
Mahastbamaprapta Lokesvara 





Fig. 107(A) 
Vajranatha Lokesvara 



Fig. 108(A) 
Srimad-Aryavalokitesvara 



428 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

65. Mahamanjubhuta Lokesvara. He also is similar to No. 61, 
with this difference that here the god carries the sword, the Vajra and 
the Kamandalu in his three right hands, and the rosary, the Utpala and 
the bell in his three left. 

66. Mahavisvasuddha Lokesvara. He is four-faced and eight-armed 
and stands on a lotus. He carries in his four right hands the sword, 
the flag, the Vajra and the goad, while the four left have the GhantS, 
the conch, the Utpala and the lotus. 

67. Mahavajradhatu Lokesvara. He is identical with No. 66 in all 
respects but the symbols differ. Here the god carries the Vajra, the 
bow, the Trisula and the sword in his four right hands, and the Ghanta, 
the arrow, the Kamandalu and the noose in his four left. 

68. Mahavajradhrk Lokesvara* He also is identical in form 
with No, 66, with this difference that here the god carries the sword, 
the Vajra, the bow, and the Ankusa in his four right hands, and the 
Utpala, the Ghanta, the arrow and the noose in his four left. 

69. Mahavajrapani Lokesvara. He also is identical with No. 66, 
except that here the god carries the sword, the goad, the Gada, and the 
rosary in his four right hands and the Cakra, the noose, the Utpala and 
the book in his four left. 

70. Mahavajranatha Lokesvara. He is three-faced and eight-armed, 
and stands on a lotus. He holds the rosary and the noose and displays 
the Abhaya and Varada poses in his four right hands. The three left 
shows the book, the Tridandi and the lotus, while the empty fourth 
rests near the navel. 

71. Amoghapasa Lokesvara. He is four-faced and eight-armed 
and stands on a lotus. He carries in his four right hands the Vajra, 
the sword, the goad and the bow, while the four left carry the Ghanta, 
the Ttidandl, the noose and the arrow. 

72. Devadevata Lokesvara. He is similar to No. 71, with this 
difference that here the god carries the Vajra, the bow, the Trisula 
and the sword in his four right hands, and the bell, the arrow, the 
jewel (?) and the noose in his left. 

73. Pindapatra Lokesvara. He is one-faced and two-armed and 
stands on a lotus. He holds the Pindapatra (the bowl) in his two hands 
near the navel. 

74. Sarthavaha Lokesvara. He is similar to No. 73 in all respects, 
except that here the god displays the Varada mudra in his right hand, 
and carries the Pindapatra (the bowl) in his left. 



APPENDIX 429 

75. Ratnadala Lokesvara. He also is similar to No. 73, in all res- 
pects except that here he displays the Varada pose in his right hand, 
while his empty left touches his left shoulder. 

76. VisnupSni Lokesvara He again is similar in form to No. 73, 
except that here he carries the Trisula in his right hand and a lotus bud 
in his left, 

?? Kamalacandra Lokesvara. He also is similar to No* 73, except 
that here he displays the Vitarka mudra in his two hands. 

78. Vajrakhanda Lokesvara. He also is similar to No. 73 in all 
respects, except that here the god holds the lotus bud in his right hand 
and the book against his chest with the left. 

79. Acalaketu Lokesvara. He also is similar to No. 73. But he 
displays the Abhaya mudra in the right hand and the Pindapatra (the 
bowl) in the left. A chowrie rests against his right shoulder, 

80. Sirisara (?) Lokesvara. He also is similar to No. 73 in all res- 
pects, except that here he wields the sword in his right hand and holds 
the noose in his left. 

81. Dharmacakra Lokesvara. He again is similar to No. 73, except 
that here he carries the Vajra in his right hand and the axe in his left. 

82. Harivahana Lokesvara, He also is identical with No. 73, with 
the difference that here the god carries the Kamandalu in his right hand 
and the chowrie in his left. 

83. Sarasiri (?) Lokesvara. He also is identical with No. 73. The 
difference is that here the god holds the Trisula in his right hand and 
the lotus in his left. 

84. Harihara Lokesvara. He is identical with No. 73 except that 
here he displays the Vyakhyana mudra with his two hands against the 
chest. 

85. Simhanada Lokesvara. Similar to No, 73, but here the* god 
holds the chowrie against his shoulder with his right hand while the 
empty left rests near his navel. 

86. Visvavajra Lokesvara. He also is similar to No. 73 with the 
difference, that here the god displays the Varada pose with his right 
hand and holds a snake in his left, 

87. Amitabha Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73, except that here the 
god holds the chowrie in his right hand and the wheel in his left, 

88. Vrjrasattvadhatu Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73, except that 
here he holds the Cakra in his right hand and the conch in his left. 



430 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

89. Visvabhuta Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73 in form, but here 
he holds the rosary in his right hand and the lotus in his left* 

90. Dharmadhatu Lokesvara. Identical with No. 73 in form, but 
here the god holds in his two hands the water-pot near his navel. 

91. Vajradhatu Lokesvara. Identical with No. 73 except that here 
the god displays the Varada mudra in his right hand and holds the 
lotus in his left. 

92. Sakyabuddha Lokesvara. Also similar to No. 73, except that 
he carries the Vajra in his right hand while his empty left is held near 
the navel. 

93. Cittadhatu Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73 except that he holds 
the image of a Jina (probably Amitabha) in his right hand and displays 
the Abhaya pose with his left. 

94. Cintamani Lokesvara. Also similar to No. 73, except that 
here he carries the Caitya in his right hand while the empty left is held 
near his navel. 

95. Santamati Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73, with the difference 
that he exhibits the Varada pose with his right hand and holds the 
bough of a tree in his left. 

96. Manjunatha Lokesvara. Also similar to No. 73, but here 
the god holds the rosary in his right hand and the book against his 
chest with his left. 

97. Visnucakra Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73, except that here he 
holds the Cakra in his right hand and the Gada in his left. 

98. Krtanjali Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73 except that here the 
god exhibits the Anjali against his chest with his two hands. 

99. Visnukanta Lokesvara. He again is identical with No. 73 in 
all respects, except that here the god displays the Varada mudra with 
his right hand and the book against his chest in his left. 

100. Vajrasrsta Lokesvara. Identical with No. 73, the difference 
lies in the fact that here the god carries the chowrie in his right hand 
and the lotus in his left. 

101. Sankhanatha Lokesvara. Similar to No. 73, with the difier- 
ence that here the god holds the conch against his chest with his -right 
hand and the lotus in his left. 

102; Vidyapati Lokesvara. Also similar to No. 73, except that 
here the god shows the empty right hand against his chest while his left 
holds the lotus. The chowrie hangs from his right shoulder. 



APPENDIX 431 

103. Nityanatha Lokesvara. He is identical with No, 73, with the 
difference that here the god holds the rosary in his right hand over the 
book held in his left 

104. Padmapani Lokesvara. He also is similar in form to No. 73, 
with the difference that here the god displays the Varada pose with 
his right hand and holds the stem of a lotus in his left, 

105. Vajrapani Lokesvara. He again is identical with No. 73, in 
all respects except that here the god holds the Vajra on his head with 
his right hand, while the empty left is held near the navel. The attitude 
in which he stands is also different* He shows the dancing attitude in 
Ardhaparyanka. 

106. Mahasthamaprapta Lokesvara. He is similar in all respects 
to Padmapani Lokesvara (No. 104). 

107. Vajranatha Lokesvara. Identical with No. 105, Vajrapani 
Lokesvara, with the only difference that here the god holds the lotus in 
his left hand. 

108. Srfmadaryavalokitesvara. He is one-faced and two-armed 
and stands on a lotus. He holds the Vajra in his right hand which 
rests against his chest while his left holds the stem of a lotus near 
the'navel. 



GLOSSARY 

Abhaya mudra, or the gesture of protection. The hand showing this 
mudra should be slightly elevated and bent with the palm turned 
outward, the fingers being outstretched and elevated. This mudra 
should be distinguished from the Varada mudra in which case the 
hand is stretched downwards with the fingers, instead of being 
elevated, pointed downwards ; and also, from the Capetadana 
mudra, which shows the right hand menacingly extended upwards, 
just as is done in dealing a slap. 

Aksamala or Mala, is the string of beads such as is carried by the 
Roman Catholic priests. The beads consist of a kind of dried 
fruit, called in Sanskrit, Rudraksa. It may be made with other 
material also, such as crystals, etc. 

Alldha, a particular Asana, or attitude of legs, in all respects similar to 
the attitude adopted in drawing the bow charged with an 
arrow. The right leg is outstretched while the left is slightly bent. 
This attitude should be distinguished from the Pratyalldba attitude 
in which case the left leg is outstretched while the right is slightly 
bent and placed behind. 

Anjali, name of a mudra, also known as the Sarvarajendra mudra, or the 
Samputanjali. It is the mudra in which the two hands are clasped 
against the chest, palm to palm, both of which are extended 
upward with all fingers erect or slightly bent. This is the 
characteristic mudra of Sadaksari Lokesvara and is also exhibited 
by Namasangiti. 

Ankusa, elephant goad. See the weapon, for instance, in the image of 
Parnasabarl. When the goad is surmounted by a Vajra, it is 
called Vajrankusa. 

Anuvyanjanas, see Laksanas. 

Ardhaparyahka, also called Maharajallla, is a particular Asana of sitting. 
Both the legs are on the same pedestal ; one of the knee is raised 
while the other is bent in the usual position of a Buddha. This 
Asana should be distinguished from the Lalitasana in which case 
one of the legs is pendant, while the other is bent in the usual 
position of a Buddha, When both the legs are pendant, the attitude 
is called Bhadrasana. 



GLOSSARY 433 

Asana, the word in Sanskrit may mean a seat, a mystic or any attitude 
exhibited in the lower limbs. The word Padmasana means the 
seat of lotus. Similarly, Simhasana means the lion^throne or the 
seat of a lion* The word Sukhasana means any easy attitude of 
sitting. It may be the Paryankasana, Lalitasana or the Ardhapar* 
yankasana. In fact, in the Sadhanamala, the word Sukhasana 
has not been used in a technical sense. When used in a technical 
sense Asana is of various kinds, such as the Paryafikasana, 
Vajraparyankasana, Lalitasana, Ardhaparyankasana, Bhadrasana, 
Alldhasana, Pratyalidhasana or the Natyasana, a variety of Ardha- 
paryanka. 

Asoka, the absence of sorrow ; but the word is always used to 
designate a particular kind of tree which blossoms forth red 
flowers. From time immemorial, this tree is regarded as sacred in 
India. It is believed that kicks at the tree by chaste women cause 
it to blossom. 

Bana, see Sara. 

Bhumisparsa, also called Bhumisparsana or the Bhusparsa, is the name 
of a mudra. The right hand exhibiting this mudra has the palm 
turned inward and the fingers outstretched, with the tips touching 
the ground. This mudra should be distinguished from the Varada 
mudra in which case tips do not touch the ground and the palm 
instead of being turned inward is turned outward. The deity 
showing the Bhusparsa mudra must sit in the Vajraparyahka 
attitude. 

Bhutas, a class of mischievous spirits or hobgoblins who, without 
any provocation whatever, are supposed to injure men and 
destroy them mysteriously. 

Bija, means a 'seed'. In Tantra it signifies the Germ-Syllable which 
takes the form of a deity in the course of meditation. 

BIjapura, citron, a characteristic symbol of Jambhala. 

Brahmakapala, or the Brahmasirah> is the severed head of Brahma 
who is credited with four faces with grey beards in all of them 
and the crown of matted hair. The Buddhist gods, carrying 
triumphantly the severed head of Brahma, display the aversion 
of the Buddhists towards the Hindus, as well as, the superiority 
of their gods to the gods of the alien faith. 

Brahmamukha, the face of Brahma containing four faces. The Brah* 

mamukha is superimposed on the head of Paramasva. 
55 



434 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Brahma si rah see Brahmakapala. 

Caitya, or the Stupa, which represents the Buddhist Universe, is the 
Buddhist sanctuary, sometimes square and sometimes round, with 
spires or steps on the capital. Each spire or step represents a 
heaven, the uppermost portion being a point which is supposed 
to be the highest peak of Mount Sumeru, a mythical mountain, 
whence the Bodhicitta loses itself in ounya. On the four sides of 
the Caitya the figures of the Dhyani Buddhas appear. Vairocana is 
sometimes present. The corners are occupied by the figures of the 
Divine Buddhasaktis or their symbolic representations in the 
form of Yantras. The Caitya may show further, in the four cardinal 
points, the Caturmaharajikas or the Great Rulers of the 
Quarters, namely, Vaisravana, Virupaksa, Vtrudhaka and Dhrtara- 
stra. See Stupa. 

Cakra, Wheel or disc. It is the characteristic symbol of the Hindu 
God Visnu or Krsna. 

Camara, Chowrie or the fly-whisk consisting of the tail of a Yak. 

Capa, also called Dhanus, is the bow. It is generally carried in the left 
hand. With the bow and the arrow Marlci inflicts pain to the 
Mar as or wicked beings. 

Casaka, Wine-glass. 

Caturmudra See Sanmudra. 

Chintamani the gem that satisfies all desires. The jewel is sometimes 

represented in the form of a small round object and sometimes in 
the shape of a flame. 

Dakini, same as Sakti. See Sakti. 

Damaru, small drum, such as is carried by the Hindu god Siva. 

Danda, the staff or the mace carried by Hayagrlva. It cannot be- trans- 
lated as the magic wand, as the Khatvanga serves that purpose. 
When the staff is^ surmounted hy a Vajra, it is called Vajradanda. 

Dharani or Dharim, meaningless conglomeration of syllables, occasion- 
ally containing one or two intelligible words, used as a charm 
or prayer. There are DharanvSangrahas or collections of Phara* 
nis in the Nepal Library, with an astonishingly large nujnber of 
Dharams devoted to different deities. The Ikt giyen;iji the 
Nepal Catalogue Vol. II. App, p. 225, et sqq. may JbexpnsiiHed. 

Dharmacakra, or. Vya.khyan* mudraris that gesture of hands. .exhibited 
by Lord Buddha -while preaching his first sermon at ,3arnath. 
This pose is depicted variously but the most artistic and correct 



GLOSSARY . 435 

representation of this mudra is to be found in the celebrated 
Prajnaparamita image from Java. See Getty : GNB, p. 187. 

Dhanus, same as Capa. See Capa. 

Dhupa, incense stick, which when burns, emits fragrance. 

Dhyana, meditation ; it refers generally to that portion of the Sudhana 
in which instruction is given as to the description of the deity 
with whom the worshipper is to identify himself. 

Dhyana, or Samadhi mudra ; the position of hands while in meditation. 
The hands with palm upwards lie one upon the other on the lap 
with all fingers stretched. This is the characteristic mudra of 
Amitabha. 

Dhyanasana, or Vajraparyahkasana, or Vajrasana, is the meditative 
pose, the two legs being firmly locked with both the soles apparent, 
the characteristic sitting attitude of the Dhyani Buddhas. Some* 
times a small thunderbolt, shown on the seat of the god, indicates 
the meditative attitude. Dhyanasana should be distinguished 
from the Paryahka attitude in which case the legs are placed one 
upon the other with both the soles invisible. 

Dlpa, lamp, the sacred lamp fed with ghee. 

Gada, mace. 

Garuda, mythical bird supposed to be the destroyer of all serpents. 
The Hindus regard him as the Vahana of Visnu. Garuda is 
represented as a huge bird with a human body, two wings and 
sharp beaks, generally with hands clasped against the chest. 

Ghanta, bell ; when the bell is surmounted by a Vajra, it is called Vajra- 
ghanta, which is a symbol of Vajrasattva. 

Jatamukuta, the crown of matted hair. The hair is tied up above the 
head in such a way as to resemble a crown or a tiara. 

Kalasa, is the ordinary water-vessel of metal or earth. It is different 
from the Kamandalu or Kundika, which is smaller in size and 
is provided with a projecting pipe for discharging water. 

Kamandalu, see Kalasa 

Kapala, either (i) severed head of a man, or (ii) the cup made of a skull, 
or (iii) a bowl. The skull cup is of two kinds ; when it is filled 
with blood it is called Asrkkapala, and when with human flesh it 
is called Mamsakapala. The deities are supposed to partake of 
the blood or the flesh carried in these cups. 

Karana, mudra. Any hand showing this mudra is outstretched with the 
index and the little fingers erect, while the thumb presses the two 
remaining fingers against the palm of the hand. 



436 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Karppara, same as Kapala. See Kapala. 

Kartri, or Karttari signifies a small knife ; sometimes the edge of it is 
uneven like the edge of a saw. It is called Vajrakartri when 
surmounted with a Vajra. 

Khadga, sword. The sword in the hand of Manjusri is called the 
Prajnakhadga or the Sword of Wisdom, which is believed to 
destroy the darkness of ignorance by the luminous rays issuing 
out of it. 

Khatvanga, magic wand ; the stick is generally surmounted either by 
Vajra or the Kapala, or the Trisula or the banner, or all of them. 
In any case, for a Khatvanga the skulls are necessary and it will 
be so called even if nothing else is present. 

Ksepana, the mudra of sprinkling, exhibited by Namasanglti. The 
two hands are joined palm to palm with fingers all stretched, the 
tips of which are turned downwards and enter into a vessel con^ 
taining nectar. 

Kundika, same as Kamandalu. See Kalasa. 

Laksanas, auspicious marks ; the thirty^two special marks of the Buddha, 
enumerated in Dharmasahgraha attributed to Nagarjuna. The 
Laksanas are also enumerated in Getty : GNB, p. 190. Another 
class of minor marks is called Anuvyanjanas, eighty in number, 
also enumerated in the Dharmasahgraha. 

Mala, same as Aksamala. See Aksamala. 

Mandala, the magic circle, containing mystic figures and diagrams, and 
figures of gods and goddesses constituting the Mandala. In the 
Nispannayogavali Tantra, Kriyasamuccaya and the Vajravalfoiama* 
mandalopayika there are descriptions of a great number of 
deities constituting the circle. 

Mani, same as Cintamani ; see Cintamani. 

Mantra, mystic syllables sometimes containing a few intelligible words, 
but shorter than the Dharanls. The Mantras are believed to be 
a contracted form of the Dharams and are meant for the mass to 
obtain an easy salvation, by simply muttering them* In many 
instances, the Mantra gives the name of the divinity or his attri* 
butes, and these are most important in determining the names 
of different gods when the Colophons of Sadhanas are not 
enough. 

Mayura, peacock , and Mayurapiccha signifies feathers of a peacock, 
Mudgara, hammer ; it may also mean a staff or a mace. 



GLOSSARY 437 

Mudra, mystic pose of hand or hands. Some of the Mudras can be 
shown by one hand, such as the Varada, Abhaya, Namaskara, etc, 
others require both the hands such as the Anjali, Dhartnacakra, 
and many others. In the Sadhanamala there are descriptions of 
an overwhelming number of Mudras. But it is very difficult to 
comprehend them unless actually explained by the priests* 

Musala, pestle 

Nagas, serpents. They have the character of water-spirits and are believ- 
ed to dwell in the springs, lakes and tanks, and have the power 
to bring or withhold rains. But if they are roused to anger, they 
hurl down rocks from the mountain tops and destroy fair cities. 
The gods of the Sadhanamala are fond of ornaments of eight 
lords of snakes. 

Nakull, mongoose ; the characteristic animal of Jambhala. The 
mongoose is believed to be the receptacle of all gems and when 
the God of Wealth presses the animal, it vomits forth all the 
riches. 

Namaskara, the mudra assumed by the Bodhisattvas, when paying 
homage to the Buddhas or Tathagatas, or by the minor deities to 
the principal one. The hand, slightly bent, is raised above in a 
line with the shoulder with fingers outstretched or slightly bent 
with the palm turned upwards. 

Nupura, anklet ; small bells are attached to the ornament so that when 
the leg moves, it chimes melodiously. 

Padma, lotus, which may be of any colour except blue. The blue lotus 
is designated by the word Utpala or Nllotpala. In Tuntric 
works the Padma is the day lotus, while Utpala stands for the 
night lotus. It is regarded as especially sacred by all classes of 
Indians. See Getty : GNB, p. 192. When the lotus shows petals 
in both the upper and lower directions it is called the Visvapadma 
or the double lotus. Padma indicates purity of descent. 

Parasu, axe. 

Paryaixka, see Dhyanasana. 

Pasa, noose or lasso ; when a Vajra is attached at the end of it, it is 
called the Vajrapasa or the adamantine noose. The noose is 
required to bind the host of the Maras and all other wicked 
beings. 

Patra, begging bowl or bowl generally found in the images of the five 
Dhyani Buddhas and of Buddha 5akyasimha. Sometimes the 
Kapala is used in the Sadhanamala to designate a bowl (See 
Kapala). Getty records a Buddhist legend to show how a Patra 
came in the possession of the Buddha. Getty : GNB, p. 193, 



438 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Prajna, see oakti. 

Preta or Mrtaka or Sava, always means a corpse or ghost in Indian 
Buddhist Iconography. 

Pustaka, book in the form of a Manuscript which represents the 
Prajnaparamita or the Book of Transcendental Knowledge. 
Nagarjuna is said to have restored the Scripture from the nether 
regions. The book is carried by several Buddhist gods, notably, 
Prajnaparamita, Manjusrl, Sarasvati and Cunda. 

Ratna, jewel. The word Triratna signifies the three Jewels, Buddha, 
Dharma and Sangha. Similarly, there are different groups of 
jewels, such as the seven jewels or the sixteen jewels. For the 
enumeration of the seven jewels, see Getty : GNB, p. 194. See 
also Cintamani. 

Sadhana, procedure of worship for the invocation of Buddhist gods, 
and not *charm' as translated by C. Bendall. The Sadhanamala 
or the Sadhanasamuccaya is a collection of 312 Sadhanas. 

Sakti, or Prajna, Vidya, Svabha Prajna or Svabha- Vidya, the female 
counterpart of a Bodhisattva. All goddesses are regarded as 
female counterparts of one or another of the Bodhisattvas. 
The Saktis are either represented singly or in yab-yum, i, e. in 
the actual embrace of the god to whom she is affiliated as a Sakti. 
This female counterpart is called Svabha' (own light, being the 
principal god's own creation). She sometinles carries the same 
weapons as are carried by the principal god. 

Samadhi, meditation ; the deepest form of abstract meditation. For 
a description of the Samadhi mudra see Dhyanamudra. 

Sankha, conch-shell ; it is especially given as a symbol to the gods 
as the sound viabrated through a shell penetrates far and wide. 
The conch-shell seems to have been extensively used in wars by 
ancient Indians. 

Sanmudra, the six-mudras ; the meaning of this mudra is quite 
different from the mudra meaning mystic gestures. It has been 
translated as auspicious ornaments or symbols. The six ornaments 
are enumerated in the following verse in the Sadhanamala : 

"Kanthika rucakam ratnamekhalam bhasmasutrakam I 
Sat vai pSramita eta mudrarupena yojitah" II 

"The torque, the bracelet, the jewel, the girdle, the ashes and the 
sacred thread are ascribed to the gods in the form of mudras 
(ornaments), which represent the six PSramitas". 



GLOSSARY 439 

These ornaments or symbols are generally of human bones, the 
Khatvanga being the sacred thread. When one of the six is 
absent they are called Pancamudra, and Caturmudra, when two. 

Sara, or the Sana, is the arrow. It is generally carried in the right hand, 
while the corresponding left shows the Dhanus. 

Sava, see Preta. 

Siddhas, or Siddhapurusas are saints who have already attained Siddhi 
or perfection in a Tantric rite, and have acquired supgr-normal 
powers. Two groups of Siddhas are generally recognized, one 
consisting of nine and another of eighty-four* They were famous 
in the mediaeval age for their magical powers and prodigious 
deeds. Most of them hailed from the East. 

Simha, lion. The word SimhSsana means the lion-seat or the lion- 
throne, but does not designate a special attitude of sitting such as 
the Vajrasana, Ardhaparyankasana, and so forth. See Asana. 

Srnkhala, chain, also called the Vajrasrnkhala, (which is the charac- 
teristic symbol of Vajrasrhkhala), when the chain is surmounted 
by a Vajra. 

Stupa see Caitya. 

Suci, mudra used generally in the act of dancing, though it is to be 
seen in other cases also. All the fingers are stretched with the 
tips joining at the end, so as to resemble a needle fSuci). 

Sunya, translated as 'Void' in the absence of a suitable and more ex- 
pressive word. It signifies a state of the mind after Nirvana, 
about which neither existence, nor non-existence, nor a combina- 
tion of the two, nor a negation of the two can be predicated. 
This unya in Vajrayana is identified with Compassion which 
transforms itself in the form of divinities, of the nature of Sunya, 
for the welfare and happiness of men. In Vajrayana Sunya is the 
Prime Cause of all manifestation. 

Suryya, the sun or the disc of the sun which is held in one of her 
hands by Marlci and which is the seat of many Buddhist gods 
and goddesses. Rahu is said to devour the sun and the moon. 

Svabha Prajna, see Sakti. 

Tarjani, mudra ; the pose of the raised index finger in a menacing 
attitude. In the hand showing this mudra, the index finger only 
is raised while the other fingers are locked up in the fist. If a 
Pasa or noose appears round the index finger it is called Tar jam* 
pasa. The word Vajratarjam signifies thfe Vajra -held in the fist 
while the index is raised in a menacing attitude. . ., . ." Y 



440 BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 

Tarjaniplsa, see Tarjam, 

Tarpana, mudra of doing homage to the Departed Fathers ; the mudra 
of Namasangiti. Any arm showing this gesture is bent and is 
raised upward in a line with the shoulder. The palm of the hand 
is turned inward with fingers slightly bent and pointed towards 
the shoulder. 

Tathagatas, the Buddhas who have attained the highest state of perfec- 
tion according to the Buddhists. In the Sadhanamala, the word 
is invariably used in the plural number with reference to the 
five Dhyani Buddhas, but does not even signify Vajrasattva or 
Vajradhara. The Buddhas are innumerable and have a hierarcy 
among them, the different orders being Pratyeka, Sravaka, Samyak- 
Sambuddha, Jina, Arhat, Tathagata, and the like. 

Trailokya, pertaining to the three worlds : the divine, the terrestrial and 

the infernal. 

* 
Trisula, trident. The Hindu god Siva is believed to carry the trident, 

and hence it is popular among the Tantra symbols as most of 
the Tantras are in the form of a dialogue between Siva and 
Par vat I. 

Utpala, see Padma. 

Vahana, the vehicle or the mount of gods ; the mount may be any 
animal including men, demons and corpses. Sometimes even the 
gods of an alien faith serve as Vahanas. 

Vajra, thunderbolt. When two thunderbolts are crossed, it is called a 
Visva*vajra, or a double Vajra. In Buddhist Tantra the word 
generally designates ounya or Void, which cannot be cut, cannot 
be destroyed, but which destroys all evils. 

Vajradanda, see Danda. 
Vajraghanta, see Ghanta. 

Vajrahunkara, mudra. The wrists are crossed at the chest with two 
hands holding the Vajra and the bell, both of which are turned 
inwards. But if the two symbols and the hands are turned out- 
ward the mudra will be called the Trailokyavijaya mudra. 

Vajrakartri, see Kami* 
Vajrankusa, see Ankusa. 
Vajraparyanka, see Dhyanasana. 
Vajrasrhkhala, see rnkhala. 
VajratarjanI, see Tarjam. 



GLOSSARY 441 

Varada, mudra, the gesture of hands shown by gods while conferring 
boons. The hand showing this gesture is pendant with its palm 
outward and fingers all stretched* Sometimes a jewel is seen 
stamped on the hand showing the mudra when it is known as the 
Ratnasamyukta- Varada, that is, the gift'bestowing attitude together 
with a jewel. The Mahoba figure of Khadiravam is an example 
of this kind. 

Visvapadma, the double conventional lotus. See Padma. 
Visvavajra, the double conventional Vajra. See Vajra. 

Vitarka, mudra assumed in discussion. This mudra is altogether un- 
known in the Sadhanamala and seems to be a later development. 
It is, nevertheless, shown by a number of forms of Avalokitesvara 
treated of in the Appendix all of which are more or less influenced 
by Tibetan art and iconography. This mudra is represented with 
the right arm bent, all fingers erect except either the index or the 
ring finger which touches the thumb so as to resemble a ring. The 
hand is extended forward with the palm outward. 

Vyakhyana, mudra, see Dharmacakra. 

Yab-yum, is a Tibetan word consisting of two particles yab and yum. 
The word c Yab' in Tibetan means the 'honourable father* and 
'yum' means the 'honourable mother'. The combined word, 
therefore, means the father in the company of the mother, or in 
her embrace. For the spiritual significance of the conception of 
yab-yum, see Conclusion. 

Yaksas, are mis-shapen dwarfs who guard the treasures of the Northern 
mountains and their chief is Kubera, the God of Wealth. They 
are usually malignant in disposition and they occasionally feed on 
human flesh But the benign influence of Buddha's teaching 
makes them forego their cruel habits. 



56 



INDEX OF WORDS 



Abhayakara Gupta, 3, 4, 47, 82, 155 
Abhidhanottara Tantra, 4 
Abhimukhi Bhumi, 335, colour 335, 
symbol 335, dhyana 335, described 
335, images 335 

Acala 154, 155, colour 255, direction 255, 
dhyana 255, described 255, Sakti 255, 
images 255 

Acala Bhumi, 336, colour 336, symbol 336, 
dhyana 336, described 336, images 336 

Acalaketu Lokesvara, described 429 

Arala Vajrapani, 155 

Acata (?) Lokesvara, described 397 

Adamantine sow, 217 

Adherence to the Path, 20 

Adhikarin, equipments of, 24 

Adhimukticarya Bhurri 333, colour 333, 
symbol 333, dhyana 333, described 
333, images 333 

Adhimuktivasita, 331, colour 331, symbol 
331, dhyana 331, described 3 31, images 
331 

Adibuddha, 42, 43, manifestation of, 101, 
cult of, 44 

Adibuddha, Dhyani Buddhas as, 387, di- 
fferent cults with different, 387 

Adibuddha, temple over the flame of, 
lOOf, 

Adibuddha theory, time and place of in- 
troduction 38 7n 

Aditya, 367, colour 367, symbol 367, 
vahana 367, dhyana 367, described 367, 
images 367 

Adibuddhayana, 187 

Adiyana, 187 

Advaya, 30 

Advayavajra, 9, 48 

Advayavajrasahgraha, 25 

Agni, 362, colour 362, vahana 362, direc- 
tion 362, dhyana 362, described 362 
images 362 



Ahankara, 27, 30 

Ajanta, 5, 39 

Ajaya, 160, direction 160, form 160 

Akanistha heaven, 34 

Akarsana rite, 166 

Akasagarbha Bodhisattva, 85, colour 85, 
symbol 85, dhyana 86, described 86, 
images 86, forms 86 

Akasagarbha Lokesvara, described 399 

Aksayajnanakaranda Dharini, 341, colour 
341, symbol 341, dhyana 341, described 
341 

Aksayamati Bodhisattva, 84, colour 84, 
symbol 84, dhyana 84 described 84, 
images 85 

Aksayamati Lokesvaro, 39> 

Aksobhya Dhyani Buddha, 51, colour 51, 
vahana 51, nnidra 51, symbol 51, dhya- 
na 51, described 51, images 51, in 
stupa 5 1 , direction 5 1 , family 5 1 , forms 
52, lord of the East 52 ; eight-armed form 
52, dhyana 52, described 52 ; origin 
of 45, as a Tathagata, 34, 35, in the 
Hindu pantheon 191, on the crown of 
Hindu Tara 191, gods emanating from 
l54f, goddesses emanating from 189f. 

Alakapuri, Kubera's capital 379 

Alchemy, 8 

Amravati, 5 

Amitabha, 14, 34, 49, dhyana 49, symbol 
49, vahana 49, mudra 49 described 49, 
images 50, origin of, 45, sire of Avaloki- 
tesvara 124, gods emanating from 145f, 
goddesses emanating from 147f- 

Amitabha Lokeivara, described 429 

Amitaprabha (also Amjrtaprabha), 90f, 
colour 90, symbol 90, dhyana 91, des- 
cribed 91, images 91 
Amitayus, 35 

Amuayus Sutra, 14, 15, 100. 
Amoghadarsi Boddhisattva, 97, colour 97, 
symbol 97, dhyana 97, described 98, 



444 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



images 96 

Amoghapala Lokesvara, described 428 

Amoghasiddhi Dhyani Buddha, 22, 55f, 
colour 55, mudra 55, vahana 55, 
symbol 55, dhyana 55-6, described 56, 
images 56, direction 56, place in stupa 
56, origin of, 45, emanations of 226 

Amrtalocana, 249 

Amrtamukhi, 249 

Amrtananda, 2, 3, 142, 205, 206 

Amrtaprabha Lokesvara, described 398 

Analarka, 254 

Ananda, 79, 191 

Anandadi Lokesvara, described 395 

Ananga, 187, Hindu god of love 115 

Ananga VHJra, 12, 35 

Anantamukhi Dharini, 340, colour 340, 
symbol 340, dhyana 340, described 340. 

Ananta, snake, 148 

Animal-faced deities, 319, general descrip- 
tion 319, deification of animals 319, 
special features 319 

Animosity against Hindu gods, 389 

Anjali mudra, 129, 207, of Sudhanakuma- 
ra 129 

Anupama Raksita, 20 

Anusmrti, 26 

Aparajita, 183 

Aparajita, 151, 222, colour 151, described 
151, direction 151, see also Sitatapatra 
Aparajita 

Aparajita, 245 f, colour 245, mudra 245, 
dhyana 246, described 246, images 39, 
246, Nalanda fragment 246, Indian 
Museum image 246 

Appearances, 28 

Arapacana, IZOf. name explained 120, 
colour 120, companions 120, symbols 
120, described 120, images 120, origin 
of 121, images 39, 121, 121n 

Arcismati Bhurai, 334, colour 334, symbol 
334, dhyana 334, described 334, images 
335 

Artha Pratisariivit, 343, colour 343, symbol 

343, dhyana 343, described 343, images 

343 

Arolik, 45 

Aruna, 207 

Arya-JangulI, 228, as companion, 228, 
dhyana 228, described 228, images 229 



Arya'Manjulrlmulakalpa, 100 

Arya-Manci, 2 10, symbols 210, described 
210 

Aryatara, 229, name of Vas\atara 229, 
sadhana 229, described 22, green 307, 
special features 307 

Arya-Sarasvatl, 351, symbol 351, described 
351, images 351 

Arya-Vajravarahi, 219, four-armed 219, 
described 219, symbol 219 

Asanas, significance of 389, 390, senti- 
ments in 390 

Asanga, 8, 12, 13, 41, 197, deified 35, ini- 
tiated by Maitreya 81) 

Ascetic, 25 

Asiatic Society's Library, 4 

Asokakanta Marici, 227, as a minor deity 

227, as companion 228, described 209, 

228, dhyana 209, 228, images 209, 229, 
vahana 209, colour 209 

Asoka bough, 209 

Assam, 6 

Astabhuja Kurukulla 245> 249, companions 
of 249, colour 150, mudra 150, sadhana 
150, dhyana 150, described 151, images 
151 

Astabhuja Marici, 211, colour 211, resi- 
dence 211, described 211, attendants 
211, images 212 

Atamahabhaya Tara, 308, white 308, 
special features 308 

Astabhujaplta Marici, 210 

Astabhuja Vajratara, 240, name of Vajra- 
tara in Peiping 240, see Vajratara 

Astrology, 8 

Astronomy, 8 

AsVaghosa, deified 35 

Atila Dlpankara, 16 

Avalokita Bodhisattva 143 

Avalokita LokesVara, described 399 

AvalokitesVarall, 14,30,34, 35, 38, 49, 
origin of 143, ruler of BhadrakaJpa 
124, his sire Amitabha 125, character 
124, special qualities 124 sadhanas 
124, forms in the SadhanamalS 124, 
(108) forms in Nepal 6n. 88, 124, 144, 
discovery of 108 forms 125, images 
125. 

AvalokitesVara Bodhisattva, 88f, colour 
88, symbol 88, dhyana 88, described 



INDEX OF WORDS 



445 



83, images 89 

Ayurvasita, 329, colour 329, symbol 329, 
dhyana 329, described 329, images 329 
B 

Balabhadra, 378, pastoral deity 378, colour 
378, symbol 378, vahana 378, dhyana 
378, described 378 

Balabhadra Group, 378, deities of the, 378, 
their nature 378 

Balaparamita, 327, colour 327, symbol 
327, dhyana 327, described 327, images 
327 

Banerji, R. D. 39 

Bendall, 35n 

Bengal 5, 6, school of art 38, 39 

Bewitching, rite of, 115 

Bhadrakalpa, ruler of 49, 124 

Bhadrapala Bodhisattva, 96, colour 96, 
symbol 96, dhyana 96, forms 96, des* 
cnbed 97, images 97 

Bhadrasana 229 

Bhairava, 161, 162, as vahana 218 

Bharhut, 5, 31 

Bhatgaon, monasteries n, 41 

Bhattasali (Dr. Nalini Kanta), 1, 16, 39, 
130, 156, 223, 233 

Bhima, 160, direction 160, form 160 

Bhlmadars'ana 160, direction 160, form 160 

Bhismabhagini, 236 

Bhota 193 

Bhrkuti, 128, 129, 135,147, 152, colour 129 
*135, 152, symbol 129, 135, 152, des- 
cribed 129, 135, 152 sadhana 152, Dhya- 
na 152, forms 152, images 153, yellow 
309, special features 309 

Bhrhgi, 365, colour 365, dhyana 365, des- 
cribed 365 

Bhumis, ten, 28 

Bhumi deities, twelve 333, meaning 333, 
definition 333, description 333, images 
333 

Bhurim, 135, colour 135, symbol 135, des- 
cribed 135 

Bhutadlmara 182, mudra, 182, sadhana 

182, dhyana 182, described 182-3, sire 

183, images 183, cult of 183 
Bhutadamara VajrapSni, 183 
Bhuvanesvarl 117n 

Bihar 6 



Bimba (icon'drcle), 26 

Birbhum 38 

Blue colour, significance of, 154 

Bodhi21 

Bodhicaryyavatara 5 

Bodhicitta, 25, 27, nature of> 393 

Bodhi knowledge 1 1 

Bodhi mind, 28, 29, 30, charged with 
Karuna 31 

Bodhisattva, 11, 20, 27, 28, meaning of 82, 
class of deities 82, female counterparts 
82, independent group 82, in Nispanna- 
yogaval! 82, three sets of 16 deities 82, 
lists of, 82, with Dhyani Buddha forms 
99, companions of JLokanatha 130, 
group of eight 98 

Bodhisattva, Padmapani, 49 

Bodhi sattvay ana 8 

Bodhnath, stupa of 32 (also Bauddh) 

Borobudur temple 39 

Brahma 27, 250, as Mara 159, 195, colour 
363, vahana 363, dhyana 363, described 
3o3, images 363, parasol bearer 246, 
severed head of 162 

Bianniavawana Parana 18 

Brahmadanda Lokesvara, described 397 

Brahmananda 190 

Brahmas, Four, 21 

Brhaspati, 368, colour, 368, symbol 368, 
vahana 368, dhyana 368, described 368 

Bronzes 5 

Bronze of Vajratara 240, in the form 
of a lotus 240 

Buddha 20, as god 32, first image of 5, 
images of 31, 32 

Buddha's life, scenes from 5 

Buddha Sakyasimha 48 

Buddhas 20 

Buddhahood 8, 29 

Buddhadakini 163, 218, Sakti of Maha- 
maya 164, described 164 

Buddhakapaia, 159, colour 159, Sakti 159, 
sadhana 159, dhyana 159, described 
160, mandala of, 160, images 160 

BuddhabodhiprabhaVas'ita 332, colour 332, 
symbol 332, dhyana 332, described 332 

Buddhism, destruction of 39 

Buddhist esoterism 10 

Buddhist god of love 115 



446 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Buddhist Iconography 384, scope 384, 

purpose 384, value 384 
Buddhist monasteries 4 
Buddhist pantheon 384, in Guhyasamaja 

384, first deifications 384, Kulas and 

Saktis 384 
Buddhist Tantra 9 
Buddhist universe 48 
Budha (planet), 368, colour 368, symbol 

368, dhyana 368, described 368, images 

368 

Buffalo head 166 
Buffalo vahana 166, 167, 168 

C 

Caitya K), 211, 215, residence of MaricI 

211, residence of Usmsavijaya 215, 

special symbol of Maitreya 80 
Cakra (discus) as family symbol 54 
Cakiasambara Tantra 217 
Calcutta, Indian Museum at, 6, 38,] 
Camunda 365, colour 365, vahana 365, 

dhyana 365, described 365, images 365 
Candall 312, colour 312, symbol 312, 

dhyana 312, described 312, images 312 
Candarosana 154, 155, 255, colour 154, 

names 154, sadhana 154, dhyana 154, 

155, symbols 154, Sakti 155, worship 

155 images 155 

Candamaharosana see Candarosana 
Candamahawsana Tantra 4, 155 
Candavajrapani 236 
Candesvan, companion of Mahakala, 

347, colour 347, symbol 347, direction 

347, described 347 
Candra (planet), 367, colour 367, symbol 

367, vahana 367, dhyana 367, described 

367, images 367 
Candraprabha Bodhisattva, 89, 120, 121, 

colour 89, symbol 89, dhyana 89, 90 

described 89, 90, images 90 
Candraprabha Lokesvara, described, 398 
Capetadana mudra 245 
Carcika, companion of Mahakala, 347, 

colour 347, symbol 347, direction 347, 

described 347 
Caturbhuja Sitatara (white), 308, special 

features 308 
Catur-Maharfijikas, 35 



Caurl, 310, colour 310, symbol 310, 
dhyana 310, described 310, images 310 

Cave Temples of Western India, 39 

Chariot of MaricI, 211 

Chhinnamasta 1, 17, 247, Hindu goddess 
247, same as Vajrayogini 247 

Chhatrosnisa, 302, colour 302, symbol 
302, direction 302, dhyana 302, des- 
cribed 302, images 302 

Chinese, 1 

Chiromancy, 8 

Chittagong 39 

Cintamani Datta, author, 123 

Cintamani family, 32, 45 

Cintamani Lokesvara, described 430 

Citrakaras (of Nepal), 7 

Citrasena 159, described 160, image 160 

Cittadhatu Lokesvara, described, 430 

Cittava^ita, 329, colour 329, symbol 329, 
dhyana 329, described 329, images 329 

Cittavisuddhiprakarana 47 

Clark, (Professor Walter Eugene), 3 

Collective Deities, 251, their nature 251 

Colour, significance of 389, connection with 
elements 390, malefic and benefit 390 

Comilla 38 

Companions, three of Marici, 213, un- 
named 213, described 213, colour 213, 
form 213 

Compassion (Karuna), 21 

Confession of sins, 20 

Constellations, twenty-eight, 381, deified 
381, named 381f, described 381f 

Coomaraswamy {Dr. A. K.) 1, 31 

Csoma de Koros (Alexander), 43 

Cults, Buddhist, 387 

Cunda 35, 220, spelling of the name 220, 
deified Dharini 220, mantra of 220, 
colour 151, 219, symbol 219, 223, sire 
219f, forms 219, as a minor deity 221 , 
222, place in the mandala, 222, as 
consort of Takkiraja 222, dhyana 221, 
222, forms 222 ; twenty-six armed 222, 
described 151, 221, 223, symbols 223, 
mudra 223, miniature 223, temple in 
Pattikera 223, antiquity, 221, sadhana 
221, images 221, 223, 224, Baroda 
image 224, symbols 224; Bodh-Gaya 
image 224 



INDEX OF WORDS 



44,7 



Cunda Dharinl 220, 221, 340, colour 340, 
symbol 340, dhyana 340, described 340, 
images 340 

Cunda mairra 221 

Cunda murira 223n 

D 

Dacca, o, museum 33, 156 

Dakini, 218, described 218, 321, form 321, 
dhyana 321, images 321, 322, Vajra- 
yoginl 217 

Dakini group, four, 321, general descrip* 
tion 321, list of deities, 321, appear- 
ance 321, form 321, images 321 

Damara mudra 183 

Danaparamita 324, colour 324, symbol 324, 
dhyana 324, described 325, images 325 

Dance deities, four, 312, their nature 312, 
their description, 312, their images 312 

Dalabhuja&ita Marlcl, 213, colour 213, 
sadhana 213, described 213, three 
attendants 213 

DasabHUmika-SMtra, 28 

Dates or Tithis, 382, deiiied 382, images 
382 

Death, god of, 166 

Deification, process of 385, specialised 
study 3*85, epidemic of 31, of books 
220 

Deities, number of 34, forms of 47, in* 
crease in number 392, objects as 392, 
literature as 392, philosophical concepts 
as 392, abstract ideas as 392, desires at* 
392, interchange of, 1 

Deity, evolution of 25, nature of 24, 
visualisation of 24, the mantra person 
29, realisation of 27, single 30, conden- 
sation of words, 30, manifestation of 
Sunya 391, no real existence 391, only 
an idea 391, Sunya in essence 391, 
Sunya manifests as 391 

Dependent origination 25 

Devadevata Lokesvara, described 428 

Devaputra Mara 159 

Dhanada 179 

Dhanada Tara, 231, colour 231, vahana 
231, companions 231, mantra 231, 
dhyana 231, described 231, images 23 1 
green 307, special features 307 

Dharana 26 



Dharani (also Dharinl) 10, general des- 
cription 338n, in sadhanas, 337n, of 
Avalokitesvara 29, Vajragandharl 236, 

Dharinis, twelve, 337, their number 337, 
deification 337, nature 337, description 
337, character 220, power 220, enu- 
merated 220, names of 220, sire of 
220 

Dharma 10, 20, goddefas 32, Hindu 6 

Dharmacakra Lokesvara, described 429 

Dharmacakra Manjusri 118n 

Dharmadhatu Lokesvara, described 430 

Dharmadhatu Vaglsvara 103, colour 103, 
described 103f, dhyana 103, forms 103f, 
images 104, mandala 104, called Manju- 
ghosa 104, principal deity of the man- 
dala 104 

Dharmakara 101 

Dharmakaya 210 

Dharmaklrti, 12 

Dharmakosasahgiaha 2, 205, 206, Sukhavuti 
Lokesvara described 1 42 

Dharmamegha Bhumi 336, colour 336, 
symbol 336, dhyana 336, described 337, 
images 337 

Dharma Pratisamvit 342, colour 342, 
dhyana 342, symbol 342, described 342, 
images 342 

Dharma Vasita 332, colour 332, symbol 
332, dhyana 332, described 332, images 
332 

Dhupa 256, and others in Lokanatha Man- 
dala 131 

Dhupatara 241, dhyana 241, described 
241 

Dhvajagrakeyura 201, forms 201, images 
201, form (i) described 202, three-faced 
201, colour 201, dhyana 201 ; /oim 
(n) described 202, four-faced 202 ; 
images 202 

Dhvajosnisa 301, colour 301, symbol 301, 
direction 301, dhyana 301, described 
301, images 301 

Dhyana 21, 26, essential features 386, devi- 
ations from 386, modified under local 
conditions 386 

Dhyanaparamita 326, colour 326, symbol 
326, dhyana 326, described 326, images 
326 



448 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Dhyani Bodhisattvas, illustrations of, 5 In 

Dhyani Buddhas 44, 48, origin 45, product 
of Tantric sadhana 35 

Dikpalas, eight 352, their nature 352, their 
number 352, Hindu lords of quarters 
251 

Dikshit, Mr. K. N 126 

Dimbha, another name of Ucchusma 179, 
239 

Dinajpur 38 

Dipa 256. 318, colour 318, symbol 318, 
dhyana 318, described 318, images 318 

Dipatara 241, dhyana 241, described 241 

Direction, Ten gods of 25 1 , their nature 
251, general features 251, in Tantric 
liteiature 251, their forms 252f; six 
goddesses of 256, their nature 256, 
special features 256, their forms 297f ; 
Hindu gods of, 25 1 

Disciples, qualifications of 94 

Diseases in human form 233 

Divination 8 

Divine Bodhisattvas 47 

Dogmas 8 

Dogmatic Form of AvalokitesVara (?) 207 

Dombi 312, colour 312, symbol 312, 
dhyana 312, described 312 images 312 

Door goddesses, four 316, deification 316, 
characteristics 316, description 316f 

Dragons 54 

Durangama Bhumi, 335, colour 335, sym- 
bol 335, dhyana 335, described 336, 
images 336 

Durbar Library, Nepal 3, 4 

Durgatiparisodhana 78, later name of 
Buddha 76, colour 78, mudra 78, 
dhyana 78, described 78, images 78 

Durgottarim Tara, 307, green 307, special 
features 307 

Durjaya 160, direction 160, form 160 

Dvaradharu 317 

Dvaratalakadhara 316 

Dvesa family 32, 45 

Dvesarati, queen of Aksobhya 46 

E 

Earliest sadhana 35 
Ekagrata (concentration), 26 
Ekajata 151, direction 15 1, colour 151, 
described 151, mantra of 29, power of 



193, sadhanas 193, dhyana 193, des- 
cribed 193, blue 309, special features 
309, images 194, 229, forms of 194, 
two-armed described 194, /our-armed 
described 194, eight-armed described 

194, as a minor deity 227, as compani- 
on 228, dhyana 228, described 228 

Ellora 5, 39, cave temples at, 77 

Epidemics 196 

Evans- Wentz (Dr. W. Y.), 50, 205, 215, 

225 

Excavations 5 

Excrescence, of Vajravarahi 217 
Extraordinary worship 21 

F 

Fa-Hien 35, mentions Manjus'ri 100 
Fever, Hindu god of, 233 
Fire-flies, sign of 26 
First image of Buddha 5 
Five cosmic elements 32 
Five Dhvani Buddhas 11, 15, 32, 38, 42, 

names 47, colour 47, symbols 47, 

mudras 47 

Five families of deities, 47 
Five Kulas- 32 
Five Mudras 48 

Five primordial cosmic forces 48 
Five senses 47 

Five Skandhas (elements), 32, 48 
Flame of fire (Adibuddha), 43 
Foucher (Professor A.) 1, 2, 5, 31 
Four Maras 195 
Four Pithas (sacred spots), 15 
Four Pratisamvits (logical analysis), 342 
Freer Gallery of art, 221n 
Friendship (maitri), 21 
Future Buddha 93 

G 

Qaekwad's Oriental Series, 2, 3, 19 
Gaganaganja Bodhisattva, 35, 86, symbol 
86, dhyana 86, described 86, 87 images 
87 ; in Sadhanamala 87, in the Lokana 
tha sadhna 131, colour 131, described 
131 

Gaganaganja Lokesvara, described 399 
Ganapati, 348, 365, symbol 348 365, vaha- 
na 348, 365, dhyana 348, 365, described 
348 365, forms 366, trampled by Apara- 
jita 246 



INDEX OF WORDS 



449 



GanapatihrdayS 349, symbol 349, dhyana 
349, described 349, images 349 

Ganapati Sastri, 14 

Gandhahasti Bodhisattva 95, colour 95, 
symbol 95, dhyana 95, described 95, 
images 96 

Gandhara School of Art, 5, 32, 35 

Ganes*a 197, as Vighna 197, figure of 180, 
trampled 197, presence of 388-9, humi- 
liating role 389, often trampled under 
feet, 389 ; see Ganapati 
Gandha 256 

Gandhatara 241, dhyana 241, described 
241 

Gmdharva king 381, his name 381, des- 
cribed 381 

Gandharvas, lords of, 379 

Garuda vahana 136 

Garudasya319 

Gatha style 14 

GaurL Hindu goddess 184 

Gaurl 310, colour 310, symbol 310, dhyana 
310, described 310, images 310 

Gaurl group, eight 309, listed 309, describ- 
ed 309f 

Gaurltara 151, 222, colour 151, described 
151 

Gautama 77 

Gaya 38, 35 

Germ-syllable (Bija) 25 

Getty, Miss Alice 1,166,207,209 

Ghantapani Bodhisattva 76, colour 76, 
Symbol 76, image 76, described 76 

Ghasmari 311, colour 311, symbol 311, 
dhyana 311, described 311, images 311 

Ghoracandi, 163, colour 163, described 
163 

Glta 313, colour 313, symbol 313, dhyana 
313, described 313, images 313 

Godhead 23 

God-realisation 17, 25 

Gods, male and female, 390, Heruka and 
Nairatma 390 

Graeco Buddhists of Gandhara 31 

Grahamatrka 224, mudra 224, dhyana 
224, symbols 225, described 225, images 
225 



Grdhrasya 319 

Grunwedel, Professor Albert, 1 

Gryphons 54 

Gurdians of gates, four 154 

Quhyasamaja, 10, (also &risamaja), 12, 13n, 
15, 15n, 24, 25, 25n, 26, 32, 34, 41, 45, 
53, 73, 100, 251, Cunda in 221, teach- 
ings of 385, dormant for 300 years, 
385 

Qukyctsiddhi, 12 

Qunakarandavyuha, 124 
H 

Halahala (Lokesvara), 132, colour 132, 
companion 132, sadhana 132, images 
132-133, dhyana 132, described 133, 
Sakti described 133, Lokesvara describ- 
ed 394 

Handwritten MSS, 5 

Hara 212 

Hari 212, meaning of the word, 136 

Harihara Lokesvara, described 429 

Harihariharivahana 136, colour 136, speci- 
al vahana 136, images in Nepal 136, 
dhyana 136, described 136, images 137, 
Lokelvara, described 394 

Hariti35 

Harivahana Lokesvara, described 429 

Hathayoga 8, 24, 26 

Hayagriva 128, 129, 185, colour 129, des- 
cribed 129, symbol 129 ; another form: 
colour 165, forms 165, sadhana 165, 
dhyana 165, described 165, image 165 ; 
as companion of Lokanatha 131, des- 
cribed 131, symbol 131, mudra 131 

Hayagriva (Hindu) 233, god of fever 233, 
image 233 

Hayagriva Lokesvara, described 394 

Hayasya 319, colour 319, symbol 319, 
dhyana 319, described 319 

Heruka 6, 39, 154, 155, 159, 208, 248, 
colour 155, symbol 155, sadhana 155, 
forms 155, worship 156, dhyana 156, 
described 156, images 156, male form 
of Sunya 390 

HerukI 163, colour 163, described 163 
. Heruka Tantra 4, 155, 217, 248 

Herukavajra 254 



57 



450 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Hevajra 154, 163, forms of 157, two-arm- 
ed (i) 157, colour 157, PrajriS 157, dhya- 
na 157, described 157, sadhana 157; 
four-armed (n) 157, colour 157, dhyana 
157, Prajfia 157, described 157, 15*, 
sadhana 158, ; six-armed (tii) 158, 
colour 158, Prajna 158, dhyana 158, 
described 158 ; sixteen-armed (iv) 158, 
colour 158, Prajna 158, dhyana 158, 
described 159, vahana 159, symbols 
159, images 159 

Hevajra TantM, 4 

Hinayana 8 

Hlnayanists 1 1 

Hindus and Buddhists 187 

Hinduizing, method of 190 

Hindu pantheon 19 

Hindus 1 

Hindu gods 158, 344, their parental Dhya- 
ni Buddha 344, position in the Mandala 
344, their Kulas 344, humiliated 389, 
trampled under feet 389, animosity 
against 389, superiority over 389 

Hindu gods in Vajrayana 344f , names 344, 
number 344, nature 344, status 344, 
important deities 344 

Hiranyagarbha 212 

History of Nepal of Wright, 51 

Hiuen Thsang 12, 80, mentions Manju^ri 
100 

Hodgson, B. 2 

Holy books 5 

Horoscopy 8 

Horse-neck 165 

I 

Icon 25, 385, details 388, composition 388, 
presence of Dhyani Buddhas 388, essen- 
tial features 388, non-essential features 
388 

Identification 30, of images 386, Dhyani 
Buddhas important 386, difficulties in 
way of, 386, necessary figures 387, 
unnecessary figures 387, discrepancies 
in 387, solution of problems 387 

Illustrations (of Peiping statuettes) 4 

Indian Museum, Calcutta, 2 

Indifference (Upeksa), 21 

Indonesia 39 



Indra 1, 35, 186, Mara 195, colour 352. 
vahana 352, direction 352, dhyana 352, 
described 352, images 352, as vahana 
250 

Indrabhuti 12, 16, 35, Siddhacarya 150 

IndranI 186 

Infinite Spirit 25 

Interchange of deities 1 

Involution, process of 31 

Irsyarati, queen of Ratnasambhava 46 

Is'ana 361, colour 361, vahana 361, direc- 
tion 361, dhyana 361, described 362 

I-Tsing 12, 35, mentions Manjulri 100 

J 

Jagaddala 6, 41 

Jainas 1 

Jaiiniprabha Bodhisattvn 90, colour 90, 
symbol 90, dhyana 90 described 90, 
images 90 

Jalinikumara 121 

Jaliniprabha Lokesvara, described 398 

Jambhala 17, 35, 202, 244, a Yaksa 178, 
symbol 237, recognition 237, forms 
23 7f ; single 238, images 238, described 
238, variety 178, antiquity 178, sire 178, 
image 39, 178, sadhana 178, dhyana 
178, described 178, Yab-yum 238, 
colour 238, symbol 238, Prajna 238, 
described 238, companion 238 ; Man- 
dala 238, described 239, images 239 

Jangull 1, Dharini deity 220 ; form (i) 191, 
colour 191, symbol 191, sadhana 191, 
dhyana 191, origin 191, forms of 191, 
power 191, described 192, images 191 ; 
form (u) 192, colour 192, mudra 192, 
symbol 192, described 192 ; form (in) 
192, vahana 192, colour 192, sadhana 
192, dhyana 192, described 192 ; white 
308, special features 308 ; green 307, 
special features 307 ; yellow 309, special 
features 309 ; in Hindu Tantras 193 

Jangull Dharini 339, colour 339, symbol 
339, dhyana 339, described 339f, images 
340 

Japanese 1 

Jar of consecration 91 

Jataka stories* scenes from 5 

JatSmuku$a LokesVara, described 395 



INDEX OF WORDS 



Java 5, image of irajnaparamita found in 

198 

Javanese Art 39 

Jaya 160, direction 160, form 160 
Jayakara 186, 378, colour 378, dhyana 378, 

described 379 

Jayatara 151, colour 151, described 151 
Jewel family of Ratnasambhava 48 
Jinajik 45 
Jivatman 27 
Jnanadakini, Sakti of Yogambara 186, 204, 

colour 204, dhyana 204, described 204, 

images 204, Mandala 204 
Jnanadhatu Lokesvara, described 398 
Jnanaketu Bodhisattva 96 3 colour 96, 

symbol 96, dhyana 96, described 96, 

images % 
Jnanaparamita 328, colour 328, symbol 

328, dhyana 328, described 328, images 

328 

Jnanapradipa, Samadhi 45 
Jnanasiddhi 12, 16, 
Jnanavalita 331 colour 331, symbol 331, 

dhyana 331, described 331, images 331 
Joyousness (Mudita), 21 

K 

Kailasa, mount 379 

Kakasya319 

Kalacakra, 186, colour 186, form 187, 

dhyana 187, described 187f, images 

188, blue colour 188, an attempt at 

unification 389 
Kalacakra Tantia 42, 187 
Kaladuti 347, companion of Mahakala 347, 

colour 347, symbol 347, direction 347, 

described 347 
Kalaratn 161, 162, 218 
Kalihrada 101 
Kalika, companion of Mahakala, 347, 

colour 347, symbols 347, direction 347, 

described 347 
Kamadeva, as vahana 149 
Kamakhya 16, 17 

Kamalacandra Lokesvara, described 429 
Kamalaslla 15 

Kamamialu 152, symbol of ShrkutI 129 
Kamandalu Lokesvara, described 395 
KaminI 160, direction 160, form 160 
Kanakatnuni, Mortal Buddha 76 



Kanaka-Prajnaparamita 199, colour 199, 
mudra 199, symbol 199, described 199, 
differentiated 199, images 199 

Kapalini 160, direction 160, form 160 

Kapata 317, colour 31 7, symbol 317, dhy5- 
na 317, described 3 17, images 317 

Karana pose 165 

KaTandai'^u/ia 5, 11, 124, 143, sadhana 
from 126 

Karandavyuha Lokesvara, described 398 

KarinI 160, direction 160, form 160 

Karma family 56 

Karmakul! (Amoghasiddhi), 49 

Karmavasita 330, colour 330, symbol 330, 
dhyana 330, described 330, images 330 

Karnatara 151, 222 colour 151, described 
151 

Karttikeya, 364, colour 364, vahana 364, 
symbol 364, dhyana 364, described 364, 
images 364 

Karuna (compassion), 9, 28, 30, 43 

Kasia 38 

Kasyapa, Mortal Buddha 76, 80 

Kathe Simbhu, stupa of, 32 

Kathmandu, monasteries in, 7, 41 

Kaulas 46 

Kauberi 160, direction 160, form 160 

Kern (H.) 12, 31n 

Kes'im 120, 121 

Ketu 378, colour 378, symbol 378, dhyana 
378, described 378, images 378 

Khadiravani Tara 226, colour 226, symbol 
226, companions 226, described 227, 
images 227, also called Syamatara 227, 
preen 307, special features 307, images 
39 

Khagarbha (same as Akalagarbha) 86, 
dhyana 86, in the Lokanatha Mandala 
131, colour 131, symbol 131, described 
131 

Kharuiaroha 218, described 218, another 
form 321, dhyana 321, described 321 

Kb asarpana 128, sadhana 128, colour 128, 
symbol 128, companions 128, differenti- 
ated 128, dhyana 128f, images 39, 130, 
described 129 

Khasarpana Lokes*vara, described 396 

Khiching 6 

Kinnara king 360, dhySna 380, described 
380, symbol 380 



452 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Kinnaras, lords of, 379 
Kles'a Mara (Visnu) 159 
Knowledge, essence of 23 
Kotbar (sword-cut) 101 
Krakucchanda, Mortal Buddha 76 
Krodha deities 252 
Krsnacaryya, Tantric author 152 
KrsnSnanda Agamavagis'a 1 90 
Krsnayamari 167 177,252 varieties 167, 
sadhanas 167, forms 167 ; form i) two- 
armed 168, colour 168, symbol 168, 
dhyana 168, described 168 ; form (u) 
four-armed 168, colour 168, companion 
168, dhyana 168, described 168, 177 ; 
form (in) six-armed 177, sadhana 177, 
dhyana 177, described 177f, images 
178 

Krtanjali Lokelvara, described 430 
Kriyasamuccaya 4 

Ksantiparamita 325, colour 325, symbol 
325, dhyana 325, described 325, images 
325 

Ksepana mudra 207 

Ksitigarbha 35, Bodhisattva 65, colour 85, 
symbol 85, dhyana 85, described 85, 
images 85, in the Lokanatha Mandala 
131, colour 131, symbols 131, des- 
cribed 131 

Ksitigarbha Lokes*vara, described 399 
Kubera 35, the greatest Yaksa 379, colour 
361, vahana 361, direction 361, dhyana 
361, described 361, images 361, vahana 
of Ucchusma 239 
Kukkurlpada, Mahasiddha 163 
Kukku{apada, mount 80 
Kulacara 47 

Kulas (families) 11, 42, 46, five 44 
KuleJa 32, 42 
Kulika (snake) 148 

KulilesVarl, companion of Mahakala 347, 
colour 347, symbol 347, direction 347 
described 347 
Kunci 316, colour 316, symbol 316, dhyana 

316, described 316, images 316 
Kuncikadhara 316 
Kurkihar 5, 35, 38 

Kurukulla 16, 147, 236, varieties 147, 
function 147, images 147, mantra 147 ; 
red 309, special features 309 ; white 



308, special features 308 
Kurukulla mountain 149 
Kva Vahal (Pattan, Nepal) 137, 138, images 

of Rakta-Lokesvara in 137 



Laksml 1 

Laksminkara, daughter of Indrabhuti, 150 

Lalitapattan (also Pat an), monasteries in, 

41 

Lama 218, 321, form 321, dhyana 321, des- 
cribed 218, 321, images 321, 322 
Lamaist pantheon 3 
Lasya 313, colour 313, symbol 313, dhyana 

313, described 313, images 313 
Light (sign) 26 

Light goddesses, four, 317, definition of 
light 317, general character 317, appear- 
ance 31 7 

Locana, Buddhasakti 54, colour 54 symbol 
54, family 54, Sakti of Vairocana 54, 
dhyana 55, described 55, images 55 
Lokanatha 130, colour 130, symbol 130, 
mudra 1 30, sadhana 130, dhyana 130, 
described 130, Mandala 130, compani- 
ons 130, Asana in images 132, images 
131, differentiated 128 
Lokanatha RaktaryyavalokitesVara, des- 
cribed 396 

LokesVara, form with eleven heads, 125n, 
Bodhisattva 78, companion of Vajra* 
sana 78, dhyana 77, described 78, 
images 78 
Lokottara 31 
Lord Buddha 8, 191 
Lords of families (Kulcsas) 32 
Lotus family, of Amitabha 48 
Lotus, symbol of Amitabha 48, Pandara 

Padmapani 48 
Luipa (Siddhacaryya), 12 

M 

Machhandar Vahal, Kathmandu 6, 124, 

144 
Madana (also Ananga), Hindu god of love 

115 
Madhukara 186, 379, colour 379, symbol 



INDEX OF WORDS 



453 



379, vahana 379, dhyana 379, described 
379 

Madhyamaka 8, 9 

Magadha 5, school of art 35, 38 

Magical practices 9, and Buddha 9, 10 

Maha-Abhayakari LokesVara, described 
400 

Maha-Abhayaphalada Lokesvara, described 
400 

Mahabala 145, colour 145, sadhana 145, 
dhyana 145, described 145, images 145 ; 
another form 255, colour 255, direction 
255, dhyana 255, described 255, Sakti 
255, images 255 

Mahacandarosana 154 ; see Candarosana 

Mahacandrabimba Lokesvara, described 
40J 

Mahaclna 189 

Mahaclna Tantra 190 

MahlcinaTara 1, 248, vahana 189, sadha- 
na 189, dhyana 189, origin 189, des- 
cribed 190. compared with Hindu fara 
190, images 191, blue 309, special 
features 309 

Mahadeva 191 

Mahakala 255, 347, nature 347, function 
347, forms 345 ; form (i) two-armed, 
345, colour 345, symbols 345, dhyana 

345, described 345, images 345; form (u) 
four-armed 346, colour 346, described 
346 ; form (iii) six-armed 346, colour 

346, symbols 346, described 346 ; form 
(iv) sixteen armed 346, colour 346, sym- 
bols 346, dhyana 346, described 346, 
companions 347 ; Hindu god 344f, 
colour 366, symbol 366, dhyana 366, 
described 366. images 366 

Mahakalavajra, image 255u 

Mahamanjubhuta LokesVara, described 
428 

Mahamanjudatta I okelvara, described 
400 

MahSmantranusarin! 200, Raksa goddess, 
200, colour 200, sire 200, dhyana 200, 
described 200, images 200, another form 
in Mandala 304, colour 304, symbol 
304, dhyana 304, described 304, images 
304 

MahamayS 164, Described 164, Mandala of 
164, dhyana 164, colour 163, Prajna 



163, sadhana 163, dhyana 163, describ- 
ed 163, images 165 , as companion of 
Mahakala 347, colour 347, weapons 
347, direction 347, described 347 
Mahamayur! 234, RaksS goddess 234, 
colour 234, dhyana 234, described 234, 
images 234 ; another form 305, colour 

305, symbol 305, dhyana 305, described 

306, forms 306, images 306, as com- 
panion 228, 231, 232, dhyana 228, 232, 
described 228, 232, images 229 

Mahapadma (snake) 148 
Mahapatala LokesVara, described 400 
Mahapratisora 243, Raksa goddess 243, 

forms of 243, colour 303, symbol 

303, dhyana 303, described 303, images 

303 ; another form 244, dhyana 244, 

described 244, images 39, 244 
Mahapratyangira (also Pratyangira), 200, 

sadhana 200, dhyana 200, described 

201, images 201 

Maharajallla ManjusrI 116, 117n 
Maharatnakirti Lokes*vara, described 399 
Maharatnakula LokesVara, described 400 
Mahasadhana 25 
Mahasahasrabhuja Lokesvara, described 

399 
Mahasahasrapramardatt! 217, Raksa 

goddess 217, sadhana 216, colour 216, 

dhyana 216, described 217, images 217 ; 

another foim 303, colour 303, symbol 

303, dhyana 303, described 303, images 

303 
Mahasahasrasuryya Lokesvara, described 

400 

Mahasanghikas 13, 14, 143 
Mahas'ankhanatha LokesVara, described 

400 
Mahasarasvat! 349, colour 349, symbol 

349, dhyana 349, described 350, com- 

panions 350, images 350 
Mahasiddha, Kukkurlpada 163 
Mahasiddhas 12, 19, 35, 41, 137 
MahaTitavat! 147, Raksa goddess 153, 

colour 153, sadhana 153, dhyana 153, 
described 153, images 153 , ano-hcr 

fotm 305, colour 305, symbol 305, 

dhyana 305, described 305, forms 305, 

images 305 
Mahalrl TSra 39, 227, colour 227, mudri 



454 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



227, companions 227, sSdhana 227, 

dhyana 227, described 227, images 229, 

miniatures 229, images of companions 

229, companions described 228, mantra 

of 228, Rajallla asana 226, goddess of 

wealth 228, green 307 
Mahastbamaprapta Bodhisattva 89, colour 

89, symbol 89, dhyana 89, described 89, 

images 89 
Mahasthamaprapta LokesVara, described 

431 

Mahasukha theory 9, 11 
Mahasuryyabimba LokesVara, described 

400 
Mahnttari Tara 307, green 307, special 

features 307 

Mahavajradhatu Lokesvara. described 428 
Mahavajradhrk Lokesvara, described 428 
Mahavajranatha Lokesvara, described 428 
Mahavajrapani Lokesvara, described 428 
Mahavajrasattva Lokesvara, described 397 
Mahavasttt Avadana 143 
Mahavidya goddesses, ten 189 
Mahavisvasuddha Lokesvara, described 

428 

Mahay an a 8, two kinds 9, deities in 31 
Mahnyana scripture (Piajnaparamita) 197 
Mahayanasutra 15 
Maha^anaiutTtilunkara 8 
Mahayanists 11 

Mahayas*a 160, direction 160, form 160 
Mahesvara (Mara) 159, 364, colour 364, 

as vahana 364, dhyana 364 described 

364, images 364 
Mahoba (Mahotsavapura), 132 
Mahodadhi 160, direction 160, form 160 
Maitreya 13, 35, 38, 77, as Future Buddha 

80, described 80, colour 80, symbol 80, 
stupa on the crown 80, image in Udya- 
na 80, heads the list of Bodhisattvas 
82 , ftoddhisattva form 93 colour 93, 
symbol 93, dhyana 94, described 
94, images 94, companion of Vajra- 
sana 78, dhyana 77, described 78, 
images 78 , as a minor god 80, dhyana 

81, described 81, images 81 ; in the 
Lokanatha Mandela 131, colour 131, 
symbol 131, described 131 

Mala (also Malya) 313, colour313, symbol 
313, dhyana 313, described 313, images 



313 

Malya see Mala 

Mamaki 52, family 52, consort of Akso* 
bhya 52, dhyana 52, described 52, 
images 52 

Manasa 1, 193, (Hindu goddess) 

Mandalas 2, 3, 9 

Mangala (planet) 368, colour 368, symbol 
368, vahana 368, dhyana 368, described 
368 

Manidhara 125, described 126 

Manipadma Lokesvara, described 396 

Manjughosa 35, 113, Hindu 6, form of 
Manjulri 104, colour 104, mudra 104, 
symbol 104, vahana 104, images 113, 
dhyana 113, described 113, asana 113, 
sire 113 ; in the Lokanatha sadhana 
131, colour 131, symbols 131, described 
131 

Manjukumara 119, colour 119, vahana 119, 
dhyana 120, described 120, images 120 

Manjunatha Lokesvara, described 430 

Maniupattana 101 

Manjusri 35, 38, 43, god of learning 95, 
117n, 166, 178, place in the pantheon 
100, worship of 100, time of introduc- 
tion 100, details of life 100, exploits 
lOOf, images 100, an engineer and archi- 
tect 101, spiritual sire 102, kula or 
family 102, sadhanas of 102, various 
forms 102, simplest form 102, com- 
panions 102, images 95, 102, with 
Hindu gods 102 

Manjusri Bodhisattva 94, colour 94, sym- 
bols 94, dhyana 94, described 94 

Manjusr! hill (Nepal) 100 

Maftjusrimiilakalpa 10, 14, 15, 32, Cunda in 
221 

Manjuvajra (fame as Vairocana) 219 ; three 
distinct forms 118f; form (i) 118, colour 

118, dhyana 118 described 118, images 
119 ; form (u) 119, colour 119, dhyana 

119, described 119 ; form (m) 119, 
colour 119, dhyana 112, described 119, 
images 119 

Manjuvara 117, colour 117, mudra 117, 
symbol 117, vahana 117, dhyana 117, 
described 117, companions 117, images 
39117,118 

Mantras 2, 28, power of 29, repetition of 



INDEX OF WORDS 



455 



29, letters deified 388, examples of dei- 
fication 388, of Vajratara 243, appli- 
cation of 243 

Mantranaya 9, 

Manranusarinl see Mahamantranusarini 
304 

Mantrapurusa 27, 28, 

Mantras*astra 9, 

Mantrayana 14, 15 

Maras, four 159, named 159, 195 

Marlcika (sign) 26 

MaricI 16, 35, 38, 217, time of invocation 

207, connection with the sun-god 207, 
chariot of pigs 207, forms 208, sadhana 

208, attendants 208, images 208, 209 
Astabhuja images 212, as a companion 
23 If, dhyana 232, described 232, com- 
pared with Vajravarahi 208, 217, Man- 
dala 209 

Maricipicuva 210, other names 210, sadha- 
na 210, dhyana 210, described 210, com- 
position of image 210, described 211 

Marl Dharinl 339, colour 399, symbols 
399, dhyana 399, described 339 

Mann! 160, direction 160, form 160 

Mar- pa 6 

Mathura school of art 5, 32, 35, 

Mati 350 
Matsyendranatha 6 

Mayadevi, dream of 31 

Mayajala Tarura 139, 152, 

Mayajalakrama 139, colour 139, sadhana 

139, dhyana 139, symbols 139, described 

139, images 139 

Mayajalakrama Lokesvara, described 395 
Mayajalakrama Kurukulla 151, colour 151, 

sadhana 151, mudra 152, images 152, 

described 152 
Mayurbhanj 6 
Mayurl see Mahamayuri 
Medha 350 
Medicine 8 

Meritorious deeds, result of 21 
Mila-ras-pa 6 
Miniature paintings 5 
Mixed Sanskrit 14 
Mlecchas 187 
Moha family 32, 45 
Moharati, queen of Vairocana 46 
MojaghSnjabala (?) Lokesvara, described 



394 

Momentary consciousness 28 

Monastery, Buddhist 16, 41 

Mongoose 247, significance 237 

Months, twelve 282, deified 389, their 
names 382, their deities 382 

Mortal Bodhisattvas 79 

Mortal Buddhas 76, marks 76, qualities 76, 
their Bodhi tree 76, described 77, images 
of 77, attitudes 77, with Maitreya 77 

Mortal BudJhas'aktis 79, enumerated 79, 
named 79 

Mrtyu Mara (Mahelvara) 159 

Mrtyuvancana Tara 308, white 308 special 
features 308 

Mudita (Joyousness), 21 

Mudras 9, significance of 393 

Mukunda 315, colour 315, symbol 315, 
dhyana 315, described 315 images 315 

Mukundadhara 315 

Mulaghosa Vihara 15 

Muraja 315, colour 315, symbol 315, des- 
cribed 315 

Musee Guimet 4 

Museums of Eastern India 6 

Musical instruments, four 314, deified 314, 
description 314 

Mysticism 8 



N 



Nagakesara, flower 94, symbol of Maitreya 
94 

Nagarjuna 12, 35, rescued Prajnaparamita 
197, 220, deified 35, Sidhhapursa 193 

Nagas35, 197 

Nairatma 204, meaning of the word 204, 
female form of Sunya 390, consort 
of Heruka 217, vahana 203, colour 203, 
character 203, sadhana 203, dhyana 203, 
described 203, images 39, 204, direction 
160, form 160, and Vajravarahl 203, 
and Vajrayogini 248 

Nairrti, 362 , colour 362, v&hana 362, direc- 
tion 362, dhySna 362, described 362 

Naksattras, twenty-eight, 381, their number, 
381f, described 381f, their colour 381f, 
general description 38 If 

Nalanda 5, 6, 35, 41, 43, monastery 42 
museum at 38, images 38, Adibuddha 



456 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



theory originated at 38 7n 
Namasanglti 206, colour 206, literature 

206, Buddha or a Bodhisattva 206, 

images 207, dhyana 207, described 207, 

and Manjusri 206 
Namasanglti Manjusri 115, colour 115, 

sadhana 115, sire 115, described 115, 

dhyana Il5f, described 116, images 116 

and Namasanglti 206 
Nanda, half brother of the Buddha 3 1 
Nandikes*vara 366, colour 366, symbol 366, 

dhyana 366, vahana 366, described 366, 

images 366 
Naropa 6 
Nstha Yogin 6 
Navagrahas 213 
Nepal 5, 6, 7,39 
Nepalese art 39 

Nepal Valley, originally a lake 101 
Needle 210 
Niladanda 254, colour 254, direction 254, 

dbyana 254, described 254, Sakti 254, 

images 254 
Nilakantha, origin of 140, colour 140, 

mudra 140, symbol 140, companion 140, 

sadhana 140, dhyana 140, described 

140, images 141, and Vajniraga 141 
Nilakantha LokesVara, described 396 
Nimittt s (signs) 26 
Nine Dharmas, of Nepal 12 
Nirukti Pratisamvit 343, colour 343, 

symbol 343, dhyana 343, described 343, 

images 343 
Nirvana 8, 1 1 
Nispannatara 15 1, colour 15 1, described 

151,222 

NitfwniwyosSt'ali 3, 4, 47, 82, 385, impor- 
tance 385, date 385, Cunda in 221 
Nityanatha Lokelvara, described 431 
Nrtya 314, colour 314, symbol 314, dbyana 

314, described 314, images 314 

O 

Objects, external, 29 

Odantapuri 5, 35, 41, Vihara 38 

OdiySna Lokelvara 137, same as Rakta- 

'lokesvara 137 
Odiyana Pandit 180 
O<Jiy5na Vajracaryya 181 



Omniscience 28, 29 

Origin of Yam a and Yamantaka 166 

Orissa 5, 39 

Ostarakl KO, direction 160, form 160 



Padma (snake) 148 

Padmadakini 164, colour 164, direction 
164, described 164 

Padmakul! 49 

Padmamunda 238 

PadmanarttesVara 133, varieties 133f ; foirn 
(i) eighteen-armed 133, sadhana 133, 
images 133, symbols J33, attitude 133, 
dhyana 133, described 134, companions 
134t/brm (11) two-armed 134, colour 134, 
mudra 134, symbol 134, vahana 134, 
sadhana 134, dhyana 134, described 
I34i Mandala of 135, companions 135, 
images 135 ; form (m) eight armed 135, 
sadhana 135, dhyana 135, described 
135 

Padmantaka 180, 253, colour 253, direction 
253, dhyana 253, described 253, images 
253, Sakti 253 

Padmantakrt (western gate) 46 

Padmapani 35, 51, 88, colour 51, symbol 
51, family 51, described 51, images 5 1 

Padmapani LokesVara, described 431 

Padmasambhava (Guru) 6 

Padmavajra 12 

PadmavasinI 135, colour 135, symbol 135, 
described 135 

Padmosmsa 300, colour 300, symbol 300, 
direction 300, dhyana 300, described 
300, imrges 300 

Pala period 19 

Paftcaiaksa 5 

Pancaraksa group 216, 234, 302 

Paneas*ikha 381, name of the Gandharva 
king, 381, dhyana 381, described 381, 
symbol 381 

Pandara (Buddhas*akti) 124, family 50, 
Dhyani Buddha 50, symbol 50, colour 
50, dhyana 50, described 50, ^images 50 

Pfindaravasini 50, Sakti 134 

Pantheon 32, 41, Buddhist 385, numerical 
strength 385, artistic representation 385 
popularity 385, in Buddhist countries 



INDEX OF WORDS 



457 



385, in other religions 385, world pro- 
perty 385 

ParamasVa 185, 255, sadhana 185, dhyana 
185, vahana 185, meaning of 185, des- 
cribed 186, images 186, horse-head 186 

Paramatman 27 

Paramitanaya 9 

Paramitas, ten 243, twelve 324, common 
features 324, general description 323, 
qualities deified 323, their nature 323, 
their images 324 

Parental Dhyani Buddha 34, 47, 49 

Pariskara Valita 329, colour 329, symbol 
329, dhyana 329, described 329, images 
329 

Parnasabarl 17, Dharinl deity 220, images 
39, colour 196, vahana 196, power 196, 
dhyana 196, described 196, image 197 ; 
another form 232, colour 232, vahana 
232, mantra 232, called Pis*aci 232, 
dhyana 233, described 233, images 
233-4, as Dhanni 339, colour 339. 
symbol 339, dhyana 339, described 339, 
images 339 ; green 307, special features 
307 ; yellow 309, special features 309 

Parvati 1 

Patadharmi 317, colour 317, symbol 317, 
dhyana 317, described 317, images 317 

Patna 6, museum at 38 

Pattan (also Patan and Lalitapatan) 6 

Pattikera, remains of lalmai hill 223 

Paustika rite 166 

Peiping 3 

Pestilences, in human form 233 

Philosophical deities, 323, deification of 
abstract ideas 323 and philosophical 
concepts 323, their nature 323, their 
images 323 

Philosophy 8 

Phenomenal world, inherent purity of 21 

Pigs, seven for Marlci 211 

Pindapatra Lokesvara, described 428 

Pis*aci, epithet of Parnalabarl 196 

Pita-Prajnaparamita 198, colour 198, 
mudra 198, symbol 198, described 198, 
images 198 

Planrts, nine 367, deified 367, their influ- 
ence 367, their forms 367 

Poison, blue pill of, 140, of Ni)akan{ha 
140 



Potalaka 129 

Potapada LokesVara, described 395 

Powers of the mind 18 

Prabhakarakirti, Tantric author 154 

Prabhakarl Bhumi 334, colour 334, symbol 

334, dhyana 334, described 334, images 

334 
Pradlpatara 222, colour 151, described 

151 
Prajna (Sakti) 11, (knowledge) 26, 43, 168, 

350, trampled 211, of Raktayamari 167, 

colour 167, described 167 
Prajnadhrk 45 
Prajnantaka 180, 253, colour 253, direction 

253, dhyana 253, described 253, images 

253, Sakti 253 

Prajnantakrt (of south gate), 46 
Prajnaparamita 1, 5, 10, 32, 43, origin 197, 

worship 197, sadhana 197, forms 1^7, 

images 197 ; another form 326, colour 

326, symbol 326, dhyana 32b, described 

326, images 326 ; Cunda described in 

221 
Prajnavardhani 341, colour 341, symbol 

341, dhyana 341, described 341 
Pramudita Bhumi 333, colour 333, symbol 

333, dhyana 333, described 334, images 

334 

Pranabindu 26 
Pranayama 26 
Pramdhana Paramita 327, colour 327, 

symbol 327, dhyana 327, described 327, 

images 327 
Pranidhana Vasita 331, colour 331, symbol 

331, dhyana 331, described 331, images 

331 
Prasannatara 151, 222, colour 151, describ- 

151 ; another form 249, colour 249, 

forms 249, sadhana 249, dhyana 249, 

described 249f, symbols 250, images 

250 
PratibhSnakuta 91, colour 91, faymbol 91, 

dhyana 91, described 91, images 92 
Pratibhanakuta Lokelvara, described 398 
Pratibhana Pratiaamvit 343, colour 343, 
symbol 343, described 343, images 343 
Pratibhasa (revelation) 26 
Pratisari, see Mahapratieara 303 
Pratisamvits, four 342, meaning 342, deifi- 
cation 342, description 342, source 342 



58 



458 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



PratyahSra 26 

PratyekabuddhaySna 8 

Pratyekas 20 

Pratyekayana 9 

Prayer 21 

Preceptor 29 

Pretasantarpana LokesVara, described 395 

Pretasantarpita 141, colour 141, sadhana 
141, dhyana 141, described 142, images 
142 

Principal Hindu deities, ten 363, their 
nature 3t>3, their popularity 363 

Prlti (pleasure) 26, 186 

Priyadars'ana 160, direction IfcO, form 160 

Process of evolution 30 

Prognosis 8 

Protectresses, five 302, Raksa deities 302, 
their nature 302, their images 302, their 
popularity 332, their worship 302 

Psychic culture 18 

Psychic exercises 2, 8, 17, 24 

Psychic power 17 

Publication, of original MSS, 385 

PukkasI 311, colour 311, symbol 311, 
dhyana 311, described 311, images 
311 

Pupala LokesVara, described 396 

Purandani 212 

Purnagiri 16, 17 

Puspa 256 

Puspatara 241, dhyana 241, described 241 
R 

Raga family 32 

Ragarati, queen of Amitabha 46 

Rahu 207, 211, as vahana 149; colour 
377, symbol 377, dhyana 377, described 
377, images 377 

Raj shah i 6, 38, museum at 38 

Rajayoga 26 

Rakhaldas (Banerji), 1 

Raksa deities* five 302, central 303, second 
303, third 304, fourth 305, fifth 305 

Rakta-LokesVara, 139, forms of, 139; 
form (f) four-armed 138, colour 138, 
symbol 138, sadhana 138, dhyana 138, 
described 138, companion 138, images 
138; /orm(n) two-armed 138, colour 
238, symbol 138, mudia 138, sadhana 
138, dhyana 138, described 139 

Raktayamari 166, 252, colour 166, sadhana 



166, worship 166 rites 166, origin of 

166, dhyana 167, described 167, images 

167 
Ras*is, twelve (Twelve Signs of the Zodiac), 

383, deified 383, named 383, images 

383, nature 383 
Rati 186 
Ratnadakini 164, colour 164, direction 

164, described 164 
Ratnadala LokesVara, described 429 
Ratnadhrk 45 
Ratnaketu (same as Ratnasambhava) 45, 

origin qf, 45 
Ratnakula 73 

Rarnakull (Ratnasambhava) 49 
Ratnapani Bodhisattva 74, colour 74, 

symbol 74 family 74, sire 74, images 

74 ; another form 87, colour 87, symbol 

87, dhyana 87, described 87. images 87 
Ratnapani Lokcsvara, described 399 
Ratnaparamita 324, colour 324, symbol 

324, dhyana 324, described 324, images 

324 
Ratnasambhava Dhyani Buddha 73, colour 

73, mudra 73, vahana 73, symbol 73, 

family 73, dhyana 73, described 73, 

forms 74* images 74, gods emanating 

from 237f, their enumeration 237, their 

nature 237 ; goddesses emanating from 

239, enumerated 239, their nature 239 
Ratnolka 318, colour 318, symbol 318, 

dhyana 318, described 318, images 318 
Ratnolka Dharini 338, colour 338, symbol 

338, dhyana 338, described 338 
Ratnosnisa 300, colour 300, symbol 300, 

direction 300, dhyana 300, described 

300, images 300 
Ravicandra 14 
Rddhivalita 330, colour 330 symbol 330, 

dhyana 330, described 331, images 331 
Religion 8 

Restraint of wrong deeds 20 
Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal 3 
Rudra 187, vahana 250 
Rupa (form)Skandha, 42 
Rupa heavens 31 
Rupini 218, described 218, form 321, 

dhyana 321, described 321, direction 

160, form 160 
Russian Academy of Sciences 4 



INDEX OF WORDS 



459 



Sabari 311, colour 311, symbol 311, dhyatta 
311, described 311, images 311 

Sabaripa, (Mahasiddha) 35 

Sadaksari group, 127 

Sadaksari LokesVara 6, 38, 125, colour 
125, mudrl 125, symbols 125, compa- 
nions 125, forms 125, dhyana 125, des- 
cribed 126, 395, images 126, 39 

Sadaksari Mahlvidya 125, forms of 126, 
described 126 

Sadbhuja Jambhala 179n 

Sadbhuja Jambhalavajra 179n 

Sadbhuja Sitatara 230, colour 230, dhyana 
230, described 230, images 230, sadhana 
230 ; white 308, special features 308 

Sadhana 2, 18, 24, 25, 27, contents of 19f, 
summary of 23, literature 35, com- 
posed by eminent lantrics, 386, essen- 
tial parts of 386 

SadhanamaJa 2, 3, 16, 19, 20, its impor- 
tance 385, its date 385 

Sadhanasamuccaya 2, 19 

SadhumatI Bhumi 336, colour 336, symbol 
366, dhyana 366, described 336, images 
336 

Sadhus 18 

Sagaramati Bodhisattva 87, colour 87, 
symbol 87, dhyana 87, described 88, 
images 88 

Sagaramati LokesVara, described 399 

Sahasrapramardani see Mahasahasrapra- 
mardani 

Sahet-Mahet 38 

&akra (Mara) 159 

Sakti 9 

Sakya Bodhisattva 35 

Sakya Buddha 35 

Sakyabuddha LokesVara, described 397, 
430 

Sakyasimha (Mortal Buddha) 76 

Samadhi 26, visualisation 26 

Samantaprabha Bhumi 337, colour 337, 
symbol 337, dhyfina 337, described 337, 
images 337 

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva 55, family 55, 
symbol 55, described 55, images 55, 
heads a list of Bodhisattvas 62, colour 
83, symbol 83, forms 83, dhyana 83, 84 



described 83, images 84 in the Loka- 
natha Mandala 131, colour 131, symbol 
131, described 131 

Samantabhadra Lokesvara, described 399 

Samanya seva 25 

Samasrami ed : Karandavyuha 1 1 

Samatata 16 

S a may a family 31, 45 

Sambara 160f, varieties 160f, colour 160, 
vahana loO, symbols 160, Prajria 160, 
dhyana 161, sadhana 161, described 
161, forms of 161 , another form lt>l, 
colour 161, Sakti 161 dhyana 162, 
described 162, images lt>2, 162n 

Sambararaja Buddha 162n 

Sambhogakaya 210 

Sainbodhi 21 

Samjna (name) 42 

Samksipta Marlci 210, 211, colour 211, 
residence 211, described 211, atten- 
dants 211 

Samskara (conformations) 42 

Sanchi 5, 31 

Sangha 20 and rules of discipline 13, as 
god 32 

Sanglti 12, 13, 15, 45, literature 14 

Sani (planet), 377, colour 377, symbol 377, 
vahana 377 dh>ana 377, described 377 

Sankhamunda 238 

Sankhanatha Lokesvara, described 430 

Sankhapala (snake) 1 48 

Sanku (in Nepal) 248 

Sannyasms 18 

Santamati Lokt'svara, described 430 

Santaraksita 9, 15, 28, 41 

Santasi Lokesvara, dsecribed 397 

Santideva 35, refers to Cunda 220 

Santikavidhi 166 

Saptaksar 162,Piajna 162, mantra 162, des- 
cribed 162f, sadhana 163, forms of 163 

Saptasatika Hayagriva 146, colour 146, 
symbol 146, special feature 146, sadhana 
146, dhyana 146, described 146, images 
147 

Saptasatika Kalpa 146, 147 

Saraha (Siddhacaryya) 12, 16, 35, 137 

Sarasiri (?) Lokesvara, described 429 

Sarasvat! 1, 349, river deified 349, nature 
349, goddess of learning 349, forms of 
349 



460 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Saranath (also Sarnath) 5, 6, 35, museum at 
38 

SarthavSha Lokelvara, described 428 

Sarvabuddhadharmakosavatl 342, colour 
342, symbol 342, dhyana 342, described 
342 

Sarvakarmavaranavisodhani Dharinl 341, 
colour 341, symbol 341, dhyana 341, 
described 341 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhi 92f, colour 92, 
symbol 92, dhyana 93, described 93, 
images 93 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhi Lokesvara, des- 
cribed 398 

Sarvapayanjaha 97, colour 97, symbol 97, 
dhyana 97, described 97, images 97 

Sarvarthasiddha 381, name of the Vidya- 
dhara king 381, colour 381, dhyana, 
381, described 381, symbol 381 

Sarva^okatamonirghatamati 92, colour 92, 
symbol 92, dhyana 92, described 92, 
images 92 

Sarvaokatamonirghatamati Lokesvara, des- 
cribed 398 

Sarvastivada 9 

SasVatn 209, same as Vairocana 209 

asVatavajra, Tantric author 190 

Sattvaparyanka, meaning of 224 

Sautrantika 8, 9 

Schools of philosophy (Buddhist) 8 

Science 8 

Seasons, six 383, deified 383, images 383n 

Sects, of Tantrics 44 

Sekanirnaya 9 

SevS 25 

Siddhas 2, 18, 34, classes of 18, Mild 19, 
Middling 19, Best 18 

Siddhacaryya, Indrabhuti 150 

Siddhaikavlra 113, colour 113, mudra 113, 
symbol 113, dhy&na 113, described 113, 
sire 113, mandala 114, companions 
114, images 114, compared to Loka- 
r&tha 114 

Siddhis 18, 19, 24, eight 18, thirty-four 18 

Siddhiharga VajracSryya 345 

Sikh!, Mortal Buddha 76 

SiJqasamucc0;ya 35, Cunda in 221 

&la 21 

&lapararoitfi 325, colour 325, symbol 325, 



dhyana 325, described 325, images 325 

Simbhu (Svayambhunath) 6 

Simhanada 35, 127, colour 127, vahana 
127, asana 127, symbols 127, images 
127, dhyana 127, described 127, images 
127f, 39 

Simhanada Lokesvara, 117n, described 429 

Simhanada LokesVara, described 396 

Simhasya 321, colour 321, symbol 321, 
dhyana 321, described 321, images 321 

Simhavikridita 35 

Sirihatta 16, 17 

Sirisara (?) Lokesvara, described 429 

Sitala, 233, Hindu goddess of small-pox 
233, represented 233 

Sita-Prajnaparamita 197, colour 197, sym- 
bols 197, sadhana 197, dhyana 198, des- 
cribed 198 

Sitatapatra Aparajita 215, colour 215, sa- 
dhana 215, dhyana 216, described 216, 
different from Aparajita 216, images 216 

Sitatara, Caturbhuja 231, 308, colour 231, 
mudra 231, companions 231 dhyana 
232, described 232, images 232 , Sad- 
bhuja 308 

Sitavati, see Mahasltavati 153n. 305 

Siva 184 (Mara) 195, vahana ofVajrahun- 
kara 181, and Nilakantha 140 

Sixteen Boddhisattvas 4 

Skandhas 11, cosmic elements 42, (Mara) 
Brahma J 59 

Small- pox, Hindu goddess of 233, repre- 
sented 233 

Smoke (sign) 26 

Smrti 350 

Snake poison 340, Janguli Dharim effective 
against 340 

Snake vahana 192 

Sounds, gross forms of 47 

Source books on Buddhism 4 

Sravakas 20 

Sravakayana 8, 9 

Sri 186 

rImadaryyvalokitesVara, described 431 

Srivasumukhi 203 

Srivasundhara 203 

Srhkhala 235, meaning of 235 

Srstikanta Lokesvara, described 399 

Stael Holstein 3 



INDEX OF WORDS 



461 



Staff 129, symbol of Hayagriva 129 

Sthaviras 13 

Sthiracakra 122, colour 122, mudra 122, 
symbol 122, companion 122, described 
122, images 122 

String 2K) 

Strongholds of Tantric learning 5 

Stupa, the Buddhist Universe 32, 48, resi- 
dence of Vairocana 53 

Subha 160, direction 160, form 160 

Subhag 160, direction 160, form 160 

Subhamekhala 160, direction 160, form 160 

Sucimudra 135, of dancing 134 

Sudhanakumara 118, 128, 129, described 
129, colour 129, symbol 129 

Sudurjaya Bhumi 335, colour 335, symbol 
335, dhyana 335, described 335, images 
335 

Sugatas 20 

Sugatisandars'ana 141, colour 141, sadhana 

141, dhyana 141, described 141, images 
141 

Sugatisandars'ana Lokelvara, described 396 

Sukarasya 320, colour 320, symbol 320, 
dhyana 320, described 320 

Sukha (happiness) 26 

Sukhavati heaven 34, 49 

Sukhavati Lokelvsra 142, colour 142, com- 
panions 142, dhyana 142, described 

142, images 142 ; another form 395 , 
described 395 

Sukhavati Vyuha 14, 34, 100, 143, 

Sukla Kurukulla 148, colour 148, symbols 

148, vahana 148, sadhana 148, dhyana 

148, described 148, wears ornaments of 

snakes 148 
&ukra (planet) 377, colour 377, symbol 

377, dhyana 377, described 377 
Sumalinl 160, direction 160, form 160 
Sumati Dharmi 338, colour 338, dhyana 

338, described 338 
Sumbha 242, direction 242, colour 299, 

symbol 299, dhyana 299, described 

299, images 299 
Sumbharaja 256, colour 256, direction 256, 

dhyana 256- described 256, akti 256 
Sumedhas, deified 35 
SundarS 160, direction 160, form 160 
Sundarl 160, direction 160, form 160 
Sunya 10, 11, 17, 25, 27, 28, 42, meaning 



of 22, various functions 392, various 
forms 392, as Nine Rasas (sentiments) 
392, different manifestations 391, takes 
various forms 391, Heruka, male form 
of, 320, Nairatma, female form of 390, 
and Nairatma 204 

Sunyata 30, of all phenomena 22, qualities 
of 11 

Sunyavada 8, 9, 11 

Supernormal powers 23 

Superstition 8 

Suraksini 160, direction 160, form 160 

Surangama Bodhisattva 98, colour 98, 
symbol 98, dhyana 98, described 98, 
images 98 

Suryadhara 319 

Suryahasta 318, colour 318, symbol 318, 
dhyana 318, described 318, images 318 

Suryaprabha 120 

Svabha Prajna 167 

Svanasya 320, colour 320, symbol 320, 
dhyana 320, described 320 

Svayambhunatha, stupa of 32 

Svayambhu Purana, 43, 100, contains an 
account of ManjusrI lOOf 

Symbols of the Buddha 31, worship of 
31 



Taditkara 318, colour 318, symbol 318, 
dhyana 318, described 319, images 319 

Takkiraja 254 , colour 254, direction 254, 
dhyana 254, described 254, Sakti 254, 
images 254, Cunda, consort of 222 

Taksaka (snake) 148 

Talika 316, colour 316, symbol 316, dhylna 
316, described 316, images 316 

Tamralipti 39 

Tandava dance 44, 164 

Tangyur 19, 20 

Tantras 8, 9, 17, 24, 26, 34, original 13, 14 

Tantrarahatya 190 

Tantrasara 190 

Tantric Buddhism, images of 38 

Tantric literature 8 

Tantric period 2, 4 

Tantric philosophy 2 

Tantrics, powers of 18 

Tantric practices 10, 24 



462 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Tantrism 12, godhead in 23, place of origin 

15 

TSra 1, 17, 20, 23, 38, 128, colour 129, des- 
cribed 129, symbol 129 ; another form 
135, colour 135, symbol 135, described 
135, companion of Lokanatha 131, des 
cribed 131, hymbol 131, mudra 131, 
epithet of 226 ; buddha'sakti 56, colour 
56, symbol 56, family 56, dhyana 56, 
described 56, Hindu 189, 190 
Taras 307f, of blue colour 309, of Green 
colour 307, of Red colour 309, of 
White colour 308, of Ywllow colour 308 

Taranath 12 

Tarinl (same as Tara) 56 

Tarodbhava Kurukulla 149, colour 149, 
vahana 149, sadhana 149, described 149, 
images 149 

Tarpana muJra 207 

Tathagatas, path of the 20 

Tathagatakull (Viarocana) 49 

Tathagata Mandaia 45 

Tathata Vas*ita 332, colour 332, symbol 
332, dhyana 332, described 332, images 
332 

Tattvaratnavali 9 

TiJtt*a*angraha 9, 28 

Tejosnisa 301, colour 301, symbol 301, 
direction 301, dhyana 301, described 
301, images 301 

Theories, four 9 

Three Jewels, worship of 32, refuge in 20 

Tibet(Bhota) 193 

Tibetan I 

Tiksnosnisa 301, colour 301, symbol 301, 
direction 301, dhyana 301, described 
303, images 303 

Time, essence of 23 

Time deities, 382, months deified 382, 

djtes deified 382, seasons deified 383, Zo- 
diacal Signs deified 383 

Tithis (dates) 382, defied 382, images 382 

Trailokyaksepa 157 

Trailokyaviis'ankara 16, 137, colour 137, 
symbol 137, dhyana 137, describ- 
ed 137, sadhanas 137, images of 137 

Trailokyavijaya 255, same as VajrahunkS- 
ra 182, vahana 184, sadhana 184, dhyS- 
na 184, described 185, images 185; 
mudra 182, 182n, 152 



Trayastrims'a heaven 31 

Tridandi 152, 

Trilokssandarlana LokesVara, described 396 

Tripitaka 185 

Trisamayaraja 35 

Tusita heaven, abode of Maitreya 80 

Twelve Bhumis 4, 333 

Twelve Paramitas4, 323 

Twelve Vas*itas 4, 328 

Two Lamaisuc Pantheons 3 
U 

LJbhayavarahanana (Marlcl), 212, recogni- 
tian mark 212, described 212, sadhana 
212, colour 212, residence 212 

Ucchusma Jambhala 38, 245, image of 180, 
vahana 239, described 239, S a math 
image 239 

Uddiyana 16, 149, same as village Vajra- 
yogini 17 

Uddiyana Kurukulla 149, colour 149, vaha- 
na 149, described 149, images 149/place 
of origin 149 

Uddij ana LokesVara, 137, same as Rakca* 
LokesVara 137 

Uddiyana Marici 214, described 214 

Ugratara 119, 248 

Ulkadhara319 

Ulukasya319 

Universe 23, goddess identified with 23 

University Library, Cambridge 4 

Upakelini 120, 121 

Upapatti Vasita 330, colour 330, symbol 
330, dhyana 330, described 330, images 

330 
Upasadhana 25 

Upaya (means) 25, 26, trampled 211 
Upayaparamita 327, colour 327, symbol 
327, dhyana 327, described 327, images 

327 
Upeksa (indifference), 21 

Upendra 250, as vahana 250 

Usnisa 256, colour 256, direction 256, 
dhyana 256, described 256, Sakti 256, 
images 256 

Usnisa gods, eight 299f, general character 
299, appearance 299, sources 299 

UsnisavijayS 214, colour 214* recognition 
214, residence 214, image 214, caitya on 
head 215, sadhana 215, dhyana 215, 
described 215, images 215 ; another form 
298, colour 298, direction 242, 298, 



INDEX OF WORDS 



463 



dhyana 298, described 298 images 298 
Usnisavijaya Dharin! 215, 220, 338, colour 

338, symbol 338, dhyana 238, described 

338, images 338 

Utnauti (?) Lokesvara, described 397 
Ucpala Mudra 22 
Uctama seva 25, 26 
U VahaHNepal)51n 



Vadali 211, colour 211, described 211 

Vadlrat 122, vahana 122, mudra 122, des- 
cribed 122, dhyana 133, images 123 

VaglsVara 116, colour 116, vahana 116, 
symbol 116, popularity 116, dhyana 
116, described 116, images 117 

Vahyarthabhanga 8 

Vaibhasika 8, 9 

Vaipulyasutras 14 

Vairocana 45, origin 45, Dhyani Buddha 
53, colour 53, mudra 53, vahana 53, 
symbol 53, dhyana 53, described 53 ; 
eight-armed form 54, dhyana 54, des- 
cribed 54, images 54 ; emanations of 
206f 

VaisVavana 35 

Vajra 17, 43, same as Sunya 10, qualities 
of 11 

Vajrabhairava 347, vahana of Mahakala 
347 

Vajrabhaskarl 163, colour 163, described 
163 

Vajrabhlsana 255 

Vajracarcika 199, colour 199, vahana 199, 
peculiar feature 199, sadhana 199. 
dhyana 199, described 199, images 200 

VajrScaryyas 34 

Vajradakini 163, colour 163f, described 
I63f, direction 163f 

Vajradanda 952 

Vajradhara 42, 43, forms of 44, dhyana 44, 
described 44, and VajrahunkSra 181, 
images 43f 

Vajradharma 125, 139, 142, colour 142, 
symbol 142, sadhana 142, described 
142, dhyana 143, images 143, as sire of 
Lokanatha 130 

Vajradharma LokesVara, described 396 

Vajradhatu Buddha 54, same as Vairocana 
54 



Vajradhatu Lokesvara, described 430 

Vajradhatu Mandala 99; on Boddhisattvas 
99 

Vajradhatvilvarl 217, Buddhas*akti 74, 
embodiment of highest truth 74, 
colour 74i symbol 74, family 74, images 
74 

VajradhatvisVarl Marlcl 214, forms 214, 
sadhana 214, described 2J4, symbols 
214 

Vajradhrk 45 

Vajra family, of Aksobhya 48, 154 

Vajragandhari 151, direction 151, colour 
151, descubed 151 ; another form 236, 
colour 236, dhyana 236 described 236 
symbols 23o, dharim 236, images 236 

Vajragarbha Bodhisattva 88, colour 88, 
symbol 88, dhyana 88 described 88, 
images 88 

Vajragarbha LokesVara, described 399 

Vajraghanta 242, dhyana 242, described 
242, direction 242 ; another form 298, 
colour 298, direction 298, symbol 298, 
dhyana 2P8, described 298, images 298 

Vajraghona 2 1 7 

Vajrahuhkara 182, form (i) two-armed, 181, 
symbols 181, mudra 181, vahana 181, 
sadhana 181, dhyana 181, images 182, 
rides on Bhairava 182 ; form (n) six- 
armed 182, same as Trailokyavijaya 182, 
described 182, images 182, compared 
with Vajradhara 181 

Vajrahunkara Mudra 181, 182n, 184 

Vajrahuntika (?) Lokesvara, described 398 

VajrajvSlanalarka 183, 254, sadhana 183, 
dhyana 183, described 184, vahana 134 

Vajrakarmaparamita 328, colour 328, 
symbol 328, dhyana 328, described 328, 
images 328 

Vajrakhanda Lokelvara, described 429 
Vajrakula 254 

Vajrakuli (Aksobhya) 49 

Vajrakundali 253 

VajrSmrta 226, colour 226, dhyana 226, 

described 226, images 226, yab-yum 226 

.Vajrananga (Buddhist god of love), 114, 

colour 114, described 114, worship J14, 

dhyna 114, images 115 

Vajranatha LokesVara, described 431 
Vajrankufi 24 Z 320, dhyana 242, described 



464 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



242, direction 242 ; another form 297, 
colour 297, direction 297, symbol 297, 
dhyana 297, described 297, images 297, 
in the Lokanatha Mandala 131 
Vajrapani 43, family 53, site 53, symbol 
53. images 53 ; as Boddhisattva 98. 
colour 98, symbol 98, dhyana 98, des- 
cribed 98, images 99 ; in the Lokana- 
tha Mandala 1 3 1 , colour 131, symbols 
131, described 131 
Vajrapani Lokesvara, described 431 
Vajrapanjara 90 

Vajrapasl 242, 320, dhyana 242, described 
242, direction 242 ; another form 297, 
colour 297, direction 297, symbol 297, 
dhyana 297, described 297, images 297 
Vajrapatala 256, another name of Sunrbha 
Vajraraga family (same as Raga) 45 
Vajraraga 102, form of Manjusr! 102, 
colour 102, mudra 102, names of 102, 
dhyana 103, described 103, images 103 
and Nilakantha compared 141 
Vajrarati 46, queen of Amoghasiddhi 46 
Vajraraudrl 163, colour 163, described 163 
Vajrasana 38, Buddha 77, later form of 
Gautama 77, dhyana 77, described 77, 
images 78 
Vajras*arada 351, symbols 351, described 

351, images 351, companions 351 
Vajrasarasvati 351, described 351, sadhana 

352, colour 352, symbols 352, images 
352 

Vajrasattva 17,38, 43, 48, Sixth Dhyani 
Buddha 74 priest of the Five Dhyani 
Buddhas 74, shrines of 75, forms of 75, 
dhyana 75, described 75, images 75, 
worship in secret 75, single form 
75, yab-yum form 75, Sakti 75 

Vajrasattvadhatu LokesVara, described 429 

Vajrasattv5tmik5 75, Sakti of Vajrasattva 
75, colour 76, symbol 76, form 76, des- 
cribed 76, images 76 

Vajrasphota 297f, 320, colour 297, direc- 
tion 297, symbol 297, dhyana 297, des- 
cribed 298, images 298 

Vajraspho{! 242, dhyana 242, described 
242, direction 242 

Vajras*snkhala 235, colour 235, symbol 
235, sadhana 235, dhyana 235, describ- 
ed 235, symbol 235, sadhna 235, dhyana 



235, described 235, forms 235, images 
235, consort of Heruka 217 
Vajrasrsta Lokesvara, described 430 
Vajratara 240, sire 240, dhyana 240, des- 
cribed 240, popularity 240, images 240, 
Indian Museum image 240, Mandala 
241} companions 241, sadhana 24 1> 
mantra 242 images of 243, yellow 308, 
special features 308, mandala 240, 
origin of ten goddesses 243 
Vajravairocani 218, dhyana 247, described 

247 

Vajravali nama Mandalopayika 4 
Vajravarahi 160, Sakti of Sambara 161, 

162, Sakti of Saptaksara 162, colour 

163, described 163 , another form 218, 
companions 218, colour 218, symbol 
sadhana 218, dhyana 218, described 218, 
mantra 208, special feature 217 connec- 
tion with Heruka 217, compared with 
Marlci 208, 217, compared with Nairat- 
ma 203, compared with Vajrayogini 
243 

Vajravarahi Tantra 4, 208 

Vajravarnani 247, dhyana 247, described 
247 

Vajravetali 151, direction 151, colour 151, 
described 15 1,2 14 

Vajravidarani 205, dhyana 205, described 
205, images 205 

Vajravina Sarasvati 350, colour 350, sym- 
bol 350, images 350 

Vajrayaksa 254 

Vajrayana 2, 7,8,9,11, 14, 31, 34, Bu- 
ddhism 38, Pantheon 38, Buddhists 2, 
origin of 12, and Yogacara 10, Hindu 
gods m 344 

Vajrayanists 14 

Vajrayogini 1, 16 r 17, 149, consort of He- 
ruka 21 7 forms of 247 ; form (i) head- 
less 247, dhyana 247, described 247 
companions 247 ; form (ii) red 248, 
colour 248, vahana symbols 248, des- 
cribed 248, compared with Nairatma 
ann Vajravarahi 248 ; form (lii) yellow 
248, colour 248, symbol 248, described 

248, consort of Heruka 248, images 

249, temple 248 

Vajrayogini 137, name of a village in Vik- 
rampur 137, identified as Uddyana 137 



INDEX OF WORDS 



465 



Vajrosmsa 299, colour 299, symbol 299, 
direction 299, dhyana 299, described 
300, images 300, statuette 25 ^ ?53n 

Vajrosmsa Lokesvara 398 

Vak 6 ' 

Vams'a 314, colour 314, symbol 314, 
dhyana 314, described 314 

Vanga 16 

Vangiya Sahitya Parisat 122, museum at 38 
Varada Tara 337, green 307, special fea- 
tures 307 

Varadayaka Lokesvara, described 395 

Varahamukhl 211, colour 211, described 
211 

Varahl 364, colour 364, symbol 364, vaha- 
na 364, dhyana 364, described 364, 
images 364 

Varali211,colour211, described 211 

Varttali 211, colour 211, described 211 

Varttali group 213 

Varuna 361, colour 361, vahana 361, direc- 
tion 361, dhyana 361, described 361, 
images 361 

Vasanta 186, 27^, colour 379, symbol 379, 
vahana 379, dhyana 379, described 379 

Va&ita goddesses, twelve 328, their natuie 
328, general description 328, their 
forms 328, their images 329 

Vasubandhu 12 

Vasudhara 38, colour 244, symbol 244, 
saJhana 202, 244, dhyana 245, described 
245, images 245, foims 245, another form 
202, colour 202, symbol 202, antiquity 
202, dhyana 202, described 202f, com- 
panions 203, images 39, 203 

Vasuki (snake) 140, 148 

Vasumatisri 203 

VasusYi 203 

Vasyadhikara Lokesvara, described 395 

Vasyatara 230, differented 230, images 230, 
Asana 229, symbol 229, colour 229; 
green 307, special features 307 

Vas*ya Vajravarahi 219, symbols 219, 
vahana 219, purposes 219, described 
219, images 21 9 

Vayu 362, colour 362, vahana 362, direc- 
tion 362, dhyana 362, described 363, 
images 363 



Vedana (sensation) 42 

Veil of ignorance 30 

Veta1i310, colour 3 10, symbol 310, dhya- 

na 310, described 310, images 311 
Vibrations (sound) 2S, of word and letter 

29 

Vicara (thinking) 26 
Vidya 24, embodiment of 220 
Vidyadharapitaka 14 
Vidyadharaking 381 
Vidyadharas, lords of 37 C > 
Vidyapati Lokesvara, described 430 
Vidyujjvalaktirah 1^4, colour J94, vahana 

194, symbols 194, dhyana 1^4f, describ- 
ed 195f 
Vighnas 197, meaning of 180, obstacle 

name given to Gane^a 3H9 
Vighnantaka IK), sadhana 180, dhyana 180, 

origin 180, described 181, images 18] ; 

another /Orm 253f, colour 2^3, direction 

253, dhyana 253, described 254, Sakti 

254, images 254 

Vighnantakrt, (of the southern gatej 46 

Vijnana 1 J , consciousness 42 

Vijnanavada 8, ^>, 10, 11, 

Vikalaiatri 160, direction 160, form 160 

Vikrampur 16, 3, 137 

Vikramasila 6, 41. monastery 3 

Vilokim 135, colour 135, symbol 135, des- 
cribed 1 35 

Vimala Lhumi 334. colour 334, symbol 
334, dhyana 334, described 334, images 
334 

Vimalapxabha 187 

Vma 315, colour 315, symbol 315, dhyana 
315, described 315, images 315 

Vmadhara315 

Vipasyi (Mortal Buddha) 76 

Virabana 126, attitude of Sadaksari Mahi- 
vidya 126 

Virman (Citrakara) 7 

Viryaparamita 325, colour 325, symbol 325, 
dhyana 325, described 325, images 326 

Visahari 193, (Hindu) 193 

Viskambhin 93, short name of Saravaniva- 
ranaviskambhin 93, in the Lokanatha 
Mandala 131, colour 131, symbols 131 
described 131 



59 



466 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Vismi 363, vahana 363, described 363, 

images 363, Mara 159, 195, as vahana 

136 

Visnucakra LokesVara, described 430 
Visnukanta LokesVara, described 430 
Visnupani Lokelvara, described 429 
VisVabhu (Mortal Buddha) 76 
Visvabhuta LokesVara, described 430 
VisVadakml 164, colour 164, direction 164, 

described 164 

Visvahana Lokelvara, described 397 
VisVamata 308, white 308, special features 

308 
VisVapadma 135, colour 135, symbol 135, 

described 135 
VisVapadmesvarl 135, colour 135, symbol 

135, decribed 135 
VisVapani Bodhisattva 73, colour 73, sire 

73, family 73, described 73, images 73 
VisVavajra 135, colour 135, symbol 135, 

described 135 

VisVavajra Lokesvara, described 429 
Visvosmsa 300, colour 300, symbol 300, 

direction 300, dhyana 300, described 

301, images 301 
Vitanadhara 317 
Vitarka (cogitation) 26 
Vogel (J Pn.) 35n 
Vrsnacana (?) LokesVara, described 397 



Yaksims 238, eight, enumerated 238 
Yama 35, origin of 166, form 352, colour 
352, vahana 352, direction 352, dhyana 
352, described 361, images 361 
Yamantaka 6, 1 17, 1 18,166, 167, 180, colour 
252, direction 252, dhyana 252, describ- 
ed 252, Sakti 252, images 252 

Yamantakavajra 167 

Yamantakrt 46, (of the east gate) 46 

Yamadanda LokesVara, described 397 

Yamaduti 347, companion of Mahakala 
347, colour 347, symbol 347, direction 
347, described 347 

Yamari 252 (another name of Yamantaka) 

Yanas 8, three 9 

Yasodhara 79 

Yoga 8, 9, 17, 24, and its six limbs 26 

Yogacara 8, 9, 28 

Yogambara 186, colour 186, variety 186, 
Sakti 186, dhyana 18t>, described 186, 
images 186, sire 186 

Yo?ins 18 

Yogini 236, epithet of Vajragandhari 236 

Yoginis 247, companions of Vajrayogini 
247 

Yogimjala Tantra 4 

Yuan Chwang 35, see Hiuen 7 h sang 

Yugaraddha (yab-yum) 217 

Yun -gar's attack on monastery 217 



W 

Waddell (Mr. L. A.), 1 

Walter Eugene Clark, Professor 3 

Weapons 392, their significance, 392, vari- 
ty of 392, expression of Bodhicitta 392, 
explanations of 391, -meanings of 392 

Whitney (Mr. W. B.) 221 

Will to Enlightenment 25 



Zodiacal Signs (Ras*is) 383, number 383, 
deified 383, images 383. 



Yab-yum 43, form of the deity 30, meaning 
and significance 391, 393, Sunya comm- 
ingled with KaronS 390, infinite meets 
with the infinite 393 

Yaksas 35, eight, enumerated 238, lords of 
379, kings, eight 380, their names 380, 
their symbols 380, their descriptions 
380 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Acalaketu Lokesvara (Fig 79-A), eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu, 420, described 429 

Acata (?) Lokesvara (Fig 28-A), eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu, 407, described 397 

Adibuddha Vajradhara (Fig 12), Nepalese 
painting in a full-page picture 57, des- 
cribed 43 

Agni (Fig 237), metal statuette in the Palace 
Temple at Peiping 371. described 362 

Akasagarbha (Fig 52), Nepalese drawing, 
70, described 86 

Akasagarbha LokesVara (Fig 49-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandai 
Vahal, Kathmandu 413, described 399 

Aksayamati, Nepalese drawing, 69, des- 
cribed 85 

Aksayamati (Fig 50), metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping, 70, described 
85 

Aksayamati Lokesvara (Fig 51 -A), eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 413, described 399 

Aksobhya Dhyani Buddha (Fig 22) Nepa- 
lese miniature in the collection of 
Dr. W. Y. Evans-Went::, 60, described 
52 

Aksobhya Dhyani Buddha (Fig 2 3) Nepa-^ 
lese sculpture from a roadside stupa at 
Katbmandu, 61, described 52 

Amitabha Dhyani Buddha (Fig 19), Nepa- 
lese miniature in the collection of Dr. 
W. Y. Evans- Wentz 60, described 50 

Amitabha LokesVara (Fig 87-A), eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 422, described 429 

Amitaprabha (Fig 61), Nepalese drawing 
105, described 91 

Amoghasiddhi Dhyani Buddha (Fig 33), 



Nepalese miniature in the collection of 
Dr. W. Y. Evans-Wen'z 64, described 
5o 

Amoghasiddhi Dhyani Buddha (Fig 34) 
Nepalese sculpture from a roadside 
stupa at Kathmandu 64, described 56 

Amoghadarsm (Fig 72) Nepalese drawing 
109, described 98 

Amoghapas'a Lokesvara (Fig 71 -A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu, 4 IK, described 428 

Amrtaprabha Lokesvara ^Fig 41-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 41 1, described 398 

Anandadi LokesVara (Fig 7-A) eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu, 402, desciibed 395 

Aparajita (Fig 18 C )>, lower half oi' a muti- 
lated sculpture discovered at Nalanda 
291, described 240 

Aparajita (Fig 190) lull image in stone in 
the Indian Museum 292, described 246 

Arapacana (Fig 92) Baroda Museum metal 
statuette, 172, described 121 

Arapacana (Fig fc>9), full -page illustration 
of a sculpture in the Dacca Museum 
171, described 120 

Arapacana (Fig 90), Javanese sculpture now 
in the Berlin Museum 172, described 
121 

Arapacana (Fig 91), Nepalese metal statue- 
tte 172, described 121 

Arya-Sarasvati (Fig 234), Nepalese drawing 
of the goddess 370, described 351 

Astabhuja Marie- i (Fig 152) artistic piece 
in the Indian Museum in a full-page 
'illustration 275, described 212 
' Astabhuja MaricI (Fig 153), Indian Muse* 
urn sculpture 276, described 212 

Astabhuja Mfcrlcl (Fig 154, Lucknow 
Museum sculpture 276, described 212 



468 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Avalokita LokesVara (Fig 44- A), eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 411, described 399 

Avalokitesvara (Fig 57), Nepalese drawing, 
72, described 89 



of the deity in Yab-yum, 266, described 
160 

Buddhist Triad (Figs 9, 10, 11) see Triad, 
Buddhist 



B 



Baudh (Fig 7) a famous stupa in Nepal, 
37, described 32 

Bhadrapala (Fig 69), Nepalese drawing 108, 
described 97 

Bhrkutl (Fig 123), statuette in metal in 
the Palace Temple at Peipmg 265, des- 
cribed 153 

Bodhi Tree (Fig 2), Lord Buddha's symbol 
from the gateway at Sanehi, 33, des* 
cribed 31 

Brahma (Fig 239) metal statuette of the 
deity riding the swan vehicle in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 372, described 
363 

Brahmadanda Lokesvara (Fig 27-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 407, described 397 

Buddha (Fig 10) Nepalese metal statuette 
showing Lord Buddha in the Bhusparsa 
mudra in the collection of Pandit 
Siddhiharfaha Vajracaryya, 40, des- 
cribed 32 

Buddha in different mudras (Fig 17) panel 
showing four figures of Lord Buddha 
in four different mudras in the Nalanda 
Museum 59, described 48 

Buddha in different mudras (Fig 18) run- 
ning panel showing Lord Buddha in 
different mudras, from Java 59, des- 
cribed 48 

Buddha's Footprints (Fig 4) on a Bharhut 
bas-relief preserved in the Indian 
Museum 36, described 31 

Buddha's Head-dress (Fig 3) or hairlock(?) 
as it appears on Bharhut bas-relief pre- 
served in the Indian Museum 36, des- 
cribed 31 

Buddhakapala (Fig 127) Baroda Museum 
metal statuette without the Sakti 266, 
described 160 

Buddhakapala (Fig 126) Nepalese drawing 



Candarosana (Fig 124) Nepalese drawing 
depicting the deity in Yab-yum 265, des- 
cribed 155 

Candraprabha (Fig 59; Nepalese drawing 
105, described 90 

Candraprabha Lokesvara (Fig 43-A) eye 
cop3 7 of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 411, described 398 

Cintamani Lokc&vara (Fig 94-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 424, described 430 

Cittadhatu Lokesvara (Fig 93-A) eye copy 
ol painting in the Maohhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu, 424, described 430 

Cunda (Fig 163) Baroda Museum statuette 
of the sixteen-armed deity, 280, des- 
cribed 223f 

Cunda (Fig 164) sculpture of the deity in 
the Hindu monastery at Bodh Gaya 
280, described 224 

Cunda (Fig 162) miniature painting of the 
sixteen armed variety in MS No. Add 
1643 (Prajnaparamita) in the University 
Library, Cambridge 280, described 223 

Cunda (Fig 161) fine statuette of the four 
armed variety in the collection of the 
late Mr. W. B. Whitney of New York 
297, described Z21 



^Dakinl (Fig 217) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 357, described 
322 

Dasabhujasita Marlci (Fig 155) Nepalese 
drawirg of the ten-armed goddess 278, 
described 213 

DalamlTithi (Fig 245) metal statuette in 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 374, des- 
cribed 382 

Devadevata Lokesvara (Fig 72-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



469 



Kathmandu 418, described 428 

Dhanada Tara (Fig 172) Ncpalese drawing 
of the four'armed deity 284, described 
231 

Dharmacakra Lokesvara (Fig 81 -A) e^e 
copy of painting in the Machhnndar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 421, described 429 

Dharmadhatu Lokesvara (Fig 90-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 423, described 430 

Dharmamegha (Fig 223) metal statuette of 
the Bhumi goddess in the Palace Tem- 
ple at Peipini* 358, described 33t> 

Dhvajagrakeyura (Fig 147) Nepaleso diaw- 
ing of the four-armed goddess 274, des- 
cribed 202 

Dhyana Paramita (Fig 219) metal statuette 
in the Palace Temple at Peiping 357, 
described 326 

Dipa (Fig 213) metal statuetie in the Palace 
Temple at Peiping 355, described 318 

Dombi (Fig 205) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 353, described 
312 

Dream, Maya's, see Maya's Dream 



Ekajata (Fig 138) stone figure as companion 
of Khadiravanl Tara in the Indian 
Museum 270, described 194 

Ekajata (Fig 139) Nepalese drawing 270, 
described 194 



Footprints, Buddha's see Buddha's Foot- 
prints 
Four-armed Ganapati, see Ganapati 



Gaganaganja (Fig 53) Nepalese drawing 71, 
described 87 

Gaganaganja Lokesvara (Fig 48-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 412, described 399 

Ganapati (Fig 228) twelve-armed metal 
figure in the collection of the Dowager 
Maharani Chimanbai Gaekwad of Baro- 
da 360, described 348 



Ganapati, four-armed (Fig 227) metal 
image of the god in a dancing attitude 
in the collection of Dr. Mophe of Khar 
(Bombay), 360, described 348 

Ganapati (Fig 241) metal statuette showing 
the deity with the Rat vehicle in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 372, described 
365 

Ganapatttirdaya (Fig 229) Nepalese minia- 
ture in the collection of Dr. W. Y. 
Evans-Wentz 360, described 349 

GanJhahasti (Fig 67) Nepjlese drawing 107 
described Q6 

Ghasmari (Fig 203) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple ut Peiping 296, described 
311 

Gita (Fig 207) metal statuette in the Palace 
Temple at Peiping 353, described 313 

Grahamatrka (Fig 165) Nepalese miniature 
in the collection of Dr. W. Y Evans- 
Went:: 282, described 225 

H 

Halahala (Fig 109) full-size stone image in 
a monastery at Kathmandu 260, describ- 
ed 132 

Halahala Lokesvara (Fig 3- A) eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 401 

Harihara Lokesvara (Fig 84- A) eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 421, described 429 

Harihariharivahana (Fig 113) Nepalese 
drawing of the deity riding on Visnu, 
Garuda and Lion 261, described 137 

Harihariharivahana Lokesvara (Fig 4-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 401, described 
394 

Harivahana LokesVara (Fig 82-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 421, described 429 

Hayagrlva (Fig 128) Nepalese di awing 
showing the horse-neck on the head, 
266, described 165 

Hayagrlva (Fig 129) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 267, described 
165 

Hayagrlva LokesVara (Fig) 1-A eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 



470 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



Kathmandu 401, described 394 
Head-dress, Buddha's see Buddha's Head- 
dress 

Heruka (Fig 125) Dacca Museum sculpture 
265, described 156 

1 

Indra (Fig 236) metal statue in the Palace 
Temple at Peiping 371, described 352 

J 

Jalinlprabha (Fig 60), Nepalese drawing 

105, described 90 
Jalinlprabha LokesVara (Fig 42- A) eye copy 

of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 

Kathmandu 411, described 398 
Jambhala (Fjg 176) fine Nepal statuette 

in stono in the possession of Pandit 

Siddhiharsha Vajracaryya 286, described 

238 
Jam bhal i (Fig 177) full page reproduction 

of an artistic specimen discovered at a 

roadside shed near Rampal in Vikram- 

pur 287, described 238 
Jambhala (Fig ] 78) small statuette in .stone 

discovered at a road-side &hed near 

Rampal in Vikrampur 288, described 

238 
Jambhala (Fig 179) Nepalese drawing of the 

yab-yum figure 288, described 239 
Janguli (Fig 137) Nepalese drawing 269* 

described 192 
Jatamukuta LokesVara (Fig 12-A) eye copy 

of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 

Kathmandu 403, described 395 
Jnanadhatu Lokesvara (Fig 36- A) eye copy 

of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 

Kathmandu 409, described 398 
Jnanaketu (Fig 68) Nepalese drawing 108, 

described 96 



K 



Kalacakra (Fig 134) Nepalese drawing 
showing this rare deity in yab-yum 268, 
described 188 

Kamalacandra LokesVara (Fig 77- A) eye 
copy of 'painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 420, described 429 



Kamandalu Lokesvara (Fig 10- A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal > 
Kathmandu 403, described 395 
Kapata (Fig 212) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 355, described 
317 

Karandavyuha LokesVara (Fig 37-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal 4 10, described 398 
Kathe Simbhu (Fig 1) medium sized stupa 

in Kathmandu, 37, described 32 
Ketu (Fig 243) metal statuette of the planet 
in the Palace Temple at Peiping 373, 
described 378 

Khadiravani Tar a (Fig 166) beautiful 
bronze in the Baroda Museum without 
companions 282, described 227 
Khadiravani Tara (Fig 249) unique sculp- 
ture showing the eight deities of the 
Tara mantra in the Dacca Museum, 375 
described 388 

Khadiravani Tara (Fig 167) Indian Museum 
sculpture with Asokakanta and Ekajata 
282, ciesciibed 227 

Khadiravani Tara (Fig 166) artistic speci- 
men discovered at Mahoba and LOW 
deposited in the Provincial Museum 
at Lucknow 281, described 227 
Khasaipana (Fig 103) discovered in the 
Pargana Vikrampur, Dacca in a full 
page reproduction 257, described 130 
Khasarpana (Fig 104) Indian Museum 

sculpture 259, described 130 
Khasarpana Lokesvara (Fig 21-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 406, desciibed 396 
Krtanjali Lokesvara (Fig 98- A) eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 425, described 430 
Ksitigarbha (Fig 51) Nepalese drawing of 

the Bodhisattva 70, described 85 
Ksitigarbha LokesVara (Fig 50-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu, 413, described 399 
Kumbha (Fig 247) metal statuette of the 
Sign of the Zodiac in the Palace Temple 
. at Peiping 374, described 383 
Kurukulla (Fig 121) Nepalese drawing of 
the deity showing the bow and arrow of 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



471 



flowers 264, described 149 
Kurukulla (Fig 122) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 264, described 
149 



Lama (Fig 218) Nepalese painting of the 
goddess in a full page illustration 376, 
described 322 

Lasya (Fig 205) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 353, described 

313 

Locana Buddhas*akti (Fig 31) Nepalese 
miniature 63, described 55 

Lokanatha (Fig 106) Baroda Museum me- 
tal statuette 259, described 132 

Lokanatha (Fig 105) Mahoba sculpture 
now in the Lucknow Museum 258, des- 
cribed 132 

Lokanatha (Fig 108) ivory imago in a pri- 
vate collection in Kathmandu (Nepal) 
260, described 132 

Lokanatha (Fig 107) Torso in the Sarnath 
Museum 259, described 107 

Lokanatha Raktaryyavalokitesvara (Fig 
18-A) eye copy of painting in the Ma- 
chhandar Vahal, Kathmandu 405, des- 
cribed 396 

M 

Maha-Abhayakari LokesVara (Fig 64-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 416, described 400 

Maha-Abhayaphalada LokesVara (Fig 63-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 416, described 
400 

Mahacandrabimba LokesVara (Fig 61 *A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 416, described 400 

Mahaclna Tara (Fig 135) Nepalese drawing 
of the goddess 269, described 191 

Mahaclna Tara (Fig 136) Nepalese drawing 
of the goddess 269, described 191 

Mahakala (Fig 226) exceedingly fine 
specimen of the two-armed form of 
the violent god in stone in the collec- 
tion of Pandit Siddhiharsha Vajracaryya 
of Nepal 359, described 345 



Mahamanjubhuta LokesVara (Fig 65-A 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 417, described 
428 

Mahamanjudatta LokesVara (Fig 60-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 415, described 400 

MahamantranusarinI (Fig 198) Nepalese 
miniature in the colleuion of Dr. W. 
Y. Evans- Wentz 294, described 305 

Mahamayuri (Fig 200) Nepalese miniature 
in the collection of Dr. W Y. Evans- 
Wentz295 described 305 

Mahapatala Lokf'Svara (Fig 59-A) eyo copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 415, described 400 

Mahapratisara (Fig 185) Dacca Museum 
''mage of the eight-armed deity 290, 
described 244 

Mahapratisara (Fig 184) sculpture of the 
deity in the Dacca Sahitya Parisat 290, 
described 244 

Mahapratisara (Fig 196) Nepalese minia- 
ture in the collection of Dr. W. Y. 
Evans-Went: 294, described 303 

Maharatnakirti Lokesvara (Fig 55-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Macnhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 414, described 399 

Maharatnakula Lokesvara (Fig 58-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 415, described 400 

Mahasahasrabhuja LokesVara (Fig 5 4- A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan* 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 414> described 
399 

Mahasahasrapramardani (Fig 197) Nepalese 
miniature in the collection of Dr. W. 
Y. Evans Went* 294, described 304 

Mahasahasrasuryya Lokesvata (Fig 5 7- A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 415, described 
400 

MahalankhanStha LokesVara (Fig 56-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 414, described 
400 

MahSsarasvati (Fig 230) Nepalese drawing 
of the goddess 369, described 350 

Mahafitavati (Fig 199) Nepalese miniature 



472 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



to the collection of Dr. W. Y, Evans 
Wentz 295, described 305 

MahSsri Tara (Fig 169) full-page reproduc- 
tion of an artistic sculpture in the 
Indian Museum with the Dhyani 
Buddha s and the four companions 283, 
described 229 

Mahasthamaprapta (Fig 58) Nepalese draw* 
ing of the Bodhisattva 72, described 
89 

Mahasthamaprapta Lokesvara (Fig 106-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 427, described 
431 

Mahasuryyabimba LokesVara (Fig 62-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 416, described 
400 

Mahattarl Tara (Fig 201) beautiful Nepa- 
lese statuette in the collection of Pan* 
dit fchddhiharsha Vajracaryya of Nepal 
295, described 307 

Mahavajradhatu Lokesvara (Fig 67-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 417, described 428 
Mahavftjradhrk LokesVara (Fig 68-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 417, described 428 

Mahavajranatha Lokesvara (Fig 70-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 418, described 428 

Mahavajrapani Lokesvara (Fig 69-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 418, described 428 

Mah&vajrasattva LokesVara (Fig 29-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 408, described 397 

Mahavisvasuddha LokesVara (Fig 66 A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 417, described 428 

Mahesvara (Fig 240) metal statuette with 
the Bull vehicle in the Palace Temple at 
Peipmg 372, described 364 

Maitreya (Fig 65) Nepalese drawing 107, 
described 94 

Maitreya (Fig 47) Nepalese drawing 69, 
described 81 

Mamaki Buddh&s'akti (Fig 24) Nepalese 
drawing 61, described 52 

Manipadma Lokelvara (Fig 22-A) eye copy 



of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 406, described 396 

Manjukumara (Fig 88) Nepalese drawing 
170, described 120 

Manjunatha Lokesvara (Fig 96-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 424, described 430 

ManjusrI (Fig 66) Nepalese drawing 107, 
described 95 

ManjusrI (Fig 74) Baroda Museum metal 
statuette with Ganapati and Visnu 110, 
described 102 

Manjuvara (Fig 83) Birbhum sculpture 169* 
described 117 

Manjuvara (Fig 84) Indian Museum sculp- 
ture 169, described 118 

Manjuvara (Fig 85) second Indian Museum 
sculpture 169, described 118 

Manjuvara (Fig 86) Nepalese metal statuette 
in the collection of Pandit Siddhiharsha 
170, described 118 

Manjuvara (Fig 86) Nepalese metal sta- 
tuette in the collection of Pandit Si- 
ddhiharsha 170, described 118 

Manjuvajra (Fig 87) Baroda Museum metal 
statuette 170, described 119 

Maya's Dream (Fig 1) bas-relief on the 
Bharhut railings in the Indian Museum 
depicting the Buddha as White Ele- 
phant entering into the womb of 
Mayadevi 83, described 31 

Mayajalakrama Lokesvara (Fig 5A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 402, described 394 

Mayajalakramakrodha Lokesvara (Fig 
15-A) eye copy of painting in the 
Machhandar Vahal, Kathmandu 404 > 
described 395 

Mina (Fig 248) metal statuette of the 
Sign of the Zodiac in the Palace Tem- 
ple afc Peiping^W, described 383 

Mojaghanjabala (?) Lokesvara (Fig 2-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 401, described 
394 

Mortal Buddhas, seven (Fig 45) with 
Maitreya in an Indian Museum sculp* 
ture 69, described 77 

Mudras, Buddha in different see Buddha 
in different Mudras 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



473 



Mukunda (Fig 210) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 354, described 
315 



N 



Nairatma (Fig 1 48) Indian Museum sculp- 
ture, slightly mutilated 273, described 
204 

Nairatma (Fig 149) metal statuette with the 
lost Khatvanga in the Vnngiya Sahitya 
Parisat Museum 214, described 204 

Namasangiti (Fig 151) metal statuette of 
Nepal in the collection of Pandit Siddhi- 
harsha 151, described 207 

Namasangiti Manjusri (Fig 79) Nepalese 
drawing 111, described 116 

Namasangiti Manjusri (Fig. 80) metal sta- 
tuette in the Palace Temple at Peiping 
112, described 116 

Navami Tithi (Fig 244) metal statuette of 
the Time deity in the Palace Temple at 
Peiping 373, described 382 

Nilakantha (Fig. 116) Sarnatha Museum 
sculpture 262, described 141 

Nilakantha LokesVara (Fig. 17' A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 405, described 3% 

Nirukti Pratisamvit (Fig. 224) metal statu- 
ette in the Palace Temple at Peiping 
359, described 343 

Nityanatha LokesVara (Fig 103-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 426, described 431 

Nrtya (Fig- 208) metal statuette from the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 354. described 
314 



Padmanarttasvara (Fig 112) Nepalese 
drawing in the company of the Sakti 
261, described 135 

Padmanarttesvara (Fig. 1 10) artistic sculp- 
ture at Saiasvatisthan near Simbhu in 
Nepal 260, described 133 

Padmanarttesvara (Fig 111) metal statuette 
in the Palace Temple at Peiping 261, 
described 134 



Padmapani Bodhisattva (Fig. 21) full size 
bronze figure in a monastery at Kath- 
mandu 60, described 51 

Padmapani Lokesvara (Fig. 104-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 426, described 431 

Pandara Buddhasakti (Fig. 20) Nepalese 
miniature 60, described 50 

Paramasva (Fig. 132) Nepalese drawing 
showing the horse-head 268, described 
186 

Parnasabari (Fig 140) sculpture in the In* 
dian Museum 270, described 197 

Parnasabari (Fig. 173) full page reproduc- 
tion of an artistic specimen at Vajra- 
yogini in Vikrampur 285, described 
233 

Parnasabari (Fig 174) fine sculpture dis- 
covered in Vikrampur bv Dr. N K. 
Bhattasali 286, described 233 

Pindapatra Lokesvara (Fig 73-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal,. 
Kathmandu 419, described 428 

Potapada (?) Lokesvara (Fig 9-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 403, described 395 

Prajnaparamita (Fig 141) the most artistic 
sculpture from Java now in the Leiden 
Museum 271, described 198 

Frajnaparamita (Fig 142) Indian Museum 
sculpture 271, described 199 

Pranidhana Paramita (Fig 220) metal statue- 
tte in the Palace Temple at Peiping 357, 
described 327 

Prasannatara (Fig 192) Nepalese drawing 
of the eight-headed and sixteen-armed 
deity 292, described 250 

Pratibhanakuta (Fig 62) Nepalese drawing 

of the Bodhhisatt va 106, described 92 
Pratibhanakuta LokesVara (Fig 40- A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 410, described 396 
Pratibhaua Pratisamvit (Fig 225) metal 
statuette in the Palace Temple at Peiping 
359, described 343 
Pratyangira see Mahapratyangira 
Pratyangira (Fig 144) Nepalese drawing 272, 

described 201 
Pratyangira (Pig 145) Nepalese drawing 



60 



474 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



272, described 201 
Pratyangira (Fig 146) Nepalese image with 

innumerable heads & arms in a private 

collection in Nepal 272, described 201 
Pretasantarpana Lokesvara (Fig 14-A) eye 

copy of painting in the Machhandar 

Vahal, Kathmandu 404 described 395 
Pretasantarpita (Fig 118) Nepalese drawing 

of the deity showing two goblins 263, 

described 142 
Pukkas! (Fig 204) metal statuette in the 

Palace Temple at Peiping 296, described 

311 
Pupala (?) LokesVara (Fig 24- A) eye copy of 

painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 

Kathmandu 406, described 396 
Puspatara (Fig 183) metal statuette in the 

Palace Temple at Peiping 289, described 

243 



R 



Rahu (Fig 242) metal statuette of the 
planet showing the Buffalo chariot, in 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 373, des- 
cribed 377 

Rakta-LokesVara (Fig 115) metal statuette 
in the Palace Temple at Peiping 262, 
described 138 

Ratnadala LokesVara (Fig 75- A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal 
419, described 429 

Ratnapani Bodhisattva (Fig 40) full size 
Nepalese bronze in a monastery at 
Kathmandu 66, described 74 

Rddhi Vas*ita (Fig 222) metal statuette in 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 358, des- 
cribed 330 

Ratnapani (Fig 54) Nepalese drawing 71, 
described 87 

Ratnapani LokesVara (Fig 4 7- A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 412, described 399 

Ratnasambhava DhySni Buddha (Fig 37) 
Nepalese miniature in the collection 
of Dr. W. Y. Evans- Wentz 65, des- 
cribed 74 

Ratnasambhaba Dhyani Buddha (Fig 3 8) 
Nepalese sculpture from a road-side 
stupa at Kathmandu 65, described 74 



Ratnolka (Fig 2 14) metal statuette in the 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 356, des- 
cribed 31 8 



Sadaksari group (Fig 96) Birbhum sculp- 
ture 174, described 126 

Sadaksari group (Fig 95) Indian Museum 
sculpture 173, described 126 

Sadaksari group (Fig 94) Sarnath Museum 
sculpture showing Manidhara and 
Sadaksari Mahavidya in full form 173, 
described 126 

Sadaksaii Lokesvara (Fig 97) Baroda Mu- 
seum metal statuette 174, described 
126 

Sadaksari Lokesvara (Fig 6-A) eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 402, described 395 

Sadaksari Mahavidya (Fig 98) Sarnath Mu- 
seum sculpture 174, described 127 

Sadbhuja Sitatara (Fig 1711 Nepalese draw- 
ing 284, described 230 

Sagaramati (Fig 55) Nepalese drawing 71, 
described 88 

Sagaramati Lokesvara (Fig 46-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 412, described 399 

Sakyabuddha Lokesvara (Fig 33 -A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 408, described 397 

Sakyabuddha LokesVara (Fig 92-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 423, described 430 

Samantabhadra (Fig 48) Nepalese drawing 
69, described 84 

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva (Fig 32) a full 
size Nepalese bronze in a monastery at 
Kathmandu 63, described 55 

Samantabhadra LokesVara (Fig 53- A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 414, described 399 

Sangha (Fig 11) Nepalese metal statuette 
of the four-armed deity in the collec- 
tion of Pandit Siddhiharsha 40, des- 
cribed 40 

ankhanatha LokesVara (Fig 101-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 426, described 430 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



475 



Santamati Lokesvara (Fig 95-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 424, described 430 

Santasi Lokelvara (Fig 32-A) eye copy of 
painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 408, described 397 

Sarasiri (?) Lokesvara (Fig 83-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 421, described 429 

Sarthavaha Lokesvara (Fig 74-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 419, described 428 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhi (Fig 64) Nepalese 
drawing of the Bodhisattva 106, des- 
cribed 93 

Sarvanivaranaviskambhi Lokesvara (Fig 
3 8- A) eye copy of painting in the 
Machhandar Vahal, Kathmandu 410, 
described 398 

Sarvapayairjaha (Fig 70) Nepalese drawing 
of the Bodhisattva 108, described 97 

Sarvapayanjaha (Fig 71) metal statuette 
in tho Palace Temple at Peiping 109, 
described 97 

Sarvasokatamoiarghatamati (Fig 63) Nepa* 
lese drawing oi the Bodliisattva 106, 
described 92 

Sarvasokatamonirghatamati Lokesvara (Fig 
39-A) eye copy of painting in the Ma- 
chhanddr Vahal, Kathmandu 410, des- 
cribed 398 

Seven Mortal Buddhas with Maitreya see 
Mortal Buddhas, Seven 

Siddhaikavira (Fig 77) Sarnath Museum 
statue 111, described 114 

Simbhu (Fig 6) the m^st famous Stupa 
in Nepal 37, described 32 

Simhanada (Fig 9) full page illustration of 
the Mahoba image now in the Lucknow 
Museum 175, described 127 

Simhanada (Fig 101; sculpture from Ma- 
gadha 176, described 128 

Simhanada (Fig 100) Nepalese metal sta- 
tuette with a large size lion 176, des- 
cribed 128 

Simhanada (Fig 102) Nepalese metal sta- 
tuette 176, described 128 
Simhanada LokesVara (Fig 85-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal* 



Kathmandu 422, described 429 

Simhanatha Lokesvara (Fig 20A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 405, described 396 

Simhasya (Fig 215) unique metal statuette 
in the collection of Dr. Moghe of Khar 
Bombay 356, described 321 

Simhasya (Fig 216) upper view of the 
image showing the lion head in the 
collection of Dr. Moghe ot" Khar 
(Bombay) 356, described 321 

Sirisara (?) Lokesvara (Fig 80-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahai, Kathmandu 420, described 429 

Sitatapatra Aparajita (Fig 158) Nepalese 
drawing of the six armed deity 278, 
described 216 

Srimad-Aryavalokitesvara (Fig 108-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 427, described 431 

Srstikanta Lokesvara (Fi$ 52 A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 413, described 399 

Sthiracakra (Fig 93) sculpture in the Van- 
giya Sahitya Parisat Calcutta 173, des- 
cribed 122 

Stupas (Figs 6, 7, 8) three famous stupas 
of Nepal illustrated 37, described 32 

Stupa of Bauddh (Fig 7) in Nepal illustra- 
ted 37, described 32 

Stupa of Kathc Simbhu (Hg 8) in Nepal 
illustrated 37, described 32 

Stupa of Simbhu (I ig 6) in Nepal illustra- 
ted 37, described 32 

Sugatisandars'ana (Fig. 117) Nepalese draw- 
ing 262, described 141 

Sugatbandars'ana Lokesvara (Fig 16-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 404, described 396 

fcukhavati LokesVara (Fig 1 19) one of the 
many sculptures of the deity found in 
in Nepal 262, described 142 

SukhavatI Lokesvara (Fig 1 3- A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 404, described 395 

Surangama (Fig 73) Nepalese drawing of 
the Bodhisattva 109, described 98 

Symbol Worship (Figs. 3, 4, 5) Three 
bas-reliefs from Bharhut Railings 



476 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



preserved in the Indian Museum, Cal- 
cutta 36, described 31 



Talika (Fig 211) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 355, described 
316 

TSra Buddhasakti (Fig 35), Nepalese minia- 
ture 64, described 73 

Trailokyavas'ankara (Fig 1 14) a statuette in 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 262, des- 
cribed 137 

Triad, Buddhist (Figs 9, 10, 11) three metal 
statuettes in the collection of Pandit 
Siddhiharsha 40, described 32 

Trilokasandarsana Lokesvara (Fig 19-A) 
eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 405, described 
396 

Tula (Fig 246) metal statuette of the Sign 
of the Zodiac in tha Palace Temple at 
Peiping 374, described 383 



U 



Ucchusma Jambhala (Fig 130) unique 
sculpture showing Ucchusma standing 
on Kubera and in the company of 
Vasudhara, in the Sarnath Museum 267, 
described 180 

Upapati Vasita (Fig 221) metal statuette in 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 358, des- 
cribed 330 

Usnisavijaya (Fig 156) full page illustra- 
tion of an artistic specimen in the 
Indian Museum 277, described 215 

Usnisavijaya (Fig 157) Nepalese miniature 
in the collection of Dr. W. Y. Evans- 
Wents 278, described 215 

Utnauti (?) LokesVara (Fig 25-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 407, described 397 



VaglsVara (Fig 81) an Indian Museum 

sculpture 112, described 117 
Vagilvara (Fig 82) Nepalese bronze from a 



private collection 112, described 117 

Vairocana Dhyani Buddha (Fig 28) Nepa- 
lese miniature in the collection of Dr. 
W. Y. Evans-Wentz 62, described 54 

Vairocana Dhyani Buddha (Fig 29) Nepa- 
lese bronze in the private collection in 
Kathmandu 62, described 54 

Vairocana-Vajradhara (Fig 30) metal sta- 
tuette in the Palace Temple at Peiping 
63, described 54 

Vajracarcika (Pig 143) Nepalese drawing 
showing her emaciated form 271, des- 
cribed 200 

Vajradhara-Adibuddha see Adibudda Vajra- 
dhara 

Vajradhara (Fig 13) Baroda Museum sta- 
tuette showing his single form 58, des- 
cribed 44 

Vajradhara Yab-yum (Fig 14) 58, front 
view of a Nepalese metal statuette in 
the collection of Pandit Siddhiharsha 
58, described 43 

Vajradhara Yab-yum (Fig 15) side view of 
a Nepalese metal statuette in the collec- 
tion of Pandit Siddhiharsha 58, des- 
cribed 43 

Vajradhara (Fig 16) six-armed statuette of 
the deity *in the Baroda Museum 58, 
described 43 

Vajradharma (Fig 120) Nepalese drawing 
of the deity showing the Peacock vehicle 
264, described 143 

Vajradharma Lokesvara (Fig 23 -A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 406, described 396 

Vajradhatu- Vairocana (Fig 30) metal sta- 
tuette in the Palace Temple at Peiping 
63, described 54 

Vajradhatu Lokesvara (Fig 91 -A) eye 
copy of painting in the Palace Temple 
at Peiping 423, described 430 

VajradhatvisVar! Buddhasakti (Fig 39) 
Nepalese miniature 66, described 74 

Vajragaibha (Fig 56) Nepalese drawing of 
the Bodhisattva 72, described 88 

Vajragarbha Lokesvara (Fig 45-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 412, described 399 

Vajrahuntika (?) LokesVara (Fig 35-A) 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



477 



eye copy of painting in the Machhan- 
dar Vahal, Kathmandu 409, described 
398 

Vajrakhanda Lokelvara (Fig 78-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 420, described 429 

Vajrananga (Fig 78) Nepalese drawing 111, 

described 115 

Vajranatha Lokesvara (Fig 107-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 427, described 431 

Vajrapani Bodhisattva (Fig 26), Indian Mu- 
seum sculpture of the Bodhisattva 62, 
described 53 

Vajrapani Bodhisattva (Fig 27) sculpture 
in the Nalanda Museum 62, described 
53 

Vajrapani Bodhisattva (Fig 25) full size 
Nepalese bronze in a monastery at 
Kath-nandu 61, described 53 

Vajrapani Lokesvara (Fig 105-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal Kathmandu 427, described 431 

Vajrapasi (Fig 193) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peipmg 293, described 
297 

Vajraraga (Fig 75) Baroda Museum metal 
stauette 110, described 103 

Vajraraga (Fig 76) Nepalese drawing 110, 
described 103 

Vajrasana (Fig 46) Indian Museum sculp- 
ture showing the two companions 
LokesVara and Maitreya illustrated 68, 
described 78 

Vajrasarada (Fig 232) Nepalese drawing 
369, described 351 

Vajrasarada (Fig 233) sculpture showing 
the central deity wfrh her four com- 
panions in the Sarnath Museum 370, 
described 351 

VajrasarasvatI (Fig 235) Nepalese drawing 
of the goddess 370, described 353 

Vajrasattva (Fig 41) Nepalese sculpture in 
a monastery at Kathmandu 66, described 
75 

Vajrasattva (Fig 42) Baroda Museum bron* 
ze illustrated 67, described 75 

Vajrasattva Yab-yum (Fig 43) Nepalese 
bronze in the collection of Pandic 



Siddhiharsha 67, described 75 

Vajrasattva Yab-yum (Fig 44) side view of 
the Nepalese bronze in the collection 
of Pandit Siddhiharsha 67, described 
75 

Vajrasattvadhatu LokesVara (Fig 88- A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu, 422. described 429 

Vajrasphota (Fig 194) metal statuette in 
the Palace Temple at Peiping 293, des- 
cribed 298 

Vajrasrnkhala (Fig 17*>) Nepalese drawing 
of the six-armed deity 2N6, described 
235 

Vajrasrsta Lokesvara (Fig 100- A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandnr Vahal, 
Kathmandu 425 

Vajratara (Fig 182) sculpture at Sarasvatis- 
tan near Svayambhunath in Nepal 289, 
described 243 

Vajratara (Fig 18J) Orissa sculpture dis- 
covered in the State of Mayurbhanj 
289, described 243 

Vajrataia (Fig 180) Indian Museum bronze 
in the form of a lotus with eight petals 
showing the principal deity in centre 
with eight companions 288, described 
243 

Vajravarahi (Fig 160) beautiful bronze 
statuette in the Baroda Museum 279, 
described 2 19 

Vajravarahi (Fig 159; Nepalese drawing 
depicting the excrescence near the right 
ear 279, described 219 

Vajravidaranl (Fig 150) Nepalese miniature 
in the collection of Dr. W. Y. Evans- 
Wentz 274, described 205 

Vajravina Sarasvat! (Fig 231) metal statuet- 
te in the Palace Temple at Peiping 369, 
described 350 

Vajrayogini Temple at Sanku (Fig 191) 
illustrated 292, described 248 

Vajrosnlsa (Fig 195) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 293, described 
300 

Vajrosnisa LokesVara (Fig 34' A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 409, described 398 
Varadayaka LokesVara (Fig 11 -A) eye copy 



478 



BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY 



of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
KatJbmandu 403, described 395 

Vasudhara (Fig 186) Kepalese drawing 
of the deity with two arms 290, des- 
cribed 245 

Vasudhara (Fig 187) fine sculpture of the 
six armed form of the deity 291, des- 
cribed 245 

Vasudhara (Fig 188) metal statuette of the 
six armed form of the deity in the 
Baroda Museum 291, described 245 

VasVfidhikara LokesVara (Fig 8-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Madhhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 402, described 395 

VasVatara (Fig 170) Nepalese drawing 284, 
described 230 

Vayu (Fig 238) a metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 371, des- 
cribed 362 

Vetall (Fig 202) matal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 296, described 
31J 

Vidyapati Lokesvara (Fig 102-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal 
Kathmandu 426, described 430 

Vighnantaka (Fig 131) bron/e statuette in 
the Baroda Museum 267, described 
181 

Vina (Fig 209) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping 354, des- 
cribed 315 

Visnucakra Lokesvara (Fig 97-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 425, described 430 

Visnukanta Lokfsvara (Fig 99-A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 



Vahal, Kathmandu 425, described 
430 

Visnupani Lokesvara (Fig 76-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 419, described 429 

Visvabhuta Lokesvara (Fig 89-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 423, described 430 

Visvahana Lokesvara (Fig 30-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 408, described 397 

VisVapani Bodhisattva (Fig 36) full size 
Nepalese bronze in a monastery at 
Kathmandu 65, described 73 

VisVavajra Lokesvara (Fig 86-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 422, described 429 

Vrsnacana (?) Lokesvara (Fig 26- A) eye 
copy of painting in the Machhandar 
Vahal, Kathmandu 407, described 
397 

W 

Wheel-of-the-Law (Fig 5) symbol of 
Lord Buddha appearing on a bas-relief 
on the Bharhut railing in the Indian 
Museum 36, described 31 



Yamadanda Lokesvara (Fig 33-A) eye copy 
of painting in the Machhandar Vahal, 
Kathmandu 409, described 397 

Yogambara (Fig 133) metal statuette in the 
Palace Temple at Peiping depicting his 
yab-yum form 268, described 186